Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 303
Filtrar
1.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1875(1): 188487, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259892

RESUMO

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) advanced breast cancer (ABC) accounts for about 15-20% of all ABC cases. Large randomized trials have determined the standard first- and second-line treatments for this subgroup of patients, namely dual blockade plus chemotherapy and TDM1. However, no standard treatment is specifically recommended after TDM1, and most of the subsequent therapeutic choices commonly rely on old trials not optimally reflecting the current patient population. The recent FDA-approval of three novel anti-HER2 compounds is revolutionizing the field. In particular, trastuzumab deruxtecan was approved after showing unprecedented activity in a phase 2 trial for highly pretreated HER2+ ABC patients; tucatinib and neratinib were approved based on the results of the randomized HER2CLIMB and NALA trial, respectively. With an increasing arsenal of treatment options, clinical decision-making will need to take into account a variety of aspects, including differences in clinical trial designs, outcomes and toxicity profile of each drug, patient's characteristics and preferences.

2.
Lancet ; 396(10265): 1817-1828, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab monotherapy showed durable antitumour activity and manageable safety in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. We aimed to examine whether the addition of pembrolizumab would enhance the antitumour activity of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. METHODS: In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 3 trial, done in 209 sites in 29 countries, we randomly assigned patients 2:1 with untreated locally recurrent inoperable or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer using a block method (block size of six) and an interactive voice-response system with integrated web-response to pembrolizumab (200 mg) every 3 weeks plus chemotherapy (nab-paclitaxel; paclitaxel; or gemcitabine plus carboplatin) or placebo plus chemotherapy. Randomisation was stratified by type of on-study chemotherapy (taxane or gemcitabine-carboplatin), PD-L1 expression at baseline (combined positive score [CPS] ≥1 or <1), and previous treatment with the same class of chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting (yes or no). Eligibility criteria included age at least 18 years, centrally confirmed triple-negative breast cancer; at least one measurable lesion; provision of a newly obtained tumour sample for determination of triple-negative breast cancer status and PD-L1 status by immunohistochemistry at a central laboratory; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score 0 or 1; and adequate organ function. The sponsor, investigators, other study site staff (except for the unmasked pharmacist), and patients were masked to pembrolizumab versus saline placebo administration. In addition, the sponsor, the investigators, other study site staff, and patients were masked to patient-level tumour PD-L1 biomarker results. Dual primary efficacy endpoints were progression-free survival and overall survival assessed in the PD-L1 CPS of 10 or more, CPS of 1 or more, and intention-to-treat populations. The definitive assessment of progression-free survival was done at this interim analysis; follow-up to assess overall survival is continuing. For progression-free survival, a hierarchical testing strategy was used, such that testing was done first in patients with CPS of 10 or more (prespecified statistical criterion was α=0·00411 at this interim analysis), then in patients with CPS of 1 or more (α=0·00111 at this interim analysis, with partial alpha from progression-free survival in patients with CPS of 10 or more passed over), and finally in the intention-to-treat population (α=0·00111 at this interim analysis). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02819518, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Jan 9, 2017, and June 12, 2018, of 1372 patients screened, 847 were randomly assigned to treatment, with 566 patients in the pembrolizumab-chemotherapy group and 281 patients in the placebo-chemotherapy group. At the second interim analysis (data cutoff, Dec 11, 2019), median follow-up was 25·9 months (IQR 22·8-29·9) in the pembrolizumab-chemotherapy group and 26·3 months (22·7-29·7) in the placebo-chemotherapy group. Among patients with CPS of 10 or more, median progression-free survival was 9·7 months with pembrolizumab-chemotherapy and 5·6 months with placebo-chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] for progression or death, 0·65, 95% CI 0·49-0·86; one-sided p=0·0012 [primary objective met]). Median progression-free survival was 7·6 and 5·6 months (HR, 0·74, 0·61-0·90; one-sided p=0·0014 [not significant]) among patients with CPS of 1 or more and 7·5 and 5·6 months (HR, 0·82, 0·69-0·97 [not tested]) among the intention-to-treat population. The pembrolizumab treatment effect increased with PD-L1 enrichment. Grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse event rates were 68% in the pembrolizumab-chemotherapy group and 67% in the placebo-chemotherapy group, including death in <1% in the pembrolizumab-chemotherapy group and 0% in the placebo-chemotherapy group. INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab-chemotherapy showed a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in progression-free survival versus placebo-chemotherapy among patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer with CPS of 10 or more. These findings suggest a role for the addition of pembrolizumab to standard chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Inc.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255658

RESUMO

The paper assesses the dose-limiting toxicities and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) combined with non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (NPLD) in HER2-positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This single-arm, open-label, phase Ib trial (NCT02562378) enrolled anthracycline-naïve HER2+ MBC patients who had progressed on trastuzumab and taxanes. Patients received a maximum of 6 cycles of NPLD intravenously (IV) at various dose levels (45, 50, and 60 mg/m2) in the "3 plus 3" dose-escalation part. During expansion, they received 60 mg/m2 of NPLD every 3 weeks (Q3W) plus standard doses of T-DM1. The MTD was T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg plus NPLD 60 mg/m2 administered IV Q3W. No clinically relevant worsening of cardiac function was observed. Among all evaluable patients, the overall response rate was 40.0% (95%CI, 16.3-67.7) with a median duration of response of 6.9 months (95%CI, 4.8-9.1). Clinical benefit rate was 66.7% (95%CI, 38.4-88.2) and median progression-free survival was 7.2 months (95%CI, 4.5-9.6). No significant influence of NPLD on T-DM1 pharmacokinetics was observed. The addition of NPLD to T-DM1 is feasible but does not seem to improve the antitumor efficacy of T-DM1 in HER2+ MBC patients.

4.
Int J Retina Vitreous ; 6(1): 60, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the constant refinement of techniques and surgical aids, extremely large and refractory macular holes continue to have poor surgical outcomes with the current standard of care. The objective of the present study is to assess the anatomical and functional outcomes, as well as the structural change through time, of the optical coherence tomography of patients with refractory macular holes treated with a full-thickness autologous retinal transplant. METHODS: Prospective, case series. We include patients with a clinical diagnosis of refractory macular holes with a minimum diameter of at least 500 µm. All the patients had a comprehensive ophthalmological examination, which included a best-corrected visual acuity assessment, fundus examination, and optical coherence analysis. All the patients underwent a 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with a full-thickness retinal transplant and silicone oil tamponade (5000 cs<). Follow-up was done at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Statistical analysis was done with a test for repeated measurements and Bonferroni correction, with an alpha value of 0.05 for statistical significance and a Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric continuous variables. RESULTS: We enrolled 13 eyes from 13 patients (mean age: 67.15 years) with refractory macular holes, with a mean base diameter of 1615.38 ± 689.19 µm and a minimum diameter of 964.08 ± 709.77 µm. The closure rate after 12 months of follow-up was 76.92%. Six patients with a closed macular hole at the end of the follow-up had complete recovery of the myoid/ellipsoid layer. The remaining showed a 44.9% reduction of the initial gap. Most patients formed a pseudofovea and normalization of the internal retinal layers. Despite a positive trend toward visual recovery (p = 0.034), after the correction of the alpha value, the change lost its statistical significance. During follow-up, one patient developed mild proliferative vitreoretinopathy and epiretinal membrane without anatomical or functional consequences. CONCLUSIONS: An autologous full-thickness retinal transplant may improve the anatomical and structural outcome of patients with refractory macular holes. The full safety profile of this new technique is still unknown. More studies are needed in order to assess functional changes through time.

5.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(11): 1455-1464, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, escalation or de-escalation of systemic therapy is a controversial topic. As an aid to treatment decisions, we aimed to develop a prognostic assay that integrates multiple data types for predicting survival outcome in patients with newly diagnosed HER2-positive breast cancer. METHODS: We derived a combined prognostic model using retrospective clinical-pathological data on stromal tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, PAM50 subtypes, and expression of 55 genes obtained from patients who participated in the Short-HER phase 3 trial. The trial enrolled patients with newly diagnosed, node-positive, HER2-positive breast cancer or, if node negative, with at least one risk factor (ie, tumour size >2 cm, histological grade 3, lymphovascular invasion, Ki67 >20%, age ≤35 years, or hormone receptor negativity), and randomly assigned them to adjuvant anthracycline plus taxane-based combinations with either 9 weeks or 1 year of trastuzumab. Trastuzumab was administered intravenously every 3 weeks (8 mg/kg loading dose at first cycle, and 6 mg/kg thereafter) for 18 doses or weekly (4 mg/kg loading dose in the first week, and 2 mg/kg thereafter) for 9 weeks, starting concomitantly with the first taxane dose. Median follow-up was 91·4 months (IQR 75·1-105·6). The primary objective of our study was to derive and evaluate a combined prognostic score associated with distant metastasis-free survival (the time between randomisation and distant recurrence or death before recurrence), an exploratory endpoint in Short-HER. Patient samples in the training dataset were split into a training set (n=290) and a testing set (n=145), balancing for event and treatment group. The training set was further stratified into 100 iterations of Monte-Carlo cross validation (MCCV). Cox proportional hazard models were fit to MCCV training samples using Elastic-Net. A maximum of 92 features were assessed. The final prognostic model was evaluated in an independent combined dataset of 267 patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer treated with different neoadjuvant and adjuvant anti-HER2-based combinations and from four other studies (PAMELA, CHER-LOB, Hospital Clinic, and Padova) with disease-free survival outcome data. FINDINGS: From Short-HER, data from 435 (35%) of 1254 patients for tumour size (T1 vs rest), nodal status (N0 vs rest), number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (continuous variable), subtype (HER2-enriched and basal-like vs rest), and 13 genes composed the final model (named HER2DX). HER2DX was significantly associated with distant metastasis-free survival as a continuous variable (p<0·0001). HER2DX median score for quartiles 1-2 was identified as the cutoff to identify low-risk patients; and the score that distinguished quartile 3 from quartile 4 was the cutoff to distinguish medium-risk and high-risk populations. The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival of the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk populations were 98·1% (95% CI 96·3-99·9), 88·9% (83·2-95·0), and 73·9% (66·0-82·7), respectively (low-risk vs high-risk hazard ratio [HR] 0·04, 95% CI 0·0-0·1, p<0·0001). In the evaluation cohort, HER2DX was significantly associated with disease-free survival as a continuous variable (HR 2·77, 95% CI 1·4-5·6, p=0·0040) and as group categories (low-risk vs high-risk HR 0·27, 0·1-0·7, p=0·005). 5-year disease-free survival in the HER2DX low-risk group was 93·5% (89·0-98·3%) and in the high-risk group was 81·1% (71·5-92·1). INTERPRETATION: The HER2DX combined prognostic score identifies patients with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer who might be candidates for escalated or de-escalated systemic treatment. Future clinical validation of HER2DX seems warranted to establish its use in different scenarios, especially in the neoadjuvant setting. FUNDING: Instituto Salud Carlos III, Save the Mama, Pas a Pas, Fundación Científica, Asociación Española Contra el Cáncer, Fundación SEOM, National Institutes of Health, Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Veneto Institute of Oncology, and Italian Association for Cancer Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 124, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical research suggests that the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in breast cancer can be enhanced by combining them with antiangiogenics, particularly in a sequential fashion. We sought to explore the efficacy and biomarkers of combining the anti-PD-L1 durvalumab plus the antiangiogenic bevacizumab after bevacizumab monotherapy for advanced HER2-negative breast cancer. METHODS: Patients had advanced HER2-negative disease that progressed while receiving single-agent bevacizumab maintenance as a part of a previous chemotherapy plus bevacizumab regimen. Treatment consisted of bi-weekly durvalumab plus bevacizumab (10 mg/kg each i.v.). Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained before the first durvalumab dose and every 4 weeks and immunophenotyped by flow-cytometry. A fresh pre-durvalumab tumor biopsy was obtained; gene-expression studies and immunohistochemical staining to assess vascular normalization and characterize the immune infiltrate were conducted. Patients were classified as "non-progressors" if they had clinical benefit (SD/PR/CR) at 4 months. The co-primary endpoints were the changes in the percentage T cell subpopulations in PBMCs in progressors versus non-progressors, and PFS/OS time. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were accrued. Median PFS and OS were 3.5 and 11 months; a trend for a longer OS was detected for the hormone-positive subset (19.8 versus 7.4 months in triple-negatives; P = 0.11). Clinical benefit rate at 2 and 4 months was 60% and 44%, respectively, without significant differences between hormone-positive and triple-negative (P = 0.73). Non-progressors' tumors displayed vascular normalization features as a result of previous bevacizumab, compared with generally abnormal patterns observed in progressors. Non-progressors also showed increased T-effector and T-memory signatures and decreased TREG signatures in gene expression studies in baseline-post-bevacizumab-tumors compared with progressors. Notably, analysis of PBMC populations before durvalumab treatment was concordant with the findings in tumor samples and showed a decreased percentage of circulating TREGs in non-progressors. CONCLUSIONS: This study reporting on sequential bevacizumab+durvalumab in breast cancer showed encouraging activity in a heavily pre-treated cohort. The correlative studies agree with the preclinical rationale supporting an immunopriming effect exerted by antiangiogenic treatment, probably by reducing TREGs cells both systemically and in tumor tissue. The magnitude of this benefit should be addressed in a randomized setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (www.clinicaltrials.gov): NCT02802098 . Registered on June 16, 2020.

7.
Front Oncol ; 10: 586268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224883

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the cancer with the most incidence and mortality in women. microRNAs are emerging as novel prognosis/diagnostic tools. Our aim was to identify a serum microRNA signature useful to predict cancer development. We focused on studying the expression levels of 30 microRNAs in the serum of 96 breast cancer patients vs. 92 control individuals. Bioinformatic studies provide a microRNA signature, designated as a predictor, based on the expression levels of five microRNAs. Then, we tested the predictor in a group of 60 randomly chosen women. Lastly, a proteomic study unveiled the overexpression and downregulation of proteins differently expressed in the serum of breast cancer patients vs. that of control individuals. Twenty-six microRNAs differentiate cancer tissue from healthy tissue, and 16 microRNAs differentiate the serum of cancer patients from that of the control group. The tissue expression of miR-99a, miR-497, miR-362, and miR-1274, and the serum levels of miR-141 correlated with patient survival. Moreover, the predictor consisting of miR-125b, miR-29c, miR-16, miR-1260, and miR-451 was able to differentiate breast cancer patients from controls. The predictor was validated in 20 new cases of breast cancer patients and tested in 60 volunteer women, assigning 11 out of 60 women to the cancer group. An association of low levels of miR-16 with a high content of CD44 protein in serum was found. Circulating microRNAs in serum can represent biomarkers for cancer prediction. Their clinical relevance and the potential use of the predictor here described are discussed.

8.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abemaciclib is a selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor administered continuously for hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer. Abemaciclib is associated with dose-dependent early-onset diarrhea. nextMONARCH evaluated abemaciclib monotherapy (with or without prophylactic loperamide) and combined with tamoxifen for endocrine refractory metastatic breast cancer (MBC) after chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: nextMONARCH is an open-label, controlled, randomized, phase II study of women with endocrine-refractory HR+, HER2- MBC previously treated with chemotherapy. Patients received abemaciclib 150 mg plus tamoxifen 20 mg (A+T), abemaciclib 150 mg every 12 hours (A-150), or abemaciclib 200 mg plus prophylactic loperamide (A-200). The primary objective was progression-free survival (PFS). PFS analyses tested superiority of A+T to A-200 and informal noninferiority of A-150 to A-200. The secondary objectives included the objective response rate (ORR), safety, and pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: The median PFS was 9.1 months for A+T versus 7.4 months for A-200 (hazard ratio, 0.815; 95% confidence interval, 0.556-1.193; P = .293). The A-200 PFS was comparable to that with A-150 at 6.5 months (hazard ratio, 1.045; 95% confidence interval, 0.711-1.535; P = .811). The ORR was 34.6%, 24.1%, and 32.5% for A+T, A-150, and A-200, respectively. No new safety signals were identified. The incidence and severity of diarrhea (62.3%; grade 3, 7.8%) with A-200 was similar to that with A-150 (67.1%; grade 3, 3.8%). The pharmacokinetics were comparable to previous observations. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of tamoxifen to abemaciclib did not significantly improve PFS or ORR compared with abemaciclib monotherapy but confirmed the single-agent activity of abemaciclib in heavily pretreated HR+, HER2- MBC. Dose reductions and antidiarrheal medication generally managed diarrhea while maintaining efficacy.

9.
Ophthalmology ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the anatomic and functional outcomes of autologous retinal transplantation (ART). DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective, interventional, consecutive case series. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirty eyes of 130 patients undergoing ART for the repair of primary and refractory macular holes (MHs), as well as combined MH-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (MH-RRD), between January 2017 and December 2019. METHODS: All patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy and ART, with surgeon modification of intraoperative variables. A large array of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data was collected. Two masked reviewers graded OCT images. Multivariate statistical analysis and subgroup analysis were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Macular hole closure rate, visual acuity (VA), external limiting membrane and ellipsoid zone (EZ) band integrity, and alignment of neurosensory layers (ANL) on OCT. RESULTS: One hundred thirty ART surgeries were performed by 33 vitreoretinal surgeons worldwide. Patient demographics were: mean age of 63 ± 6.3 years, 58% female, 41% White, 23% Black, 19% Asian, and 17% Latino. Preoperative VA was 1.37 ± 0.12 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR; Snellen equivalent, approximately 20/500), which improved significantly to 1.05 ± 0.09 logMAR (Snellen equivalent, approximately 20/225; P < 0.001) after surgery (mean follow-up, 8.6 ± 0.8 months). Autologous retinal transplantation was performed for primary MH repair in 27% of patients (n = 35), for refractory MH in 58% of patients (n = 76; mean number of previous surgeries, 1.6 ± 0.2), and for MH-RRD in 15% of patients (n = 19). Mean maximum MH diameter was 1470 ± 160 µm, mean minimum diameter was 840 ± 94 µm, and mean axial length was 24.6 ± 3.2 mm. Overall, 89% of MHs closed (78.5% complete; 10% small eccentric defect), with a 95% closure rate in MH-RRD (68.4% complete; 26.3% small eccentric defect). Visual acuity improved by at least 3 lines in 43% of eyes and by at least 5 lines in 29% of eyes. Reconstitution of the EZ (P = 0.02) and ANL (P = 0.01) on OCT were associated with better final VA. Five cases of ART graft dislocation (3.8%), 5 cases of postoperative retinal detachment (3.8%), and 1 case of endophthalmitis (0.77%) occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In this global experience, patients undergoing ART for large primary and refractory MHs and MH-RRDs achieved good anatomic and functional outcomes, with low complication rates despite complex surgical pathologic features.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(24): 6417-6428, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998962

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Report results of the phase Ib dose-escalation/expansion study of triplet therapy with cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor (ribociclib), mTOR inhibitor (everolimus), and endocrine therapy (exemestane). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-), pretreated, advanced breast cancer (ABC) were enrolled. The primary objective of the dose-escalation phase was to estimate the MTD and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of triplet therapy through evaluation of the incidence of dose-limiting toxicities. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the RP2D were evaluated in the dose-expansion phase in patients naïve or refractory to CDK4/6 inhibitor therapy. RESULTS: Patients (N = 116) received triplet therapy (n = 83 in the dose-escalation phase; n = 33 in the dose-expansion phase). A dose-dependent drug-drug interaction was observed for everolimus, with exposure increasing two- to fourfold in the presence of ribociclib. The RP2D was determined to be ribociclib 300 mg once daily, 3 weeks on/1 week off in a 4-week cycle, plus everolimus 2.5 mg once daily, plus exemestane 25 mg once daily taken with food. The safety profile was consistent with the known profiles of the combination partners, and preliminary evidence of antitumor activity was observed. Higher ESR1 gene expression trended with better treatment response to triplet therapy; higher gene expression of MAPK pathway genes trended with worse treatment response. CONCLUSIONS: Triplet therapy with endocrine therapy and mTOR and CDK4/6 inhibition provides clinical benefit and an acceptable safety profile in previously treated postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- ABC.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(34): 3987-3998, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954927

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many patients with HR+, HER2- early breast cancer (EBC) will not experience recurrence or have distant recurrence with currently available standard therapies. However, up to 30% of patients with high-risk clinical and/or pathologic features may experience distant recurrence, many in the first few years. Superior treatment options are needed to prevent early recurrence and development of metastases for this group of patients. Abemaciclib is an oral, continuously dosed, CDK4/6 inhibitor approved for HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer (ABC). Efficacy and safety of abemaciclib in ABC supported evaluation in the adjuvant setting. METHODS: This open-label, phase III study included patients with HR+, HER2-, high-risk EBC, who had surgery and, as indicated, radiotherapy and/or adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with four or more positive nodes, or one to three nodes and either tumor size ≥ 5 cm, histologic grade 3, or central Ki-67 ≥ 20%, were eligible and randomly assigned (1:1) to standard-of-care adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) with or without abemaciclib (150 mg twice daily for 2 years). The primary end point was invasive disease-free survival (IDFS), and secondary end points included distant relapse-free survival, overall survival, and safety. RESULTS: At a preplanned efficacy interim analysis, among 5,637 randomly assigned patients, 323 IDFS events were observed in the intent-to-treat population. Abemaciclib plus ET demonstrated superior IDFS versus ET alone (P = .01; hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.93), with 2-year IDFS rates of 92.2% versus 88.7%, respectively. Safety data were consistent with the known safety profile of abemaciclib. CONCLUSION: Abemaciclib when combined with ET is the first CDK4/6 inhibitor to demonstrate a significant improvement in IDFS in patients with HR+, HER2- node-positive EBC at high risk of early recurrence.

12.
Breast Care (Basel) ; 15(4): 433-436, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982656
13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(22): 5820-5829, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938620

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess palbociclib in combination with trastuzumab with or without endocrine therapy in patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PATRICIA is a prospective, open-label, multicenter phase II trial. Patients had received 2-4 prior lines of anti-HER2-based regimens. Treatment consisted of palbociclib 200 mg daily for 2 weeks and 1 week off plus trastuzumab. The study was based on a Simon two-stage design comprising three cohorts: estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (cohort A), ER-positive (cohort B1), and ER-positive with letrozole (cohort B2). ER-positive patients were randomized to cohorts B1 or B2. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival rate at 6 months (PFS6). Secondary objectives included safety and evaluation of the PAM50 intrinsic subtypes. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients were recruited (n = 15 in cohort A and 28 in each cohort B). The PFS6 rate in cohorts A, B1, and B2 was 33.3% (5/15), 42.8% (12/28), and 46.4% (13/28), respectively. Regarding safety, grade 1-2 and 3-4 toxicities occurred in 97.7% and 84.4% of patients, respectively. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (66.4%) and thrombocytopenia (11.3%). Regarding PAM50, 59 (83.1%) tumors were profiled. Luminal disease defined by PAM50 was found independently associated with longer PFS compared with non-luminal disease (10.6 vs. 4.2 months median PFS; adjusted hazard ratio = 0.40; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Palbociclib in combination with trastuzumab is safe and exhibits promising survival outcomes in trastuzumab pretreated ER-positive/HER2-positive advanced breast cancer with a PAM50 Luminal A or B subtype. The enrollment was stopped prematurely, and a new randomized cohort was opened in this population.

14.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 32(6): 568-574, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925203

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically analyze the available evidence on oligometastatic breast cancer and to suggest therapeutic approaches for optimal management of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Unlike metastatic breast cancer, which remains incurable, patients with a limited number and extent of metastatic lesions, that is, oligometastatic disease, might achieve disease control and long-term survival when radical therapy of the primary tumor, if present, and metastatic disease is added to standard systemic therapy. However, the lack of a clear definition, variety of presentations, and the absence of biomarkers makes oligometastatic breast cancer a poorly understood clinical entity for which there is no standard treatment. SUMMARY: Improvements in systemic therapies along with radical treatment of the primary tumor and metastatic lesions, together with optimization in the use of imaging tools, may help to increase the percentage of patients with metastatic breast cancer who achieve no-evidence-of-disease status or, at least, chronification of the disease. However, the fundamental question remains: which patients may benefit the most from a radical therapeutic approach? In this article, we propose strategies for the appropriate selection and comprehensive management of these patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Case reports are usually excluded from systematic reviews. Patients with rare diseases are more dependent on novel individualized strategies than patients with common diseases. We reviewed and summarized the novelties reported by case reports in mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS-II) patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). METHODS: We selected the case reports included in a previous meta-analysis of patients with MPS-II treated with ERT. Later clinical studies evaluating the same topic of those case reports were reported. Our primary aim was to summarize novelties reported in previous case reports. Secondary objectives analyzed the number of novelties evaluated in subsequent clinical studies and the time elapsed between the publication of the case report to the publication of the clinical study. RESULTS: We identified 11 innovative proposals in case reports that had not been previously considered in clinical studies. Only two (18.2%) were analyzed in subsequent nonrandomized cohort studies. The other nine novelties (81.8%) were analyzed in later case reports (five) or were not included in ulterior studies (four) after more than five years from their first publication. CONCLUSIONS: Case reports should be included in systematic reviews of rare disease to obtain a comprehensive summary of the state of research and offer valuable information for healthcare practitioners.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/métodos , Mucopolissacaridose II/tratamento farmacológico , Objetivos , Humanos , Doenças Raras
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882980

RESUMO

Treatment paradigms in advanced hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer were substantially transformed with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) approval. The addition of these drugs to endocrine treatment profoundly improved progression-free and overall survival. Additionally, other important endpoints, such as the response rate, time to chemotherapy, and a delay in quality of life deterioration, were positively impacted by CDK4/6 inhibitors' addition to the treatment of advanced HR-positive breast cancer. This review article will summarize current knowledge on CDK4/6 inhibitors in clinical practice for advanced HR-positive metastatic breast cancer, as well as describe recent efforts to more precisely characterize mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance to these drugs, both on the molecular and clinical characterization level.

18.
BioDrugs ; 34(5): 611-623, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870473

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is currently approved for a subset of patients diagnosed with advanced triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), based on the phase III randomized controlled trial, IMpassion130. The anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint inhibitor atezolizumab combined with nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel is currently the standard first-line therapy in patients with metastatic TNBC who have a PD-L1-positive peritumoral immune infiltrate. Although this approval is limited to only a subset of patients, strategies to expand indications in breast cancer for this treatment modality are being extensively evaluated. A substantial need exists for the identification of patient characteristics, disease settings, immune markers, ideal partners for combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors, and the ideal sequence with traditional anticancer therapies. Additionally, in light of the results of the KEYNOTE-522 study of adjuvant pembrolizumab in TNBC, evaluation of immunotherapy in the early disease setting is a subject of great interest. This review article discusses current knowledge on immune checkpoint inhibitors in clinical practice, and provides an overview of a variety of markers evaluated to predict benefit of immunotherapy and of promising new strategies to enhance immune response and enable more patients to benefit from immunotherapy.

19.
Cancer Res ; 80(24): 5427-5434, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928917

RESUMO

Pathologic complete response (pCR) following neoadjuvant therapy has been associated with improved event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in early-stage breast cancer. The magnitude of this association varies by breast cancer subtype, yet further research focusing on subtype-specific populations is limited. Here we provide an updated and comprehensive evaluation of the association between pCR and survival outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). A literature review identified neoadjuvant studies, including clinical trials, real-world cohort studies, and studies that pooled multiple trials or cohorts, which reported EFS/OS results by pCR in patients with early-stage TNBC. Meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the association between pCR and EFS/OS and to predict long-term survival outcomes based on pCR status. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the impact of cross-study variations. Twenty-five studies with over 4,000 patients with TNBC were identified. A synthesis of evidence from these studies suggested substantial improvement in EFS and OS for pCR versus non-pCR [EFS HR (95% confidence interval): 0.24 (0.20-0.29); OS: 0.19 (0.15-0.24)]; consistent results were reported in sensitivity analyses. Collectively, our findings suggest that adjuvant therapy is associated with improved EFS/OS in patients with TNBC who received neoadjuvant therapy, regardless of pCR status.

20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 184(1): 161-172, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789591

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In MONARCH 1 (NCT02102490), single-agent abemaciclib demonstrated promising efficacy activity and tolerability in a population of heavily pretreated women with refractory HR+, HER2- metastatic breast cancer (MBC). To help interpret these results and put in clinical context, we compared overall survival (OS) and duration of therapy (DoT) between MONARCH 1 and a real-world single-agent chemotherapy cohort. METHODS: The real-world chemotherapy cohort was created from a Flatiron Health electronic health records-derived database based on key eligibility criteria from MONARCH 1. The chemotherapies included in the cohort were single-agent capecitabine, gemcitabine, eribulin, or vinorelbine. Results were adjusted for baseline demographics and clinical differences using Mahalanobis distance matching (primary analysis) and entropy balancing (sensitivity analysis). OS and DoT were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: A real-world single-agent chemotherapy cohort (n = 281) with eligibility criteria similar to the MONARCH 1 population (n = 132) was identified. The MONARCH 1 (n = 108) cohort was matched to the real-world chemotherapy cohort (n = 108). Median OS was 22.3 months in the abemaciclib arm versus 13.6 months in the matched real-world chemotherapy cohort with an estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.54. The median DoT was 4.1 months in MONARCH 1 compared to 2.9 months in the real-world chemotherapy cohort with HR of 0.76. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates an approach to create a real-world chemotherapy cohort suitable to serve as a comparator for trial data. These exploratory results suggest a survival advantage and place the benefit of abemaciclib monotherapy in clinical context.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA