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1.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 159-165, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152199

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare personnel plays an important role in the prevention of acute respiratory infections in hospital settings. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to establish the level of knowledge about respiratory virus infections and the attitudes and practices among healthcare workers, leaders of infection control committees in hospitals of Bogotá, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a self-administered questionnaire of 28 items during the monthly meeting sponsored by the local health authority. "Yes or no" and "true or false" questions were applied to measure knowledge. Attitudes and practices were measured with a Likert-type scale according to the agreement degree. RESULTS: We surveyed 70 healthcare workers. Respondents demonstrated a good level of knowledge as 80% of them answered correctly more than five questions. A total of 54.4% showed a low degree of agreement when asked if their institutions have the policy to stay home when they are sick with respiratory symptoms and 67.1% never or rarely remain at home under such conditions. CONCLUSION: Healthcare worker leaders of infection control committees in Bogotá's ospitals have adequate knowledge about the prevention of seasonal respiratory viruses. There is a need for implementing urgent sick leave policies as a measure to prevent the spread of potential coronavirus infections in hospitals.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Organizacional , Licença Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(supl.2): 159-165, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142459

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Healthcare personnel plays an important role in the prevention of acute respiratory infections in hospital settings. Objective: Our aim was to establish the level of knowledge about respiratory virus infections and the attitudes and practices among healthcare workers, leaders of infection control committees in hospitals of Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: We used a self-administered questionnaire of 28 items during the monthly meeting sponsored by the local health authority. "Yes or no" and "true or false" questions were applied to measure knowledge. Attitudes and practices were measured with a Likert-type scale according to the agreement degree. Results: We surveyed 70 healthcare workers. Respondents demonstrated a good level of knowledge as 80% of them answered correctly more than five questions. A total of 54.4% showed a low degree of agreement when asked if their institutions have the policy to stay home when they are sick with respiratory symptoms and 67.1% never or rarely remain at home under such conditions. Conclusion: Healthcare worker leaders of infection control committees in Bogotá's hospitals have adequate knowledge about the prevention of seasonal respiratory viruses. There is a need for implementing urgent sick leave policies as a measure to prevent the spread of potential coronavirus infections in hospitals.


Resumen Introducción. El personal de salud juega un papel importante en la prevención de la diseminación de los virus respiratorios en los hospitales. Objetivo. Establecer el nivel de conocimiento y determinar las actitudes y prácticas en relación con los virus respiratorios entre los encargados de los comités de infecciones de los hospitales de Bogotá. Materiales y métodos. Los participantes respondieron una encuesta de 28 ítems durante una de las sesiones mensuales del comité de infecciones de la ciudad. Se midió el conocimiento y se formularon preguntas sobre las actitudes y las prácticas utilizando una escala de tipo Likert para evaluar la conformidad. Resultados. Se encuestaron 70 trabajadores de salud. Los participantes tenían un buen nivel de conocimiento, ya que el 80 % de los respondientes tuvieron cinco o más respuestas correctas. El 54,4 % mostró un bajo nivel de conformidad en cuanto a si sus instituciones tenían una política de quedarse en casa en caso de síntomas respiratorios y 64,1 % nunca o casi nunca se queda en casa cuando presenta dichos síntomas. Conclusión. Los trabajadores de la salud que encabezan los comités de infecciones de los hospitales de Bogotá tienen un adecuado conocimiento de la prevención de los virus respiratorios. Deben implementarse políticas de quedarse en casa para el personal con síntomas gripales, con el fin de prevenir la potencial diseminación de virus en los hospitales.

4.
Biomedica ; 40(1): 195-207, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220174

RESUMO

In Colombia, especially in intensive care units, candidemia is a frequent cause of infection, accounting for 88% of fungal infections in hospitalized patients, with mortality ranging from 36% to 78%. Its incidence in Colombia is higher than that reported in developed countries and even higher than in other Latin American countries. First, the patient's risk factors should be considered, and then clinical characteristics should be assessed. Finally, microbiological studies are recommended and if the evidence supports its use, molecular testing. In general, American, Latin American, and European guides place the echinocandins as the first-line treatment for candidemia and differ in the use of fluconazole based on evidence, disease severity, previous exposure to azoles, and prevalence of Candida non-albicans. Taking into account the high incidence of this disease in our setting, it should be looked for in patients with risk factors to start a prompt empirical anti-fungal treatment.

5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(1): 195-207, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089115

RESUMO

Resumen En Colombia, especialmente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, la candidemia es una causa frecuente de infección del torrente sanguíneo y representa el 88 % de las infecciones fúngicas en pacientes hospitalizados, con una mortalidad entre 36 y 78 %. Su incidencia en Colombia es mayor a la reportada en los países desarrollados e, incluso, en otros países de Latinoamérica. Para su manejo deben considerarse los factores de riesgo del paciente, luego valorar las características clínicas y, finalmente, hacer los estudios microbiológicos y, si es necesario, pruebas moleculares. En general, las guías estadounidenses, latinoamericanas y europeas recomiendan las equinocandinas como el tratamiento de primera línea de la candidemia y difieren en el uso de fluconazol dependiendo de la 'evidencia', la gravedad de la enfermedad, la exposición previa a los azoles y la prevalencia de Candida no albicans. Dada su gran incidencia en nuestro país, asociada con una elevada mortalidad, esta infección debe buscarse sistemáticamente en pacientes con factores de riesgo, con el fin de iniciar oportunamente el tratamiento antifúngico.


Abstract In Colombia, especially in intensive care units, candidemia is a frequent cause of infection, accounting for 88% of fungal infections in hospitalized patients, with mortality ranging from 36% to 78%. Its incidence in Colombia is higher than that reported in developed countries and even higher than in other Latin American countries. First, the patient's risk factors should be considered, and then clinical characteristics should be assessed. Finally, microbiological studies are recommended and if the evidence supports its use, molecular testing. In general, American, Latin American, and European guides place the echinocandins as the first-line treatment for candidemia and differ in the use of fluconazole based on evidence, disease severity, previous exposure to azoles, and prevalence of Candida non-albicans. Taking into account the high incidence of this disease in our setting, it should be looked for in patients with risk factors to start a prompt empirical anti-fungal treatment.

6.
Infectio ; 23(4): 318-346, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019863

RESUMO

Resumen Las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (IPTB) representan la tercera causa de consulta por enfermedad infecciosas a los servicios médicos, después de las infecciones respiratorias y urinarias. Se presenta una guía de práctica clínica (GPC) con 38 recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia, graduadas bajo el sistema SIGN, para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de pacientes adultos con IPTB en el contexto colombiano, posterior a un proceso de adaptación de GPC publicadas y la búsqueda sistemática y síntesis de literatura para la actualización de la evidencia científica. Además, se realizó un consenso de expertos para la evaluación de las potenciales barreras para la implementación de las recomendaciones y la evaluación del grado de recomendación en el contexto local.


Abstract Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) represent the third leading cause of infectious disease consultation for medical services after respiratory and urinary tract infections. This document generates a clinical practice guideline with 38 recommendations based on evidence, graduated under the SIGN system for the diagnosis and treatment for SSTI infections in adult patients in Colombia, following a process of adaptation of guidelines published, and the systematic search and synthesis of literature for the updating of scientific evidence. In addition, a consensus of experts was made for the evaluation of the potential barriers for the implementation of the recommendations and the evaluation of the degree of recommendation in the local context.

9.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(4): 507-513, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-983960

RESUMO

Introducción. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) causa infecciones graves de la piel y los tejidos blandos en los hospitales y, en los últimos años, en la comunidad. El tedizolid es una nueva oxazolidinona cuya potencia in vitro ha demostrado ser mayor que la del linezolid frente a este microorganismo. Objetivo. Conocer la actividad antimicrobiana del tedizolid y de algunos antibióticos de comparación en aislamientos de SARM causante de infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos en hospitales de Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio multicéntrico prospectivo y descriptivo a lo largo de doce meses en siete hospitales de tercer nivel de Colombia. Se recolectaron aislamientos de SARM de pacientes adultos con infección de piel y tejidos blandos. Se determinó la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) mediante la técnica de ETEST® (bioMérieux) del tedizolid, el linezolid, la vancomicina, la daptomicina, el trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y la clindamicina. Resultados. Se obtuvieron aislamientos de SARM de 102 pacientes, de los cuales 56 (54,9 %) eran hombres; el promedio de edad fue de 46,8 años. La infección tuvo origen en la comunidad en 77 casos (75,4 %). El tipo de muestra que predominó fue el absceso (69 pacientes: 67,6 %). Todos los aislamientos fueron sensibles a tedizolid, linezolid, daptomicina, trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y vancomicina. La actividad in vitro del tedizolid fue mayor que la del linezolid. Los intervalos de la CIM del tedizolid oscilaron entre 0,125 µg/ml y 0,5 µg/ml en tanto que los del linezolid fluctuaron entre 1 µg/m y 2 µg/ml. Conclusiones. Las cepas circulantes de SARM en Colombia presentaron una gran sensibilidad al tedizolid, por lo cual sería una alternativa terapéutica para las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos en nuestro medio.


Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe skin and soft tissue infections in hospitals and, more recently, in the community. Tedizolid is a new second-generation oxazolidinone derivative having greater in vitro potency than linezolid against this type of microorganism. Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of tedizolid and other comparator antibiotics in MRSA isolates causing skin and soft tissue infections in Colombian hospitals. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-center descriptive study in seven tertiary-level hospitals in Colombia along a 12-month period. MRSA isolates were collected from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. Tedizolid, linezolid, vancomycin, daptomycin, trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by ETEST® (bioMérieux). Results: MRSA isolates were obtained from 102 patients with an average age of 46.8 years of whom 56 (54.9%) were men. Infection was community-acquired in 77 cases (75.4%). Abscess-related samples predominated (69 patients: 67.6%). All isolates were susceptible to tedizolid, linezolid, daptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Tedizolid had greater in vitro activity than linezolid. Tedizolid MIC intervals ranged from 0.125 µg/mL to 0.5 µg/mL while those of linezolid ranged from 1µg/mL to 2µg/mL. Conclusions: MRSA strains circulating in Colombia are highly susceptible to tedizolid and can be considered a therapeutic alternative for hospitals and/or community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Colômbia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles , Oxazolidinonas
10.
Infectio ; 22(2): 94-98, abr.-jun. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-892759

RESUMO

Resumen Describir algunos conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de médicos en 3 ciudades colombianas con respecto a la prescripción de antibióticos. Se realizó una encuesta sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de la prescripción de antibióticos en médicos asistentes a 3 conferencias científicas de la Asociación Colombiana de Infectología en Febrero de 2008. La encuesta fue anónima e individual. Los resultados se analizaron usando Excel 2007 y STATA 2000. Se realizaron 96 encuestas a 29 médicos generales y 67 médicos especialistas. Entre el 29,2% y el 67,42% tienen conocimientos equivocados respecto a la prescripción de antibióticos. El 97,4% de los médicos encuestados considera que la venta de antibióticos debe realizarse únicamente bajo prescripción médica. La mayoría de los encuestados reconoce limitaciones del intervalo de dosificación y de la seguridad para la prescripción de antibióticos. El 60% se mostró en desacuerdo con la aplicación de guías de otros países en nuestros medio y el 76% de los consideran que los infectólogos aportan al manejo clínico de los pacientes. El 72% de los encuestados reportó tener apoyo de un infectólogo y en su institución existen estrategias de restricción de uso de antibióticos, refieren además utilizar asilamiento de contacto frente a organismos multiresistentes. Las respuestas no son significativamente diferentes de acuerdo a los años de experiencia. Los médicos reportaron en su mayoría prácticas conservadoras y racionales del uso de antibióticos aunque algunas limitaciones en el conocimiento farmacológico de los mismos.


Abstract Describe knowledge, attittudes and, practices about antibiotic use in Colombian physicians from three different cities. We applied a voluntary survey about knowledge, attittudes and practices about antibiotic prescription at three scientific meetings of the Asociacion Colombiana de Infectología, on February 2008. The survey was anonimous and individual. The results were analyzed using Excel 2007 and STATA 2000. We analyzed 96 surveys, 29 from general practitioners and 67 medical specialists. Physicians had wrong knowledge about antibiotic use between 29,2% and 67,42%. Most physicians (97.4%) considered the antibiotics have to be sold only under medical prescription. Many physicians recognized having limited knowledge about antibiotic dosing interval and security. 60% physicians disagreed with the application of guidelines from other countries in our enviroment and 76% physician consider the infectious disease experts contribute to clinical management of patients. Physicians reported having support from an infectious disease expert on 72%, and had strategies to restrict the use of some antibiotics, likecontact isolation when multi-resistant organisms had been suspected. There were not differences between answers according to years of experience. Several physcians reported conservative practices and rational antibiotic use with limited knowledge about antibiotic pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

11.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 4(2)2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561795

RESUMO

Data with respect to the epidemiological situation of fungal diseases in Colombia is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study is to estimate the burden of fungal infections. A population projection for 2017 from the Colombian Department for National Statistics was used, as well as official information from the Ministry of Health and National Institute of Health. A bibliographical search for Colombian data on mycotic diseases and population at risk (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV infection/AIDS, cancer, and transplant patients) was done. The Colombian population for 2017 was estimated at 49,291,609 inhabitants, and the estimated number of fungal infections for Colombia in 2017 was between 753,523 and 757,928, with nearly 600,000 cases of candidiasis, 130,000 cases of aspergillosis, and 16,000 cases of opportunistic infection in HIV, affecting around 1.5% of the population. In conclusion, fungal infections represent an important burden of disease for the Colombian population. Different clinical, epidemiological, and developmental scenarios can be observed in which fungal infections occur in Colombia.

13.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 35(5): 465-475, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724992

RESUMO

Bacterial resistance has increased in Latin America and the world, making research and creation of new antimicrobials capable of eradicating resistant microorganisms essential. A review of new cephalosporins and their combinations with a beta-lactamase inhibitor was conducted, collecting data on the spectrum, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile and clinical studies of the current indications for ceftaroline, and the combinations ceftazidime with avibactam and ceftolozane with tazobactam. The first one has activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (SCoN) and against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, therefore approved for use in community-acquired pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. Among the new combinations, ceftazidime, a third generation cephalosporin with antipseudomonal activity, associated with avibactam, a betalactamase inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of abdominal infections and complicated urinary infections. Finally, the combination of ceftolozane with tazobactam has comparable action to ceftazidime with avibactam due to its activity against Gram negative rods, and in combination with metronidazole they do not present inferiority to meropenem in intra-abdominal infections. The clinical studies are presented, as well as the potential indications and clinical scenarios for their use of this cephalosporins.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Cefalosporinas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Azabicíclicos/farmacologia , Compostos Azabicíclicos/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima/farmacologia , Ceftazidima/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tazobactam/farmacologia , Tazobactam/uso terapêutico
14.
Biomedica ; 38(4): 507-513, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653864

RESUMO

Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe skin and soft tissue infections in hospitals and, more recently, in the community. Tedizolid is a new second-generation oxazolidinone derivative having greater in vitro potency than linezolid against this type of microorganism. Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of tedizolid and other comparator antibiotics in MRSA isolates causing skin and soft tissue infections in Colombian hospitals. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-center descriptive study in seven tertiary-level hospitals in Colombia along a 12-month period. MRSA isolates were collected from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. Tedizolid, linezolid, vancomycin, daptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by ETEST® (bioMérieux). Results: MRSA isolates were obtained from 102 patients with an average age of 46.8 years of whom 56 (54.9%) were men. Infection was community-acquired in 77 cases (75.4%). Abscess-related samples predominated (69 patients: 67.6%). All isolates were susceptible to tedizolid, linezolid, daptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Tedizolid had greater in vitro activity than linezolid. Tedizolid MIC intervals ranged from 0.125 µg/mL to 0.5 µg/mL while those of linezolid ranged from 1µg/mL to 2µg/mL. Conclusions: MRSA strains circulating in Colombia are highly susceptible to tedizolid and can be considered a therapeutic alternative for hospitals and/or community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colômbia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Infect Control ; 46(2): 180-185, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28947210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite absence of evidence, in practice, asymptomatic bacteriuria is perceived as a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) among patients with cardiac surgery. We aimed to identify whether an association exists between the preoperative presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria or urinary tract infection and SSI in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. METHODS: This is an analytical study with a retrospective cohort of patients undergoing coronary revascularization or valve replacement surgery. We identified cases of bacteriuria, urinary tract infection, and cardiovascular SSI and adjusted the results according to exposure to antibiotics and known risk factors for SSI using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 840 patients were included in the study, of whom 33 (3.9%) had asymptomatic bacteriuria and 13 (1.5%) had urinary tract infections. The incidence of SSI was 9.5% (80 patients), with 2.3% of cases having mediastinitis. In the multivariate analysis, asymptomatic bacteriuria (relative risk, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-2.56; P = .74) and urinary tract infection (relative risk, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-10.69; P = .20) were not risk factors for SSI. Traditional risk factors were found to increase the risk of SSI. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of bacteriuria is not a risk factor for presenting SSI in cardiovascular surgery. Screening with urinalysis or urine culture would not be recommended for patients undergoing cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Bacteriúria/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 465-475, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-978059

RESUMO

Resumen La resistencia bacteriana se ha incrementado en América Latina y el mundo, por lo que se requiere investigación y creación de nuevos antimicrobianos capaces de erradicar a los microorganismos resistentes. Se realizó una revisión acerca de nuevas cefalosporinas y sus combinaciones con un inhibidor de β-lactamasas, recopilando información de espectro, farmacocinética, farmacodinamia y estudios clínicos de las indicaciones actuales para ceftarolina, ceftazidima/avibactam y ceftolozano/tazobactam. La primera, con actividad frente a Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa sensibles y resistentes a meticilina, y contra Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina; por lo tanto, aprobada para uso en neumonía bacteriana adquirida en comunidad e infecciones bacterianas de piel y tejidos blandos. Entre las nuevas combinaciones, ceftazidima, una cefalosporina de tercera generación con actividad anti-pseudomonas, asociada a avibactam, un inhibidor de β-lactamasas, ha demostrado efectividad en el tratamiento de infecciones abdominales e infecciones urinarias complicadas. Por último, la combinación ceftolozano y el conocido tazobactam presenta acción comparable a la combinación de ceftazidima y avibactam por su actividad contra bacilos gramnegativos y, en combinación con metronidazol no presenta inferioridad a meropenem en infecciones intra-abdominales. Se presentan los estudios clínicos y las potenciales indicaciones y escenarios de uso de estas cefalosporinas.


Bacterial resistance has increased in Latin America and the world, making research and creation of new antimicrobials capable of eradicating resistant microorganisms essential. A review of new cephalosporins and their combinations with a beta-lactamase inhibitor was conducted, collecting data on the spectrum, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile and clinical studies of the current indications for ceftaroline, and the combinations ceftazidime with avibactam and ceftolozane with tazobactam. The first one has activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (SCoN) and against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, therefore approved for use in community-acquired pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. Among the new combinations, ceftazidime, a third generation cephalosporin with antipseudomonal activity, associated with avibactam, a betalactamase inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of abdominal infections and complicated urinary infections. Finally, the combination of ceftolozane with tazobactam has comparable action to ceftazidime with avibactam due to its activity against Gram negative rods, and in combination with metronidazole they do not present inferiority to meropenem in intra-abdominal infections. The clinical studies are presented, as well as the potential indications and clinical scenarios for their use of this cephalosporins.

17.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 24(4): 265-270, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-960240

RESUMO

Abstract Pyomyositis, defined as a suppurative muscle infection, is a rare entity that is classified as tropical or non-tropical according to the geographical region. The case of a patient with a history of severe tophaceous gouty arthritis, coming from tropical wet climate in Colombia, who presented with suggestive cellulitis, with a torpid evolution despite standard dual management. An associated abscess was documented, and initially abscessed cellulitis and septic arthritis were suspected, the latter was finally ruled out, once teh muscle origin of the abscess becames evident by means of computed tomography and ultrasonography. Intraoperatively, an abscess with fascia involvement and intramuscular tophaceous disease was observed. Surgical drainage and repeated washes were required. Carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated, requiring last-line Gouty arthritis antibiotic therapy for a prolonged period of time.


Resumen La piomiositis es una infección supurativa del músculo estriado, rara, que se clasifica según la región geográfica de presentación, en tropical y no tropical. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con antecedente de artritis gotosa tofácea severa, proveniente de zona tropical, quien comienza con cuadro sugestivo de celulitis, con evolución tórpida pese a manejo estándar dual; se documenta un absceso de ubicación no clara, sospechando en principio celulitis abscedada y artritis séptica, finalmente descartándose esta última y haciéndose evidente origen muscular del absceso por medio de tomografia computarizada y ultrasonografía. Quirúrgicamente se evidenció absceso con compromiso de fascia, enfermedad tofácea intramuscular; requirió drenaje quirúrgico y lavados, documentándose germen Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a carbapenémicos, requiriendo antibioticoterapia de última línea por un periodo prolongado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piomiosite , Fasciite , Carbapenêmicos , Gota , Infecções
18.
Infectio ; 21(4): 223-233, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-892736

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: evaluar la mejor evidencia actual disponible para generar recomendaciones con respecto a la efectividad y seguridad del uso de tigeciclina en adultos con infección de piel y tejidos blandos (IPTB). Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura, seleccionando los metaanálisis y experimentos clínicos controlados (ECCs), los cuales se valoraron utilizando la herramienta SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network.), con el fin de generar tablas de evidencia según GRADE de los estudios de tigeciclina en la indicación de IPTB, para posteriormente utilizar un proceso Delphi modificado para calificar las diferentes recomendaciones. Resultados: la revisión sistemática se incluyeron 9 metaanálisis que incluyeron 5 estudios clínicos aleatorizados con 1873 pacientes, y de ellos 952 asignados al brazo de tigeciclina, no mostró inferioridad frente a los comparadores en curación clínica (RR= 0.76 IC95% 0,57 - 1.03), curación microbiológica (RR= 0.92 IC95% 0,61 - 1.38), eventos adversos serios RR 1,41 (IC95%0,97 a 2,35), ni mortalidad RR 1,9 (IC95%0,84 a 4,3). La tigeciclina puede relacionarse con mayor frecuencia de eventos adversos leves de origen gastrointestinal. Conclusión: en pacientes adultos con IPTB, se considera que el uso de tigeciclina en monoterapia en pacientes no críticamente enfermos es equivalente en eficacia a otras opciones terapéuticas antimicrobianas. Se debe considerar especialmente como terapia de ajuste en pacientes con infecciones polimicrobianas.


Abstract Objective: To assess current best evidence available to generate recommendations regarding the effectiveness and safety of tigecycline use in adults with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Materials and methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted by selecting meta-analyzes and controlled clinical trials (CCTs), which were assessed using the SIGN tool (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) in order to generate evidence tables according to GRADE of studies of tigecycline in the SSTIs indication, and then using a modified Delphi Method to score the different recommendations. Results: Nine meta-analyzes were included compounded by five randomized clinical trials with a sample size of 1873 patients, where 952 patients were assigned to tigecycline. The group of patients with tigecycline showed no inferiority to the comparator in clinical cure (RR = 0.76 95% CI 0.57 - 1.03), microbiologic cure (RR = 0.92 95% CI 0.61 - 1.38), serious adverse events RR 1, 41 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.35) or mortality RR 1.9 (95% CI 0.84 to 4.3). Tigecycline may be related to increased frequency of minor adverse events of gastrointestinal origin. Conclusion: In adult patients with SSTIs, it is considered that the use of tigecycline in monotherapy in non-critically ill patients is equivalent in effectiveness to other antimicrobial treatment options. It should be especially considered as an adjustment therapy in patients with polymicrobial infections.

19.
Infectio ; 21(4): 234-242, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-892737

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: evaluar la mejor evidencia actual disponible para generar recomendaciones, con respecto a la efectividad y seguridad del uso de tigeciclina en adultos con infección intraabdominal complicada. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura, seleccionando los metaanálisis y experimentos clínicos controlados, los cuales se valora- ron utilizando la herramienta SIGN, con el fin de generar tablas de evidencia según GRADE de los estudios de tigeciclina en la indicación infección intraabdominal complicada, para posteriormente utilizar un proceso Delphi modificado para calificar las diferentes recomendaciones con el fin de generar un consenso. Resultados: se analizaron los resultados basados en la revisión sistemática de la literatura en la que se incluyeron 5 metaanálisis que cumplieron los criterios de selección comparando tigeciclina con otros tratamientos antibióticos en infección intraabdominal complicada; de los cuales, 2711 pacientes recibieron al menos una dosis del antibiótico (1382 tigeciclina y 1389 el comparador) y en los que no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los desenlaces evaluados al comparar tigeciclina con otros antibióticos. Conclusión: en pacientes adultos con infección intraabdominal complicada, se considera que el uso de tigeciclina en monoterapia es equivalente en eficacia y seguridad a otras opciones terapéuticas antimicrobianas y no representa un exceso de mortalidad en comparación a otros antibióticos


Abstract Objective: To assess current best evidence available to generate recommendations regarding the effectiveness and safety of tigecycline use in adults with complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAIs). Materials and methods: We conducted a systematic review of published meta-analysis that evaluated tigecycline compared to other antimicrobials and included the indication of cIAI. Quality of the evidence was evaluated by using the SIGN tool (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) according to GRADE, and final recommendations were assessed by a modified Delphi Method in order to develop a consensus. Results: Five meta-analyzes met the selection criteria comparing tigecycline with other antibiotic treatments in complicated intra-abdominal infection. Five randomized clinical trials comprised in these meta-analysis included 2711 patients that received at least one dose of antibiotic (1382 tigecycline and 1389 the comparator regimen), We found no statistically significant differences in the evaluated outcomes by comparing tigecycline with other antibiotics, including clinical and microbiologic efficacy, safety and drug related mortality Conclusion: In adult patients with cIAIs, the use of tigecycline as monotherapy is equivalent in effectiveness to other antimicrobial therapeutic options and does not represent an increase in mortality compared to other antibiotics.

20.
Infectio ; 21(4): 255-266, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-892740

RESUMO

Abstract Congenital transmission of Chagas disease has not been extensively studied in Colombia, and there are no standardized processes in the health system regarding the specific diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of this disease. To generate recommendations on congenital Chagas disease and Chagas in women of childbearing age in Colombia, a consensus of experts was developed. An extensive literature search through the Medline database was carried out using the MeSH terms: «Chagas disease/congenital¼, «prevention and control¼, «diagnosis¼, «therapeutics¼ and «pregnancy¼. Appropriate abstracts were selected and the full texts were analyzed. The relevant information was synthesized, classified, and organized into tables and figures and was presented to a panel of experts, which was composed of 30 professionals from various fields. Based on the Delphi methodology, three rounds of consultation were conducted. The first and second rounds were based on electronic questionnaires that measured the level of consensus of each question among the participants. The third round was based on a face-to-face discussion focusing on those questions without consensus in the previous consultations. The evidence was adapted to national circumstances on a case-by-case basis, and the content the final document was approved. These recommendations are proposed for use in routine medical practice by health professionals in Colombia.


Resumen La transmisión congénita de la enfermedad de Chagas ha sido poco estudiada en Colombia y existen pocos procedimientos rutinarios en el sistema de salud para el manejo de esta enfermedad. Por ello se desarrolló un consenso de expertos dirigido a generar recomendaciones de diagnóstico y tratamiento de Chagas con- génito y orientación a mujeres en edad fértil. Con ese propósito se realizó una búsqueda extensiva de la literatura, empleando una combinación de términos Mes (Chagas, Chagas congénito, prevención, control, diagnóstico, tratamiento y embarazo) para reflejar el estado del arte en cada tema de interés. Después de ello, se leyeron los resúmenes y aquellos seleccionados para análisis del texto completo. La literatura relevante se sintetizo, clasifico y organizo en tablas y se presentó al panel de expertos, el cual estaba constituido por 30 profesionales en diferentes áreas. Mediante la metodología Delphi se realizaron 2 rondas de cuestionarios virtuales y una reunión presencial en los cuales se evaluaron los niveles de acuerdo entre los participantes. Los puntos con falta de consenso durante las 2 rondas virtuales se expusieron durante las mesas de discusión en la ronda presencial. La evidencia utilizada se adaptó a las particularidades nacionales según el caso y se aprobó el contenido del documento final. Se propone que estas recomendaciones sean usadas por profesionales de la salud en Colombia.

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