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1.
Neurology ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate (1) the prevalence of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as mode of disease onset in a cohort of patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and (2) disease progression and prognosis in patients with MSA with RBD predating (pre-RBD) and following (post-RBD) disease onset. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all patients with a clinical diagnosis of MSA evaluated at least once a year during the disease course. Type of onset was defined by the first reported motor or autonomic symptom/sign related to MSA. The occurrence of symptoms/signs and milestone of disease progression, and their latency from disease onset, were collected. Survival data were calculated. RBD was confirmed by video-polysomnography. RESULTS: Of a total of 158 patients, pre-RBD represented the mode of disease onset in 27% of patients, preceding disease onset according to the international criteria with a median of 3 (2-5) years. Comparing pre-RBD and post-RBD patients, the first group showed an increased prevalence of autonomic onset of disease, a reduced prevalence of parkinsonism, an earlier onset of stridor, pyramidal signs, symptomatic orthostatic hypotension, urinary dysfunction, severe dysphagia, and wheelchair dependency. The risk of death was higher in patients with pre-RBD. CONCLUSIONS: In our MSA cohort, RBD represented the most frequent mode of disease presentation. A more rapid progression of disease was observed in the pre-RBD group. These findings suggested a careful assessment of sleep disorders to early recognize RBD and a closer follow-up of autonomic dysfunction and stridor in patients with pre-RBD.

2.
Neurol Sci ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Bologna motor and non-motor prospective study on parkinsonism at onset (BoProPark) was designed to prospectively characterize motor and non-motor features in patients with a progressive neurodegenerative disease starting with parkinsonism since early disease stage and to investigate their diagnostic and prognostic role in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease from atypical parkinsonisms. The aim of this paper is to describe the method and population of the BoProPark study. METHODS: Patients referred to our Department with parkinsonism within 3 years from motor onset were recruited. Secondary causes of parkinsonism were excluded. Each patient underwent a comprehensive evaluation of motor and non-motor symptoms, assessed by means of quantitative, objective instrumental tests in addition to scales and questionnaires. The evaluations were performed at enrolment (T0), after 16 months (T1) and after 5 years (T2). Diagnoses were made according to consensus criteria. RESULTS: We recruited 150 patients, with mean age 61.5 ± 9.8 years and mean disease duration 20 ± 9 months. H&Y stage was 1 in 47.3% and 2 in 46.7% of cases. Mean UPDRS-III was 17.7 ± 9.2. Fifty-four patients were on dopaminergic treatment with median levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) of 200 mg. CONCLUSIONS: We expect that the prospective nature of the BoProPark study as well as the comprehensive, instrumental evaluation of motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with parkinsonism will provide important new insights for both clinical practice and research. Our data could be used for comparison with other cohorts and shared with national and international collaborators to develop new innovative projects.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126124

RESUMO

Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by a clear beneficial motor response to levodopa (LD) treatment. However, with disease progression and longer LD exposure, drug-related motor fluctuations usually occur. Recognition of the individual relationship between LD concentration and its effect may be difficult, due to the complexity and variability of the mechanisms involved. This work proposes an innovative procedure for the automatic estimation of LD pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics parameters, by a biologically-inspired mathematical model. An original issue, compared with previous similar studies, is that the model comprises not only a compartmental description of LD pharmacokinetics in plasma and its effect on the striatal neurons, but also a neurocomputational model of basal ganglia action selection. Parameter estimation was achieved on 26 patients (13 with stable and 13 with fluctuating LD response) to mimic plasma LD concentration and alternate finger tapping frequency along four hours after LD administration, automatically minimizing a cost function of the difference between simulated and clinical data points. Results show that individual data can be satisfactorily simulated in all patients and that significant differences exist in the estimated parameters between the two groups. Specifically, the drug removal rate from the effect compartment, and the Hill coefficient of the concentration-effect relationship were significantly higher in the fluctuating than in the stable group. The model, with individualized parameters, may be used to reach a deeper comprehension of the PD mechanisms, mimic the effect of medication, and, based on the predicted neural responses, plan the correct management and design innovative therapeutic procedures.

4.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176656

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of screening older adults attending general medical practice for features suggesting prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD). Four general practitioners recruited 392 subjects aged ≥60 years, attending their primary clinics. A self-administered questionnaire collected information on history of probable rapid eye movements sleep behavior disorder (pRBD), constipation, risk markers for PD, and on subjective cognitive function. Olfactory function was tested. Constipation (27.8%), and hyposmia (19.9%), but not pRBD (4.3%), were more prevalent with age. Further supporting the feasibility of a longitudinal study, 299 subjects agreed to be followed.

6.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 17(1): 7, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gait disturbances are typical of persons with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) without signs distinctive from other neurodegenerative and vascular conditions. Cerebrospinal fluid tap-test (CSF-TT) is expected to improve the motor performance of iNPH patients and is a prognostic indicator in their surgical management. This observational prospective study aims to determine which spatio-temporal gait parameter(s), measured during instrumented motor tests, and clinical scale(s) may provide a relevant contribution in the evaluation of motor performance pre vs. post CSF-TT on iNPH patients with and without important vascular encephalopathy. METHODS: Seventy-six patients (20 with an associated vascular encephalopathy) were assessed before, and 24 and 72 h after the CSF-TT by a timed up and go test (TUG) and an 18 m walking test (18 mW) instrumented using inertial sensors. Tinetti Gait, Tinetti Balance, Gait Status Scale, and Grading Scale were fulfilled before and 72 h after the CSF-TT. Stride length, cadence and total time were selected as the outcome measures. Statistical models with mixed effects were implemented to determine the relevant contribution to response variables of each quantitative gait parameter and clinical scales. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: From baseline to 72 h post CSF-TT patients improved significantly by increasing cadence in 18 mW and TUG (on average of 1.7 and 2.4 strides/min respectively) and stride length in 18 mW (on average of 3.1 cm). A significant reduction of gait apraxia was reflected by modifications in double support duration and in coordination index. Tinetti Gait, Tinetti Balance and Gait Status Scale were able to explain part of the variability of response variables not covered by instrumental data, especially in TUG. Grading Scale revealed the highest affinity with TUG total time and cadence when considering clinical scales alone. Patients with iNPH and an associated vascular encephalopathy showed worst performances compared to pure iNPH but without statistical significance. Gait improvement following CSF-TT was comparable in the two groups. Overall these results suggest that, in order to augment CSF-TT accuracy, is key to assess the gait pattern by analyzing the main spatio-temporal parameters and set post evaluation at 72 h. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Approved by ethics committee: CE 14131 23/02/2015.

9.
Neurology ; 93(14): 630-639, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570638

RESUMO

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a combination of autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia, and parkinsonism. Laryngeal stridor is an additional feature for MSA diagnosis, showing a high diagnostic positive predictive value, and its early occurrence might contribute to shorten survival. A consensus definition of stridor in MSA is lacking, and disagreement persists about its diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. An International Consensus Conference among experts with methodological support was convened in Bologna in 2017 to define stridor in MSA and to reach consensus statements for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Stridor was defined as a strained, high-pitched, harsh respiratory sound, mainly inspiratory, occurring only during sleep or during both sleep and wakefulness, and caused by laryngeal dysfunction leading to narrowing of the rima glottidis. According to the consensus, stridor may be recognized clinically by the physician if present at the time of examination, with the help of a witness, or by listening to an audio recording. Laryngoscopy is suggested to exclude mechanical lesions or functional vocal cord abnormalities related to different neurologic conditions. If the suspicion of stridor needs confirmation, drug-induced sleep endoscopy or video polysomnography may be useful. The impact of stridor on survival and quality of life remains uncertain. Continuous positive airway pressure and tracheostomy are both suggested as symptomatic treatment of stridor, but whether they improve survival is uncertain. Several research gaps emerged involving diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Unmet needs for research were identified.


Assuntos
Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/diagnóstico , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/fisiopatologia , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/terapia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Headache Pain ; 20(1): 92, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic migraine is a disabling condition that is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated. In this narrative review, we discuss the future of chronic migraine management in relation to recent progress in evidence-based pharmacological treatment. FINDINGS: Patients with chronic migraine require prophylactic therapy to reduce the frequency of migraine attacks, but the only currently available evidence-based prophylactic treatment options for chronic migraine are topiramate and onabotulinumtoxinA. Improved prophylactic therapy is needed to reduce the high burden of chronic migraine in Italy. Monoclonal antibodies that target the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway of migraine pathogenesis have been specifically developed for the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine. These anti-CGRP/R monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated good efficacy and excellent tolerability in phase II and III clinical trials, and offer new hope to patients who are currently not taking any prophylactic therapy or not benefitting from their current treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of chronic migraine is a dynamic and rapidly advancing area of research. New developments in this field have the potential to improve the diagnosis and provide more individualised treatments for this condition. Establishing a culture of prevention is essential for reducing the personal, social and economic burden of chronic migraine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Topiramato/uso terapêutico
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466374

RESUMO

Humans are increasingly aware that their fate will depend on the wisdom they apply in interacting with the ecosystem. Its health is defined as the condition in which the ecosystem can deliver and continuously renew its fundamental services. A healthy ecosystem allows optimal interactions between humans and the other biotic/abiotic components, and only in a healthy ecosystem can humans survive and efficiently reproduce. Thus, both the human and ecosystem health should be considered together in view of their interdependence. The present article suggests that this relationship could be considered starting from the Hippocrates (460 BC-370 BC) work "On Airs, Waters, and Places" to derive useful medical and philosophical implications for medicine which is indeed a topic that involves scientific as well as philosophical concepts that implicate a background broader than the human body. The brain-body-ecosystem medicine is proposed as a new more complete approach to safeguarding human health. Epidemiological data demonstrate that exploitation of the environment resulting in ecosystem damage affects human health and in several instances these diseases can be detected by modifications in the heart-brain interactions that can be diagnosed through the analysis of changes in heart rate variability.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Ecossistema , Saúde Holística , Corpo Humano , Humanos
12.
J Neurol Sci ; 405: 116421, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is considered one of the prodromal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) along with sleep disorders, hyposmia and constipation. Prodromal symptoms refer to the stage wherein early motor symptoms and signs allowing a diagnosis of PD are not yet present. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the use of antidepressants, as indirect measure of depression, and subsequent PD onset, clinically diagnosed, in the Local Health Trust of Bologna, Italy. METHODS: Historical cohort study with use of antidepressants as exposure and PD onset as outcome. The cohort considered consisted of inhabitants of Bologna aged ≥35 years in 2005; those who had used antidepressants in the previous 3 years were excluded. Subjects were followed up from 2006 and until PD onset, migration out of Bologna, death or end of the study period (2017), whichever came first. "The ParkLink Bologna" system was used to detect disease onset. "ParkLink Bologna" is a research study including patients with a clinical diagnosis of PD residing in Bologna. Residents that used antidepressants for at least 180 consecutive days within 1 year were considered exposed. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models, using exposure as time-dependent variable and adjusting for potential confounders: age, gender, use of medical care and comorbidities. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2017 199,093 person-years were exposed and 4,286,470 not exposed. Fifty-one subjects with PD were identified in the exposed group and 556 subjects in the non-exposed showing an association of adjusted HR = 1.7 (CI 1.3-2.3). The association was stronger for males (HR 2.2, CI 1.5-3.2) compared to females (HR 1.2, CI 0.8-1.9), for subjects ≤65 years of age (HR 2.4, CI 1.6-3.6) vs. >65 years (HR 1.3, CI 0.8-1.9) and for those with less comorbidities. Age and gender were confounders in the associations between antidepressant use and PD onset. CONCLUSIONS: The use of antidepressants as indirect measure of depression is associated with the subsequent development of PD. Our findings confirm that depression may precede the onset of motor symptoms in PD. The association is stronger for younger subjects, who are males and with fewer comorbidities.

13.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 611, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258465

RESUMO

Studies of functional neurosurgery and electroencephalography in Parkinson's disease have demonstrated abnormally synchronous activity between basal ganglia and motor cortex. Functional neuroimaging studies investigated brain dysfunction during motor task or resting state and primarily have shown altered patterns of activation and connectivity for motor areas. L-dopa administration relatively normalized these functional alterations. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of L-dopa administration on functional connectivity in early-stage PD, as revealed by simultaneous recording of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) data. Six patients with diagnosis of probable PD underwent EEG-fMRI acquisitions (1.5 T MR scanner and 64-channel cap) before and immediately after the intake of L-dopa. Regions of interest in the primary motor and sensorimotor regions were used for resting state fMRI analysis. From the EEG data, weighted partial directed coherence was computed in the inverse space after the removal of gradient and cardioballistic artifacts. fMRI results showed that the intake of L-dopa increased functional connectivity within the sensorimotor network, and between motor areas and both attention and default mode networks. EEG connectivity among regions of the motor network did not change significantly, while regions of the default mode network showed a strong tendency to increase their outflow toward the rest of the brain. This pilot study provided a first insight into the potentiality of simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisitions in PD patients, showing for both techniques the analogous direction of increased connectivity after L-dopa intake, mainly involving motor, dorsal attention and default mode networks.

14.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 66: 117-124, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358442

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a complex and often misdiagnosed syndrome, whose major challenge is to identify which patients will benefit from surgery. Previous studies reported a variability in positive surgery response. The role of tap test(TT) in screening patients suitable for shunting is controversial. The primary aim of this study was to describe the clinical/instrumental features and their longitudinal progression after surgery in iNPH patients. Secondarily, we aimed to investigate the response of the three iNPH domains and the best time of outcome assessment after TT. METHODS: Patients compatible with iNPH underwent a 3-T-MRI and an inpatients program with TT including standardized clinical evaluations, neuropsychological assessments and instrumental gait analysis pre- and after-(24-h and 72-h) TT. The multidisciplinary team selected candidates for surgery. Patients were evaluated 6- and 12-months after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 154 consecutive patients were included from 2015 to 2018, 76 with an iNPH diagnosis (43 underwent surgery, 35 were evaluated after 6-months). Clinical and instrumented quantitative gait measures and urinary symptoms improved over time along with some neuropsychological functions. Concerning pre- and post-TT analyses, the three iNPH domains showed a different response after TT, the delayed motor assessment was more appropriate than the early one and the instrumental measures highlighted the motor improvement. CONCLUSION: iNPH patients improved after surgery, when accurately selected. A multidisciplinary team focused on this disease and a standardized protocol helped in achieving a correct diagnosis and management of iNPH. Our results could impact the management of this disease.

15.
Neurol Sci ; 40(11): 2365-2370, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anger is involved in the emotional experience of pain. Individuals with migraine are more likely to hold their anger-in than controls. However, only one study evaluated anger in cluster headache (CH). The objective is to compare anger between migraine and CH patients. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five migraine and 108 CH patients completed the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2), composed of 7 subscales. State Anger measures the intensity of the individual's angry feelings at the time of testing. Trait Anger evaluates general predisposition to become angry. Anger Expression Out and Anger Expression In measure the extent to which anger could be overtly expressed or suppressed. Anger Control Out and Anger Control In evaluate how individual try to control the outward or inward expression of anger. Anger Expression Index is a general index. RESULTS: CH patients have higher median scores than migraine patients in State Anger (46 vs 44, p = 0.012). CH patients have lower scores in Anger Control Out (44 vs 50, p = 0.016). In subgroup analysis, CH patients during the cluster period have higher scores than chronic migraine patients in State Anger (47 vs 44, p = 0.035), while CH patients in headache-free period did not differ from migraine patients. CONCLUSIONS: Migraine and CH patients differ in state anger, indicating that CH patients experienced higher intensity of anger during the time of testing. These data add new information about emotional regulation in headache patients and could support the hypothesis of different emotional and behavioral responses to pain in migraine and CH patients.

16.
J Headache Pain ; 20(1): 74, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although migraine is a disabling neurological condition that causes important disability, it remains an area of underdiagnosis and undertreatment worldwide. The aim of this study was to depict the burden of the unmet medical needs in migraine treated with triptans in a large Italian population. METHODS: A 2-year longitudinal analysis of migraineurs with unmet medical needs on treatment with triptans was performed. The studied cohort consisted of subjects with ≥4 triptan dose units per month, selected from the general population These patients were stratified into: possible Low-Frequency Episodic Migraine (pLF-EM: 4-9 triptan dose units per month), possible High-Frequency Episodic Migraine (pHF-EM: 10-14 triptan dose units per month) and possible Chronic Migraine (pCM:> 14 triptan dose units per month). The first follow-up year was analysed to describe the use of preventive therapies, the second year to describe the ≥50% reduction in triptan use. RESULTS: Of 10,270,683 adults, 8.0 per 1000 were triptan users and, of these, 38.2% were migraineurs with unmet medical needs, corresponding to 3.1 per 1000 adults. By stratifying for the number of triptan dose units per month, 72.3% were affected by pLF-EM, 17.4% by pHF-EM, and 10.3% by pCM. In this cohort, 19.1% of individuals used oral preventive drugs and 0.1% botulinum toxin. Triptan use reduction was found in 22.3% individuals of the cohort, decreasing with the intensification of need levels (25.8% pLF-EM, 13.6% pHF-EM, 12.0% pCM). CONCLUSIONS: This real-life analysis underlined that the unmet medical needs concern a large part of patients treated with triptans and there is an undertreatment with preventive therapies whose benefit is insufficient, which may be due to the lack of effective preventive strategies, probably still reserved to severe patients. This study allows forecasting the actual impact of newest therapeutic strategies aimed to fill this gap.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Triptaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109007

RESUMO

Our previous findings indicate that A2A and D2 receptors are co-expressed on adult rat striatal astrocytes and on the astrocyte processes, and that A2A-D2 receptor⁻receptor interaction can control the release of glutamate from the processes. Functional evidence suggests that the receptor⁻receptor interaction was based on heteromerization of native A2A and D2 receptors at the plasma membrane of striatal astrocyte processes. We here provide biochemical and biophysical evidence confirming that receptor⁻receptor interaction between A2A and D2 receptors at the astrocyte plasma membrane is based on A2A-D2 heteromerization. To our knowledge, this is the first direct demonstration of the ability of native A2A and D2 receptors to heteromerize on glial cells. As striatal astrocytes are recognized to be involved in Parkinson's pathophysiology, the findings that adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors can form A2A-D2 heteromers on the astrocytes in the striatum (and that these heteromers can play roles in the control of the striatal glutamatergic transmission) may shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/química , Receptores de Dopamina D2/química
18.
Brain ; 142(7): 1905-1920, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143934

RESUMO

Allele-specific silencing by RNA interference (ASP-siRNA) holds promise as a therapeutic strategy for downregulating a single mutant allele with minimal suppression of the corresponding wild-type allele. This approach has been effectively used to target autosomal dominant mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms linked with aberrantly expanded trinucleotide repeats. Here, we propose ASP-siRNA as a preferable choice to target duplicated disease genes, avoiding potentially harmful excessive downregulation. As a proof-of-concept, we studied autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD) due to lamin B1 (LMNB1) duplication, a hereditary, progressive and fatal disorder affecting myelin in the CNS. Using a reporter system, we screened the most efficient ASP-siRNAs preferentially targeting one of the alleles at rs1051644 (average minor allele frequency: 0.45) located in the 3' untranslated region of the gene. We identified four siRNAs with a high efficacy and allele-specificity, which were tested in ADLD patient-derived fibroblasts. Three of the small interfering RNAs were highly selective for the target allele and restored both LMNB1 mRNA and protein levels close to control levels. Furthermore, small interfering RNA treatment abrogates the ADLD-specific phenotypes in fibroblasts and in two disease-relevant cellular models: murine oligodendrocytes overexpressing human LMNB1, and neurons directly reprogrammed from patients' fibroblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ASP-silencing by RNA interference is a suitable and promising therapeutic option for ADLD. Moreover, our results have a broad translational value extending to several pathological conditions linked to gene-gain in copy number variations.

20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(2): 723-733, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883350

RESUMO

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers have been extensively investigated in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) with the aim of a better differential diagnosis, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CSF biomarker changes and the relationship between biomarker levels and clinical variables are still a matter of debate. We evaluated CSF amyloid-ß (Aß)42 and Aß40, total (t)-tau, phosphorylated (p)-tau, total prion protein (t-PrP), and neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) in healthy controls (n = 50) and subjects with iNPH (n = 71), Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 60), and several other subtypes of dementia (n = 145). Patients with iNPH showed significantly lower levels of Aß42, Aß40, t-tau, and p-tau compared to controls. Similarly, t-PrP values showed a trend toward lower levels in iNPH patients than in controls. At variance, NfL levels were increased in iNPH as in all other neurodegenerative dementias, with no significant difference between "pure" iNPH cases and those with vascular or AD comorbidities. The Aß42/Aß40 ratio showed higher diagnostic value than Aß42 alone in the differential diagnosis between iNPH and AD. There were no clinically relevant associations between neuroimaging markers, scores at clinical and cognitive scales/tests, or rates of response at tap test and CSF biomarker results. In summary, the CSF biomarker signature in patients with iNPH is mainly characterized by reduced CSF concentrations of Aß- and tau-related proteins. The assessment of CSF neurodegenerative biomarker profile in iNPH, including the Aß42/Aß40 ratio, contributes to the differential diagnosis with AD and other dementias but shows poor associations with clinical variables.

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