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1.
Infectio ; 23(4): 318-346, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1019863

RESUMO

Resumen Las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (IPTB) representan la tercera causa de consulta por enfermedad infecciosas a los servicios médicos, después de las infecciones respiratorias y urinarias. Se presenta una guía de práctica clínica (GPC) con 38 recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia, graduadas bajo el sistema SIGN, para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de pacientes adultos con IPTB en el contexto colombiano, posterior a un proceso de adaptación de GPC publicadas y la búsqueda sistemática y síntesis de literatura para la actualización de la evidencia científica. Además, se realizó un consenso de expertos para la evaluación de las potenciales barreras para la implementación de las recomendaciones y la evaluación del grado de recomendación en el contexto local.


Abstract Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) represent the third leading cause of infectious disease consultation for medical services after respiratory and urinary tract infections. This document generates a clinical practice guideline with 38 recommendations based on evidence, graduated under the SIGN system for the diagnosis and treatment for SSTI infections in adult patients in Colombia, following a process of adaptation of guidelines published, and the systematic search and synthesis of literature for the updating of scientific evidence. In addition, a consensus of experts was made for the evaluation of the potential barriers for the implementation of the recommendations and the evaluation of the degree of recommendation in the local context.

2.
Biomedica ; 39: 5-9, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529844
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(4): 507-513, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-983960

RESUMO

Introducción. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) causa infecciones graves de la piel y los tejidos blandos en los hospitales y, en los últimos años, en la comunidad. El tedizolid es una nueva oxazolidinona cuya potencia in vitro ha demostrado ser mayor que la del linezolid frente a este microorganismo. Objetivo. Conocer la actividad antimicrobiana del tedizolid y de algunos antibióticos de comparación en aislamientos de SARM causante de infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos en hospitales de Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio multicéntrico prospectivo y descriptivo a lo largo de doce meses en siete hospitales de tercer nivel de Colombia. Se recolectaron aislamientos de SARM de pacientes adultos con infección de piel y tejidos blandos. Se determinó la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) mediante la técnica de ETEST® (bioMérieux) del tedizolid, el linezolid, la vancomicina, la daptomicina, el trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y la clindamicina. Resultados. Se obtuvieron aislamientos de SARM de 102 pacientes, de los cuales 56 (54,9 %) eran hombres; el promedio de edad fue de 46,8 años. La infección tuvo origen en la comunidad en 77 casos (75,4 %). El tipo de muestra que predominó fue el absceso (69 pacientes: 67,6 %). Todos los aislamientos fueron sensibles a tedizolid, linezolid, daptomicina, trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y vancomicina. La actividad in vitro del tedizolid fue mayor que la del linezolid. Los intervalos de la CIM del tedizolid oscilaron entre 0,125 µg/ml y 0,5 µg/ml en tanto que los del linezolid fluctuaron entre 1 µg/m y 2 µg/ml. Conclusiones. Las cepas circulantes de SARM en Colombia presentaron una gran sensibilidad al tedizolid, por lo cual sería una alternativa terapéutica para las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos en nuestro medio.


Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe skin and soft tissue infections in hospitals and, more recently, in the community. Tedizolid is a new second-generation oxazolidinone derivative having greater in vitro potency than linezolid against this type of microorganism. Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of tedizolid and other comparator antibiotics in MRSA isolates causing skin and soft tissue infections in Colombian hospitals. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-center descriptive study in seven tertiary-level hospitals in Colombia along a 12-month period. MRSA isolates were collected from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. Tedizolid, linezolid, vancomycin, daptomycin, trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by ETEST® (bioMérieux). Results: MRSA isolates were obtained from 102 patients with an average age of 46.8 years of whom 56 (54.9%) were men. Infection was community-acquired in 77 cases (75.4%). Abscess-related samples predominated (69 patients: 67.6%). All isolates were susceptible to tedizolid, linezolid, daptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Tedizolid had greater in vitro activity than linezolid. Tedizolid MIC intervals ranged from 0.125 µg/mL to 0.5 µg/mL while those of linezolid ranged from 1µg/mL to 2µg/mL. Conclusions: MRSA strains circulating in Colombia are highly susceptible to tedizolid and can be considered a therapeutic alternative for hospitals and/or community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Colômbia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles , Oxazolidinonas
5.
Infectio ; 22(2): 94-98, abr.-jun. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892759

RESUMO

Resumen Describir algunos conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de médicos en 3 ciudades colombianas con respecto a la prescripción de antibióticos. Se realizó una encuesta sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de la prescripción de antibióticos en médicos asistentes a 3 conferencias científicas de la Asociación Colombiana de Infectología en Febrero de 2008. La encuesta fue anónima e individual. Los resultados se analizaron usando Excel 2007 y STATA 2000. Se realizaron 96 encuestas a 29 médicos generales y 67 médicos especialistas. Entre el 29,2% y el 67,42% tienen conocimientos equivocados respecto a la prescripción de antibióticos. El 97,4% de los médicos encuestados considera que la venta de antibióticos debe realizarse únicamente bajo prescripción médica. La mayoría de los encuestados reconoce limitaciones del intervalo de dosificación y de la seguridad para la prescripción de antibióticos. El 60% se mostró en desacuerdo con la aplicación de guías de otros países en nuestros medio y el 76% de los consideran que los infectólogos aportan al manejo clínico de los pacientes. El 72% de los encuestados reportó tener apoyo de un infectólogo y en su institución existen estrategias de restricción de uso de antibióticos, refieren además utilizar asilamiento de contacto frente a organismos multiresistentes. Las respuestas no son significativamente diferentes de acuerdo a los años de experiencia. Los médicos reportaron en su mayoría prácticas conservadoras y racionales del uso de antibióticos aunque algunas limitaciones en el conocimiento farmacológico de los mismos.


Abstract Describe knowledge, attittudes and, practices about antibiotic use in Colombian physicians from three different cities. We applied a voluntary survey about knowledge, attittudes and practices about antibiotic prescription at three scientific meetings of the Asociacion Colombiana de Infectología, on February 2008. The survey was anonimous and individual. The results were analyzed using Excel 2007 and STATA 2000. We analyzed 96 surveys, 29 from general practitioners and 67 medical specialists. Physicians had wrong knowledge about antibiotic use between 29,2% and 67,42%. Most physicians (97.4%) considered the antibiotics have to be sold only under medical prescription. Many physicians recognized having limited knowledge about antibiotic dosing interval and security. 60% physicians disagreed with the application of guidelines from other countries in our enviroment and 76% physician consider the infectious disease experts contribute to clinical management of patients. Physicians reported having support from an infectious disease expert on 72%, and had strategies to restrict the use of some antibiotics, likecontact isolation when multi-resistant organisms had been suspected. There were not differences between answers according to years of experience. Several physcians reported conservative practices and rational antibiotic use with limited knowledge about antibiotic pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

6.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 4(2)2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561795

RESUMO

Data with respect to the epidemiological situation of fungal diseases in Colombia is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study is to estimate the burden of fungal infections. A population projection for 2017 from the Colombian Department for National Statistics was used, as well as official information from the Ministry of Health and National Institute of Health. A bibliographical search for Colombian data on mycotic diseases and population at risk (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV infection/AIDS, cancer, and transplant patients) was done. The Colombian population for 2017 was estimated at 49,291,609 inhabitants, and the estimated number of fungal infections for Colombia in 2017 was between 753,523 and 757,928, with nearly 600,000 cases of candidiasis, 130,000 cases of aspergillosis, and 16,000 cases of opportunistic infection in HIV, affecting around 1.5% of the population. In conclusion, fungal infections represent an important burden of disease for the Colombian population. Different clinical, epidemiological, and developmental scenarios can be observed in which fungal infections occur in Colombia.

8.
Am J Infect Control ; 46(2): 180-185, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28947210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite absence of evidence, in practice, asymptomatic bacteriuria is perceived as a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) among patients with cardiac surgery. We aimed to identify whether an association exists between the preoperative presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria or urinary tract infection and SSI in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. METHODS: This is an analytical study with a retrospective cohort of patients undergoing coronary revascularization or valve replacement surgery. We identified cases of bacteriuria, urinary tract infection, and cardiovascular SSI and adjusted the results according to exposure to antibiotics and known risk factors for SSI using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 840 patients were included in the study, of whom 33 (3.9%) had asymptomatic bacteriuria and 13 (1.5%) had urinary tract infections. The incidence of SSI was 9.5% (80 patients), with 2.3% of cases having mediastinitis. In the multivariate analysis, asymptomatic bacteriuria (relative risk, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-2.56; P = .74) and urinary tract infection (relative risk, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-10.69; P = .20) were not risk factors for SSI. Traditional risk factors were found to increase the risk of SSI. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of bacteriuria is not a risk factor for presenting SSI in cardiovascular surgery. Screening with urinalysis or urine culture would not be recommended for patients undergoing cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Bacteriúria/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Biomedica ; 38(4): 507-513, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653864

RESUMO

Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe skin and soft tissue infections in hospitals and, more recently, in the community. Tedizolid is a new second-generation oxazolidinone derivative having greater in vitro potency than linezolid against this type of microorganism. Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of tedizolid and other comparator antibiotics in MRSA isolates causing skin and soft tissue infections in Colombian hospitals. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-center descriptive study in seven tertiary-level hospitals in Colombia along a 12-month period. MRSA isolates were collected from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. Tedizolid, linezolid, vancomycin, daptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by ETEST® (bioMérieux). Results: MRSA isolates were obtained from 102 patients with an average age of 46.8 years of whom 56 (54.9%) were men. Infection was community-acquired in 77 cases (75.4%). Abscess-related samples predominated (69 patients: 67.6%). All isolates were susceptible to tedizolid, linezolid, daptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Tedizolid had greater in vitro activity than linezolid. Tedizolid MIC intervals ranged from 0.125 µg/mL to 0.5 µg/mL while those of linezolid ranged from 1µg/mL to 2µg/mL. Conclusions: MRSA strains circulating in Colombia are highly susceptible to tedizolid and can be considered a therapeutic alternative for hospitals and/or community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colômbia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 35(5): 465-475, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724992

RESUMO

Bacterial resistance has increased in Latin America and the world, making research and creation of new antimicrobials capable of eradicating resistant microorganisms essential. A review of new cephalosporins and their combinations with a beta-lactamase inhibitor was conducted, collecting data on the spectrum, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile and clinical studies of the current indications for ceftaroline, and the combinations ceftazidime with avibactam and ceftolozane with tazobactam. The first one has activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (SCoN) and against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, therefore approved for use in community-acquired pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. Among the new combinations, ceftazidime, a third generation cephalosporin with antipseudomonal activity, associated with avibactam, a betalactamase inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of abdominal infections and complicated urinary infections. Finally, the combination of ceftolozane with tazobactam has comparable action to ceftazidime with avibactam due to its activity against Gram negative rods, and in combination with metronidazole they do not present inferiority to meropenem in intra-abdominal infections. The clinical studies are presented, as well as the potential indications and clinical scenarios for their use of this cephalosporins.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Cefalosporinas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Azabicíclicos/farmacologia , Compostos Azabicíclicos/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima/farmacologia , Ceftazidima/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tazobactam/farmacologia , Tazobactam/uso terapêutico
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 465-475, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-978059

RESUMO

Resumen La resistencia bacteriana se ha incrementado en América Latina y el mundo, por lo que se requiere investigación y creación de nuevos antimicrobianos capaces de erradicar a los microorganismos resistentes. Se realizó una revisión acerca de nuevas cefalosporinas y sus combinaciones con un inhibidor de β-lactamasas, recopilando información de espectro, farmacocinética, farmacodinamia y estudios clínicos de las indicaciones actuales para ceftarolina, ceftazidima/avibactam y ceftolozano/tazobactam. La primera, con actividad frente a Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa sensibles y resistentes a meticilina, y contra Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina; por lo tanto, aprobada para uso en neumonía bacteriana adquirida en comunidad e infecciones bacterianas de piel y tejidos blandos. Entre las nuevas combinaciones, ceftazidima, una cefalosporina de tercera generación con actividad anti-pseudomonas, asociada a avibactam, un inhibidor de β-lactamasas, ha demostrado efectividad en el tratamiento de infecciones abdominales e infecciones urinarias complicadas. Por último, la combinación ceftolozano y el conocido tazobactam presenta acción comparable a la combinación de ceftazidima y avibactam por su actividad contra bacilos gramnegativos y, en combinación con metronidazol no presenta inferioridad a meropenem en infecciones intra-abdominales. Se presentan los estudios clínicos y las potenciales indicaciones y escenarios de uso de estas cefalosporinas.


Bacterial resistance has increased in Latin America and the world, making research and creation of new antimicrobials capable of eradicating resistant microorganisms essential. A review of new cephalosporins and their combinations with a beta-lactamase inhibitor was conducted, collecting data on the spectrum, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile and clinical studies of the current indications for ceftaroline, and the combinations ceftazidime with avibactam and ceftolozane with tazobactam. The first one has activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (SCoN) and against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, therefore approved for use in community-acquired pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. Among the new combinations, ceftazidime, a third generation cephalosporin with antipseudomonal activity, associated with avibactam, a betalactamase inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of abdominal infections and complicated urinary infections. Finally, the combination of ceftolozane with tazobactam has comparable action to ceftazidime with avibactam due to its activity against Gram negative rods, and in combination with metronidazole they do not present inferiority to meropenem in intra-abdominal infections. The clinical studies are presented, as well as the potential indications and clinical scenarios for their use of this cephalosporins.

12.
Infectio ; 21(4): 223-233, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892736

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: evaluar la mejor evidencia actual disponible para generar recomendaciones con respecto a la efectividad y seguridad del uso de tigeciclina en adultos con infección de piel y tejidos blandos (IPTB). Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura, seleccionando los metaanálisis y experimentos clínicos controlados (ECCs), los cuales se valoraron utilizando la herramienta SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network.), con el fin de generar tablas de evidencia según GRADE de los estudios de tigeciclina en la indicación de IPTB, para posteriormente utilizar un proceso Delphi modificado para calificar las diferentes recomendaciones. Resultados: la revisión sistemática se incluyeron 9 metaanálisis que incluyeron 5 estudios clínicos aleatorizados con 1873 pacientes, y de ellos 952 asignados al brazo de tigeciclina, no mostró inferioridad frente a los comparadores en curación clínica (RR= 0.76 IC95% 0,57 - 1.03), curación microbiológica (RR= 0.92 IC95% 0,61 - 1.38), eventos adversos serios RR 1,41 (IC95%0,97 a 2,35), ni mortalidad RR 1,9 (IC95%0,84 a 4,3). La tigeciclina puede relacionarse con mayor frecuencia de eventos adversos leves de origen gastrointestinal. Conclusión: en pacientes adultos con IPTB, se considera que el uso de tigeciclina en monoterapia en pacientes no críticamente enfermos es equivalente en eficacia a otras opciones terapéuticas antimicrobianas. Se debe considerar especialmente como terapia de ajuste en pacientes con infecciones polimicrobianas.


Abstract Objective: To assess current best evidence available to generate recommendations regarding the effectiveness and safety of tigecycline use in adults with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Materials and methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted by selecting meta-analyzes and controlled clinical trials (CCTs), which were assessed using the SIGN tool (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) in order to generate evidence tables according to GRADE of studies of tigecycline in the SSTIs indication, and then using a modified Delphi Method to score the different recommendations. Results: Nine meta-analyzes were included compounded by five randomized clinical trials with a sample size of 1873 patients, where 952 patients were assigned to tigecycline. The group of patients with tigecycline showed no inferiority to the comparator in clinical cure (RR = 0.76 95% CI 0.57 - 1.03), microbiologic cure (RR = 0.92 95% CI 0.61 - 1.38), serious adverse events RR 1, 41 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.35) or mortality RR 1.9 (95% CI 0.84 to 4.3). Tigecycline may be related to increased frequency of minor adverse events of gastrointestinal origin. Conclusion: In adult patients with SSTIs, it is considered that the use of tigecycline in monotherapy in non-critically ill patients is equivalent in effectiveness to other antimicrobial treatment options. It should be especially considered as an adjustment therapy in patients with polymicrobial infections.

13.
Infectio ; 21(4): 234-242, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892737

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: evaluar la mejor evidencia actual disponible para generar recomendaciones, con respecto a la efectividad y seguridad del uso de tigeciclina en adultos con infección intraabdominal complicada. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura, seleccionando los metaanálisis y experimentos clínicos controlados, los cuales se valora- ron utilizando la herramienta SIGN, con el fin de generar tablas de evidencia según GRADE de los estudios de tigeciclina en la indicación infección intraabdominal complicada, para posteriormente utilizar un proceso Delphi modificado para calificar las diferentes recomendaciones con el fin de generar un consenso. Resultados: se analizaron los resultados basados en la revisión sistemática de la literatura en la que se incluyeron 5 metaanálisis que cumplieron los criterios de selección comparando tigeciclina con otros tratamientos antibióticos en infección intraabdominal complicada; de los cuales, 2711 pacientes recibieron al menos una dosis del antibiótico (1382 tigeciclina y 1389 el comparador) y en los que no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los desenlaces evaluados al comparar tigeciclina con otros antibióticos. Conclusión: en pacientes adultos con infección intraabdominal complicada, se considera que el uso de tigeciclina en monoterapia es equivalente en eficacia y seguridad a otras opciones terapéuticas antimicrobianas y no representa un exceso de mortalidad en comparación a otros antibióticos


Abstract Objective: To assess current best evidence available to generate recommendations regarding the effectiveness and safety of tigecycline use in adults with complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAIs). Materials and methods: We conducted a systematic review of published meta-analysis that evaluated tigecycline compared to other antimicrobials and included the indication of cIAI. Quality of the evidence was evaluated by using the SIGN tool (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) according to GRADE, and final recommendations were assessed by a modified Delphi Method in order to develop a consensus. Results: Five meta-analyzes met the selection criteria comparing tigecycline with other antibiotic treatments in complicated intra-abdominal infection. Five randomized clinical trials comprised in these meta-analysis included 2711 patients that received at least one dose of antibiotic (1382 tigecycline and 1389 the comparator regimen), We found no statistically significant differences in the evaluated outcomes by comparing tigecycline with other antibiotics, including clinical and microbiologic efficacy, safety and drug related mortality Conclusion: In adult patients with cIAIs, the use of tigecycline as monotherapy is equivalent in effectiveness to other antimicrobial therapeutic options and does not represent an increase in mortality compared to other antibiotics.

14.
Infectio ; 21(4): 255-266, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892740

RESUMO

Abstract Congenital transmission of Chagas disease has not been extensively studied in Colombia, and there are no standardized processes in the health system regarding the specific diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of this disease. To generate recommendations on congenital Chagas disease and Chagas in women of childbearing age in Colombia, a consensus of experts was developed. An extensive literature search through the Medline database was carried out using the MeSH terms: «Chagas disease/congenital¼, «prevention and control¼, «diagnosis¼, «therapeutics¼ and «pregnancy¼. Appropriate abstracts were selected and the full texts were analyzed. The relevant information was synthesized, classified, and organized into tables and figures and was presented to a panel of experts, which was composed of 30 professionals from various fields. Based on the Delphi methodology, three rounds of consultation were conducted. The first and second rounds were based on electronic questionnaires that measured the level of consensus of each question among the participants. The third round was based on a face-to-face discussion focusing on those questions without consensus in the previous consultations. The evidence was adapted to national circumstances on a case-by-case basis, and the content the final document was approved. These recommendations are proposed for use in routine medical practice by health professionals in Colombia.


Resumen La transmisión congénita de la enfermedad de Chagas ha sido poco estudiada en Colombia y existen pocos procedimientos rutinarios en el sistema de salud para el manejo de esta enfermedad. Por ello se desarrolló un consenso de expertos dirigido a generar recomendaciones de diagnóstico y tratamiento de Chagas con- génito y orientación a mujeres en edad fértil. Con ese propósito se realizó una búsqueda extensiva de la literatura, empleando una combinación de términos Mes (Chagas, Chagas congénito, prevención, control, diagnóstico, tratamiento y embarazo) para reflejar el estado del arte en cada tema de interés. Después de ello, se leyeron los resúmenes y aquellos seleccionados para análisis del texto completo. La literatura relevante se sintetizo, clasifico y organizo en tablas y se presentó al panel de expertos, el cual estaba constituido por 30 profesionales en diferentes áreas. Mediante la metodología Delphi se realizaron 2 rondas de cuestionarios virtuales y una reunión presencial en los cuales se evaluaron los niveles de acuerdo entre los participantes. Los puntos con falta de consenso durante las 2 rondas virtuales se expusieron durante las mesas de discusión en la ronda presencial. La evidencia utilizada se adaptó a las particularidades nacionales según el caso y se aprobó el contenido del documento final. Se propone que estas recomendaciones sean usadas por profesionales de la salud en Colombia.

15.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 24(4): 265-270, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-960240

RESUMO

Abstract Pyomyositis, defined as a suppurative muscle infection, is a rare entity that is classified as tropical or non-tropical according to the geographical region. The case of a patient with a history of severe tophaceous gouty arthritis, coming from tropical wet climate in Colombia, who presented with suggestive cellulitis, with a torpid evolution despite standard dual management. An associated abscess was documented, and initially abscessed cellulitis and septic arthritis were suspected, the latter was finally ruled out, once teh muscle origin of the abscess becames evident by means of computed tomography and ultrasonography. Intraoperatively, an abscess with fascia involvement and intramuscular tophaceous disease was observed. Surgical drainage and repeated washes were required. Carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated, requiring last-line Gouty arthritis antibiotic therapy for a prolonged period of time.


Resumen La piomiositis es una infección supurativa del músculo estriado, rara, que se clasifica según la región geográfica de presentación, en tropical y no tropical. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con antecedente de artritis gotosa tofácea severa, proveniente de zona tropical, quien comienza con cuadro sugestivo de celulitis, con evolución tórpida pese a manejo estándar dual; se documenta un absceso de ubicación no clara, sospechando en principio celulitis abscedada y artritis séptica, finalmente descartándose esta última y haciéndose evidente origen muscular del absceso por medio de tomografia computarizada y ultrasonografía. Quirúrgicamente se evidenció absceso con compromiso de fascia, enfermedad tofácea intramuscular; requirió drenaje quirúrgico y lavados, documentándose germen Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a carbapenémicos, requiriendo antibioticoterapia de última línea por un periodo prolongado.

16.
Biomedica ; 37(3): 353-360, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection is the most common pathology in diabetic patients, and an important determinant of morbidity and mortality among them. The increasing resistance of uropathogens acquired in the community to commonly used antibiotics is alarming. OBJECTIVE: To identify the profile of antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogens responsible for communityacquired infections among diabetic patients in hospitals in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a descriptive study in a subgroup of diabetic patients in the framework of a larger study in adults with urinary tract infection acquired in the community. Over one year, we collected Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus mirabilis isolates from nine hospitals in Colombia. Their susceptibility profile was determined using microbiological and molecular methods to establish the presence of extended-spectrum AmpC betalactamases and KPC carbapenemases. RESULTS: We collected 68 isolates (58 E. coli, nine Klebsiella spp. and one Proteus mirabilis). Four (6.9%) of the E. coli isolates expressed extended spectrum betalactamases, two (3.4%) of them belonged to the phylogenetic group B2 and to ST131 clone and expressed the TEM-1 and CTM-X-15 betalactamases. The AmpC phenotype was found in four (6.9%) of the E. coli isolates, three of which produced TEM-1 and CMY-2 betalactamases. One K. pneumoniae isolate expressed the KPC-3 carbapenemase. CONCLUSION: The presence of extended spectrum betalactamases and carbapenemases in uropathogens responsible for community-acquired infection was confirmed in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Adulto , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/enzimologia , Klebsiella/genética , Proteus mirabilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteus mirabilis/genética , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
17.
Infectio ; 21(3): 182-191, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892728

RESUMO

Resumen La búsqueda de estrategias para la disminución de la infección de sitio operatorio (ISO) es una prioridad, dado el impacto que ésta tiene en los resultados de la atención de los pacientes. Recientemente ha tomado gran relevancia en la prevención de la ISO, la preparación prequirúrgica de la piel del paciente como uno de los factores clave, en los que se puede intervenir y disminuir el riesgo. En los últimos años han aparecido revisiones exhaustivas dedicadas no solo a la comparación de las soluciones antisépticas, y técnica de aplicación, también acerca de la importancia del baño pre operatorio, uso de cintas y compresas quirúrgicas impregnadas con antisépticos y el recorte de cabello preoperatorio. En esta publicación se describen los hallazgos más importantes relacionados con la preparación antiséptica de la piel del paciente y se propone un protocolo con recomendaciones prácticas para ser implementado en las instituciones del país. Se incluyen recomendaciones basadas en niveles de evidencia sobre el uso de las soluciones antisépticas (yodopovidona, clorhexidina, clorhexidina mas alcohol, entre otras) con énfasis en las ventajas y desventajas de cada una de ellas.


Abstract The search for strategies for reduction of Surgical Site infection (SSI) is a priority, given the impact that infections have on the outcome of the patients. The preoperative patient skin antisepsis, has recently gained greater significance in the prevention of SSI, as one of the critical factors, which can be intervened and can reduce the risk of infection. In recent years, comprehensive investigations have been published not only dedicated to the comparison of antiseptic solutions, application techniques, but also about the importance of preoperative bathing, use of surgical tapes and dressings impregnated with antiseptics, and preoperative shaving. This review outlines the key findings related to the preoperative patient's skin antisepsis and offers a protocol with practical recommendations to be implemented in the institutions of our country. It provides evidence based recommendations about the use of antiseptic solutions (povidone iodine, chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine plus alcohol, etc.) with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each one.

18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(3): 453-460, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-888485

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción. La infección de las vías urinarias es la más frecuente en pacientes diabéticos, y es un factor determinante de la morbilidad y la mortalidad en este grupo de pacientes. El aumento de la resistencia de los microorganismos adquiridos en la comunidad a los antibióticos comúnmente utilizados para combatirla es alarmante. Objetivo. Determinar el perfil de sensibilidad a los antibióticos de los microorganismos responsables de infecciones urinarias adquiridas en la comunidad en pacientes diabéticos atendidos en algunos hospitales de Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo de un subgrupo de pacientes diabéticos en el marco de una investigación en adultos con infección de origen comunitario de las vías urinarias. Durante un año, se recolectaron aislamientos de Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. y Proteus mirabilis en nueve hospitales de Colombia y se determinó su perfil de sensibilidad mediante métodos microbiológicos y moleculares, para establecer la presencia de betalactamasas de espectro extendido del tipo AmpC y de carbapenemasas del tipo KPC. Resultados. Se recolectaron 68 aislamientos (58 de E. coli, nueve de Klebsiella spp. y uno de P. mirabilis). Cuatro (6,9 %) de los aislamientos de E. coli expresaron dichas betalactamasas, en dos (3,4 %) de ellos, pertenecientes al grupo filogenético B2 y al clon ST131, se detectaron las betalactamasas TEM-1 y CTM-X-15. En otros cuatro (6,9 %) aislamientos de E. coli se encontró el fenotipo AmpC, y en tres de ellos se produjeron las betalactamasas TEM-1 y CMY-2. Un aislamiento de K. pneumoniae expresó la carbapenemasa KPC-3. Conclusión. Se confirmó la presencia de cepas productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido y carbapenemasas en microorganismos responsables de infección urinaria adquirida en la comunidad en pacientes diabéticos.


Abstract Introduction: Urinary tract infection is the most common pathology in diabetic patients, and an important determinant of morbidity and mortality among them. The increasing resistance of uropathogens acquired in the community to commonly used antibiotics is alarming. Objective: To identify the profile of antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogens responsible for community-acquired infections among diabetic patients in hospitals in Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive study in a subgroup of diabetic patients in the framework of a larger study in adults with urinary tract infection acquired in the community. Over one year, we collected Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus mirabilis isolates from nine hospitals in Colombia. Their susceptibility profile was determined using microbiological and molecular methods to establish the presence of extended-spectrum AmpC betalactamases and KPC carbapenemases. Results: We collected 68 isolates (58 E. coli, nineKlebsiella spp. and oneProteus mirabilis). Four (6.9%) of the E. coli isolates expressed extended spectrum betalactamases,two (3.4%) of thembelonged to the phylogenetic group B2 andto ST131 clone and expressed the TEM-1 and CTM-X-15 betalactamases. The AmpC phenotype was found in four(6.9%) of the E. coli isolates, three of which producedTEM-1 and CMY-2 betalactamases. One K. pneumoniaeisolate expressed the KPC-3 carbapenemase. Conclusion: The presence of extended spectrum betalactamases and carbapenemases in uropathogens responsible for community-acquired infection was confirmed in diabetic patients.

19.
Infectio ; 21(2): 102-116, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892713

RESUMO

Resumen Como parte de la Guia de atencion integral para la prevencion, deteccion temprana y tratamiento de las complicaciones del embarazo, desarrollada y financiada por el Departamento de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion, Colciencias, y el Ministerio de Salud y Proteccion Social de Colombia, se seleccionó a la infeccion por Toxoplasma para el desarrollo de recomendaciones para su prevencion, diagnostico y tratamiento. La infeccion por Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) durante el embarazo puede resultar en graves complicaciones para el feto y dejar importantes secuelas al recien nacido. Se realizo una guia basada en la mejor evidencia disponible en la literatura cientifica, con especial pertinencia a la informacion colombiana. Un consenso de expertos en parasitologia, ginecologia, neonatologia e infectologia, tanto de adultos como pediatrica, desarrollo las recomendaciones. Se propone que las recomendaciones de esta guia de atencion integral sean utilizadas por los profesionales de salud de los programas de atencion del embarazo del pais con el fin de disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad atribuible a esta enfermedad. Se formulan recomendaciones especificas para el diagnostico desde el primer trimestre, consejos de prevencion en las mujeres no infectadas, identificacion de la infeccion del feto o del recien nacido y recomendaciones de tratamiento en estos escenarios.


Abstract Toxoplasma infection, an aspect included in the Integral Care Guidelines for prevention, early detection and treatment of complications during pregnancy developed and sponsored by the Department of Science, Technology and Innovation, Colciencias and the Ministry of Health and Social Protection; was selected to develop recommendations that may contribute to its prevention diagnostic and treatment. Guidelines were developed through systematic review of literature, two panels of evaluation, gradation of evidence: SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network), discussion panel with users and patients, external evaluation and socioeconomical evaluation of the impact of recommendations. The Toxoplasma gondii infection that occurs during pregnancy may cause serious complications for the fetus and important sequelae for the newborn. A clinical guideline based on the best available scientific evidence, with emphasis on Colombian references, was performed. Experts in parasitology, neonatology and infectious diseases (adult and pediatric) developed the recommendations. It is suggested that the recommendations included in this guideline be followed by healthcare professionals in pregnancy care programs nationwide, with the purpose of lowering the morbidity and mortality related to this disease. Specific recommendations for diagnosis during the first trimester of the pregnancy, recommendations for prevention in noninfected women, identification of fetal or newborn infection and recommendations for treatment in those given cases are included.

20.
Biomedica ; 37(1): 79-85, 2017 Jan 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527251

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lymphadenopathy is a frequent clinical finding in HIV-infected patients. The differential diagnosis includes infection, malignancy or reactive changes. Currently, there are no data on this topic in the region. OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of lymph node pathology in HIV-infected patients from the Hospital La María in Medellín, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of HIV-infected patients with lymphadenopathy who underwent excisional lymph node biopsy between June 2009 and October 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. The data were registered according to immune status, antiretroviral therapy and final diagnosis. RESULTS: The evaluation of 120 medical records revealed the following diagnosis distribution: 58% of the cases were attributable to infectious causes, 32.5% were attributable to reactive changes, 6.6% were attributable to neoplastic disease, and 2.5% were normal. The most frequent diagnosis was tuberculosis, which was found in 48.3% of the patients. The lymph node biopsy was useful for identifying additional opportunistic infections in different organs in 14.1% of the patients. CONCLUSION: A lymph node biopsy in HIV-infected patients is a useful aid in the diagnosis of serious neoplastic and infectious diseases and should be routinely performed in such patients with lymphadenopathy.


Assuntos
Biópsia/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Linfonodos/fisiologia , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico , Linfadenopatia/patologia , Tuberculose/patologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
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