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1.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427171

RESUMO

In the last decade, several clinical trials have investigated novel endocrine combinations for the first-line treatment of hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. Nevertheless, the use of combinations for the first-line treatment of bone-only disease is widely discussed as a result of its indolent natural history. We performed a comprehensive search of phase 3 randomized clinical trials published in the literature through September 2018. Our aim was to explore the role of the new endocrine approaches in bone-only metastatic breast cancer, suggesting a possible strategy for their selection. In particular, we evaluated the comparative risk of adverse event occurrence during these treatments. A total of 6 studies were deemed suitable for meta-analysis: the Monaleesa-2, Monaleesa-7, Monarch-3, Paloma-2, SWOG, and Alliance trials. Overall, the novel strategies were shown to improve progression-free survival in bone-only disease (hazard ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.86; P = .003). Combinations with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors improved progression-free survival (hazard ratio = 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.75; P < .001) with an acceptable toxicity profile. Abemaciclib was associated with increased anemia and gastrointestinal toxicity (especially diarrhea), whereas palbociclib was associated with increased leukopenia (but not neutropenia) compared to the other compounds. Increased aspartate aminotransferase levels were reported for both ribociclib and abemaciclib. The combination of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors and endocrine therapy represents an effective and well-tolerated approach for first-line treatment in bone-only disease settings. Because no direct comparison between the 3 cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors is available, the selection of the most appropriate treatment should be based on toxicity profile as well as patient preference and copathologies.

2.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428921

RESUMO

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a multifactorial disorder, often asymptomatic. The prevalence of OH increases with age, ranging from 5 to 11% among middle-aged patients to 55% in the frail elderly depending on age and associated comorbidities. OH is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed and little is known about its prevalence in hospitalized elderly patients. Our aims were: (1) to determine the prevalence of OH in a cohort of elderly patients hospitalized in two internal medicine wards in Italy; (2) and to describe their characteristics and symptoms. During the 5 months from March 1, 2017 to July 31, 2017, the first 85 consecutive patients (65 years or older) admitted in two internal medicine wards were enrolled. Patients were included in the study if they were able to get out of bed alone or with minor assistance, and able to stand up for at least 3 min. The study population comprised 85 patients with a mean age of 79.6 ( ± 7.2) years. OH was found in 64 (75.3%), occasional OH in 41 (48.2%), persistent OH in 23 (27.1%), and 21 (24.7%) patients had no OH. All patients had diastolic OH and 37 (57.8%) also systolic. Patients with persistent OH were oldest, with a higher percentage of renal failure. Twenty-six patients (40.6%) with OH reported symptoms. Dizziness was the most common symptom, especially after breakfast. No association was found between type of medications and risk of OH. Mortality risk was not statistically different between patients with or without OH 3 (p = 0.10) and 6 months after discharge (p = 0.18), but a trend was observed. We found that OH is very common in the patients admitted in the internal medicine wards, particularly diastolic OH. Close attention should be paid to OH and its symptoms, especially dizziness, in the oldest-old patients, and in patients with renal failure.

3.
Endocr Connect ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336362

RESUMO

Breast cancer in men is a rare and still poorly characterized disease. Inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 genes, as well as common polymorphisms, play a role in male breast cancer genetic predisposition. Male breast cancer is considered a hormone-dependent tumor specifically related to hyperestrogenism. Polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism pathways, such as CYP17A1 and CYP1B1, have been associated with breast cancer risk. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of CYP17A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in male breast cancer risk. A series of 597 male breast cancer cases and 1022 male controls, recruited within the Italian Multicenter Study on male breast cancer, was genotyped for CYP17A1 rs743572, CYP1B1 rs1056836 and rs1800440 polymorphisms by allelic discrimination real-time PCR with TaqMan probes. Associations with male breast cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression. No statistically significant associations between male breast cancer risk and the three analyzed polymorphisms emerged. Similar results were obtained also when BRCA1/2 mutational status was considered. No significant differences in the distribution of the genotypes according to estrogen receptor status emerged. In conclusion, our study, based on a large series of male breast cancer cases, is likely to exclude a relevant role of CYP17A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in male breast cancer predisposition. Overall, these results add new data to the increasing evidence that polymorphisms in these genes may not be associated with breast cancer risk.

4.
Neurol Sci ; 40(10): 2155-2161, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To generate and validate algorithms for the identification of individuals with dementia in the community setting, by the interrogation of administrative records, an inexpensive and already available source of data. METHODS: We collected and anonymized information on demented individuals 65 years of age or older from ten general practitioners (GPs) in the district of Brianza (Northern Italy) and compared this with the administrative data of the local health protection agency (Agenzia per la Tutela della Salute). Indicators of the disease in the administrative database (diagnosis of dementia in the hospital discharge records; use of cholinesterase inhibitors/memantine; neuropsychological tests; brain CT/MRI; outpatient neurological visits) were used separately and in different combinations to generate algorithms for the detection of patients with dementia. RESULTS: When used individually, indicators of dementia showed good specificity, but low sensitivity. By their combination, we generated different algorithms: I-therapy with ChEI/memantine or diagnosis of dementia at discharge or neuropsychological tests (specificity 97.9%, sensitivity 52.5%); II-therapy with ChEI/memantine or diagnosis of dementia at discharge or neuropsychological tests or brain CT/MRI or neurological visit (sensitivity 90.8%, specificity 70.6%); III-therapy with ChEI/memantine or diagnosis of dementia at discharge or neuropsychological tests or brain CT/MRIMRI and neurological visit (specificity 89.3%, sensitivity 73.3%). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that algorithms obtained from administrative data are not sufficiently accurate in classifying patients with dementia, whichever combination of variables is used for the identification of the disease. Studies in large patient cohorts are needed to develop further strategies for identifying patients with dementia in the community setting.

5.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 140: 67-72, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176273

RESUMO

The current availability of new Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP)-inhibitors for the treatment of ovarian cancer patients independently of the presence of a BRCA pathogenic variant, together with the validation of somatic test for the analysis of BRCA1/2 genes, involves the need to optimise the guidelines for BRCA testing. The AIOM-SIGU-SIBIOC-SIAPEC-IAP Italian Scientific Societies, in this position paper, recommend the implementation of BRCA testing with 2 main objectives: the first is the identification of ovarian cancer patients with higher probability of benefit from specific anticancer treatments (test for response to therapy); the second goal, through BRCA testing in the family members of ovarian cancer patients, is the identification of carriers of pathogenic variant, who have inheredited predisposition to cancer development (test for cancer risk). These individuals with increased risk of cancer, should be encouraged to participate in dedicated high-risk surveillance clinics and specific risk-reducing measures (primary and/or secondary prevention programs).


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Testes Genéticos/normas , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Sociedades Médicas , Bioquímica , Feminino , Genética , Humanos , Itália , Oncologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico
6.
Minerva Med ; 110(4): 301-319, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081309

RESUMO

The identification of a mutation in ovarian cancer (OC) predisposition genes plays a crucial role in the management of cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. In healthy carriers, the detection of a specific mutation might justify more intensive and personalised surveillance programmes, chemopreventive measures, and prophylactic surgeries. Moreover, the identification of a mutation in affected OC patients might provide fundamental knowledge of the tumour pathogenesis, thus guiding treatment choices. This is a comprehensive review of the molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of hereditary ovarian cancers, the clinical-pathological features of these tumours, and the potential implications for their prevention and clinical management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Vigilância da População , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Profiláticos
7.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1557-1578, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131967

RESUMO

The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(19): 1629-1637, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973790

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tamoxifen administered for 5 years at 20 mg/d is effective in breast cancer treatment and prevention, but toxicity has limited its broad use. Biomarker trials showed that 5 mg/d is not inferior to 20 mg/d in decreasing breast cancer proliferation. We hypothesized that a lower dose given for a shorter period could be as effective in preventing recurrence from breast intraepithelial neoplasia but have a lower toxicity than the standard dose. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter randomized trial of tamoxifen, 5 mg/d or placebo administered for 3 years after surgery in women with hormone-sensitive or unknown breast intraepithelial neoplasia, including atypical ductal hyperplasia and lobular or ductal carcinoma in situ. The primary end point was the incidence of invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ. RESULTS: Five hundred women 75 years of age or younger were included. After a median follow-up of 5.1 years (interquartile range, 3.9-6.3 years), there were 14 neoplastic events with tamoxifen and 28 with placebo (11.6 v 23.9 per 1,000 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.92; P = .02), which resulted in a 5-year number needed to treat of 22 (95% CI, 20 to 27). Tamoxifen decreased contralateral breast events by 75% (three v 12 events; hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.88; P = .02). Patient-reported outcomes were not different between arms except for a slight increase in frequency of daily hot flashes with tamoxifen (P = .02). There were 12 serious adverse events with tamoxifen and 16 with placebo, including one deep vein thrombosis and one stage I endometrial cancer with tamoxifen and one pulmonary embolism with placebo. CONCLUSION: Tamoxifen at 5 mg/d for 3 years can halve the recurrence of breast intraepithelial neoplasia with a limited toxicity, which provides a new treatment option in these disorders.

9.
Med Princ Pract ; 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Older people approaching the end of life are at high risk for adverse drug reactions. Approaching end of life should change the therapeutic aims, triggering a reduction in the number of drugs. The main aim of this study was to describe the preventive and symptomatic drug treatments prescribed to patients discharged from internal medicine and geriatric wards, with limited life expectancy. The secondary aim was to describe the potentially severe DDIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed Registry of Polytherapies Societa Italiana di Medicina Interna (REPOSI), a network of internal medicine and geriatric wards, to describe the drug therapy of patients discharged with limited life expectancy. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 55 patients discharged with limited life expectancy. Patients with at least one preventive medication that could be considered for de-prescription at end-of-life were significantly fewer from admission to discharge (30; 54.5% and 21; 38.2%, p = 0.02). ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, lipid-lowering drugs and clonidine were the most frequent potentially avoidable medications prescribed at discharge, followed by xanthine oxidase inhibitors and drugs to prevent fractures. Thirty-seven (67.3%) patients were also exposed to at least one potentially severe drug-drug interaction at discharge. CONCLUSION: Hospital discharge is associated with small reductions in the use of commonly prescribed preventive medications in patients discharged with limited life expectancy. Cardiovascular drugs are the most frequent potentially avoidable preventive medications. A consensus framework, or shared criteria for potentially inappropriate medication in elderly patients with limited life expectancy could be useful to further improve drug prescription.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 145(2): 390-400, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613976

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) in men is rare and genetic predisposition is likely to play a relevant role in its etiology. Inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 account for about 13% of all cases and additional genes that may contribute to the missing heritability need to be investigated. In our study, a well-characterized series of 523 male BC (MBC) patients from the Italian multicenter study on MBC, enriched for non-BRCA1/2 MBC cases, was screened by a multigene custom panel of 50 cancer-associated genes. The main clinical-pathologic characteristics of MBC in pathogenic variant carriers and non-carriers were also compared. BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants were detected in twenty patients, thus, a total of 503 non-BRCA1/2 MBC patients were examined in our study. Twenty-seven of the non-BRCA1/2 MBC patients were carriers of germline pathogenic variants in other genes, including two APC p.Ile1307Lys variant carriers and one MUTYH biallelic variant carrier. PALB2 was the most frequently altered gene (1.2%) and PALB2 pathogenic variants were significantly associated with high risk of MBC. Non-BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers were more likely to have personal (p = 0.0005) and family (p = 0.007) history of cancer. Results of our study support a central role of PALB2 in MBC susceptibility and show a low impact of CHEK2 on MBC predisposition in the Italian population. Overall, our data indicate that a multigene testing approach may benefit from appropriately selected patients with implications for clinical management and counseling of MBC patients and their family members.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(4): 821-828, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603906

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hormone receptors (HR) status in HER2 + breast cancer (BC) is a recognized stratification factor with relevant clinical implication. According to HR expression, HER2 + BC show different clinical characteristics, treatment sensitivity and prognosis. The interaction between HR and HER2 pathways remains incompletely understood. METHODS: Thirty-four HER2 + BC were included: 18 tumors with HER2+/HR + and 16 with HER2+/HR-. The expression of 770 genes and 13 molecular pathways were evaluated using Nanostring PanCancer Pathway panel performed on FFPE BC biopsies. RESULTS: Gene expression analysis identified 127 genes with significantly different expression between the two cohorts. 83% of these genes were overexpressed in HER2+/HR- cohort. Globally, 23% of them belonged to PI3K pathway (41 genes), 15% to Trascriptional regulation (26 genes) and 12% to MAPK (22 genes). Regarding pathway expression, PI3K, MAPK and NOTCH were significantly differently expressed between the two groups (p = 0.003, p = 0.0018 and p = 0.02, respectively), all of them were overexpressed in HER2+/HR- tumors. CONCLUSIONS: According to HR status, HER2 + tumors express different pathways profiles: the overexpression of PI3K, MAPK and NOTCH pathways in HER2+/HR- group could justify different survival outcomes and treatment sensitivity. The identification of tumor driver pathways may be a useful instrument for individualized pathway-directed therapies. Further clinical implications are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/biossíntese , Receptores Estrogênicos/biossíntese , Receptores de Progesterona/biossíntese , Biópsia , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/biossíntese , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Inclusão em Parafina , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is burdened by high mortality rate that increases with aging. Elderly patients may be exposed to multiple risk factors for GIB. We aimed at defining the impact of GIB in elderly patients. METHODS: Since 2008, samples of elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years) with multimorbidity admitted to 101 internal medicine wards across Italy have been prospectively enrolled and followed-up (REPOSI registry). Diagnoses of GIB, length of stay (LOS), mortality rate, and possible risk factors, including drugs, index of comorbidity (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale [CIRS]), polypharmacy, and chronic diseases were assessed. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models were computed. RESULTS: 3872 patients were included (mean age 79 ±â€¯7.5 years, F:M ratio 1.1:1). GIB was reported in 120 patients (mean age 79.6 ±â€¯7.3 years, F:M 0.9:1), with a crude prevalence of 3.1%. Upper GIB occurred in 72 patients (mean age 79.3 ±â€¯7.6 years, F:M 0.8:1), lower GIB in 51 patients (mean age 79.4 ±â€¯7.1 years, F:M 0.9:1), and both upper/lower GIB in 3 patients. Hemorrhagic gastritis/duodenitis and colonic diverticular disease were the most common causes. The LOS of patients with GIB was 11.7 ±â€¯8.1 days, with a 3.3% in-hospital and a 9.4% 3-month mortality rates. Liver cirrhosis (OR 5.64; CI 2.51-12.65), non-ASA antiplatelet agents (OR 2.70; CI 1.23-5.90), and CIRS index of comorbidity >3 (OR 2.41; CI 1.16-4.98) were associated with GIB (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A high index of comorbidity is associated with high odds of GIB in elderly patients. The use of non-ASA antiplatelet agents should be discussed in patients with multimorbidity.

13.
Drugs Aging ; 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a neuropsychiatric syndrome which occurs on average in one out of five hospitalized older patients. It is associated with a number of negative outcomes, including worsening of cognitive and functional status, increasing the burden on patients and caregivers, and elevated mortality. Medications with anticholinergic effect have been associated with the clinical severity of delirium symptoms in older medical inpatients, but this association is still debated. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the association between delirium and anticholinergic load according to the hypothesis that the cumulative anticholinergic burden increases the risk of delirium. METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of older patients admitted to the Acute Geriatric Unit (AGU) of the San Gerardo Hospital in Monza (Italy) between June 2014 and January 2015. Delirium was diagnosed on admission using the 4 'A's Test (4AT), a validated screening tool for delirium diagnosis, which has shown good sensitivity and specificity to detect this condition in elderly patients admitted to an AGU. Each patient's anticholinergic burden was measured with the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale, a ranking of anticholinergic medications to predict the risk of adverse effects on the central nervous system in older patients. RESULTS: Of the 477 eligible for the analysis, 151 (31.7%) had delirium. According to the ACB scale, 377 patients (79.0%) received at least one anticholinergic drug. Apart from quetiapine, which has a strong anticholinergic effect, the most commonly prescribed anticholinergic medications had potential anticholinergic effects but unknown clinically relevant cognitive effects according to the ACB scale (score 1). Patients with delirium had a higher anticholinergic burden than those without delirium, with a dose-effect relationship between total ACB score and delirium, which was significant at univariate analysis. A plateau risk was found in patients who scored 0-2, but patients who scored 3 or more had about three or six times the risk of delirium than those not taking anticholinergic drugs. The dose-response relationship was maintained in the multivariate model adjusted for age and sex [odds ratio (OR) 5.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10-16.60, p = 0.00007], while there was only a non-significant trend in the models adjusted also for dementia and Mini Nutritional Assessment (OR 2.73, 95% CI 0.85-8.77, p = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Anticholinergic drugs may influence the development of delirium due to the cumulative effect of multiple medications with modest antimuscarinic activity. However, this effect was no longer evident in multivariable logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for dementia and malnutrition. Larger, multicenter studies are required to clarify the complex relationship between drugs, anticholinergic burden and delirium in various categories of hospitalized older patients, including those with dementia and malnutrition.

14.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 66(11): 2178-2182, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether rate or rhythm control strategy may affect cognition in older adults with atrial fibrillation (AF). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the REgistro POliterapie SIMI database. SETTING: Italian internal medicine and geriatric wards. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older (N=1,082, mean age 80.6 ± 7; 50% male) with AF before hospital admission (for any cause). MEASUREMENTS: Evaluation of cognitive performance using the Short Blessed Test (SBT) according to rhythm and rate control strategy, anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy, age, education, and comorbidities. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-two participants (25%) received rhythm control therapy, 331 (30.6%) rate control therapy, and 479 (44.3%) no therapy of interest. Four hundred thirty-six (40.3%) in the total sample and in the different rhythm and rate control strategy groups were treated with an oral anticoagulant. Cognitive performance (mean SBT score) was found to be higher in the rhythm control group (7.5 ± 6.6) than in the no therapy (9.9 ± 7.9) and rate control (10.6 ± 8.3) (p<.001) groups. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy, and comorbidities found that the rhythm control strategy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.40-0.79, p=.001) and education (aOR 0.50, 95% CI=0.35-0.62; p<.001) were associated with less likelihood of cognitive impairment CONCLUSION: In the absence of anticoagulation, rhythm control of AF may protect against cognitive decline. J Am Geriatr Soc 66:2178-2182, 2018.

15.
Oncotarget ; 9(60): 31606-31619, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167082

RESUMO

The standard of care for breast cancer has gradually evolved from empirical treatments based on clinical-pathological characteristics to the use of targeted approaches based on the molecular profile of the tumor. Consequently, an increasing number of molecularly targeted drugs have been developed. These drugs target specific alterations, called driver mutations, which confer a survival advantage to cancer cells. To date, the main challenge remains the identification of predictive biomarkers for the selection of the optimal treatment. On this basis, we evaluated a panel of 25 genes involved in the mechanisms of targeted treatment resistance, in 16 primary breast cancers and their matched recurrences, developed during treatment. Overall, we found a detection rate of mutations higher than that described in the literature. In particular, the most frequently mutated genes were ERBB2 and those involved in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and the MAPK signaling pathways. The study revealed substantial discordances between primary tumors and metastases, stressing the need for analysis of metastatic tissues at recurrence. We observed that 85.7% of patients with an early-stage or locally advanced primary tumor showed at least one mutation in the primary tumor. This finding could explain the subsequent relapse and might therefore justify more targeted adjuvant treatments. Finally, the mutations detected in 50% of relapsed tissues could have guided subsequent treatment choices in a different way. This study demonstrates that mutation events may be present at diagnosis or arise during cancer treatment. As a result, profiling primary and metastatic tumor tissues may be a major step in defining optimal treatments.

16.
Haemophilia ; 24(5): 726-732, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In older people, multiple chronic ailments lead to the intake of multiple medications (polypharmacy) that carry a number of negative consequences (adverse events, prescription and intake errors, poor adherence, higher mortality). Because ageing patients with haemophilia (PWHs) may be particularly at risk due to their pre-existing multiple comorbidities (arthropathy, liver disease), we chose to analyse the pattern of chronic drug intake in a cohort of PWHs aged 60 years or more. PATIENTS AND METHODS: S + PHERA is a multicentre observational study, with the broad goal to evaluate prospectively the health status and medication intake in 102 older patients with severe haemophilia A or B compared with 204 age- and residence-matched controls chosen randomly from the same general practices of PWHs. The rate of potential drug-drug interactions (PDDI) was evaluated as a proxy of prescription appropriateness. RESULTS: After excluding replacement therapies and antiviral drugs, PWHs took in average less daily drugs than controls (2.4 ± 2.5 vs 3.0 ± 2.4) and had a lower rate of polypharmacy. Moreover, their prevalence of PDDI was lower (16.7% vs 27%). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of polypharmacy and the appropriateness of medications other than those for haemophilia and related comorbidities are acceptable in Italian PWHs, and better than those in their age peers without haemophilia, perhaps owing to drug tailoring and deprescribing by the specialized haemophilia centres at the time of regular visits. However, the PWHs investigated herewith were relatively young and the rate of polypharmacy and related PDDIs may become more prominent and crucial when older ages are reached, suggesting the need of continuous surveillance on prescribed drugs and the risk of drug-drug interactions.

17.
Cancer Biol Ther ; 19(10): 879-886, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HER2+ metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is a poor prognosis disease, unusually curable. To date, no predictive factors have been clearly correlated with long-term response to anti-HER2 agents. METHODS: 54 HER2+ MBC patients treated with HER2 targeted therapy as first line treatment were analysed: 40 with a time to progression longer than 3 years in Long Responders (LR) group and 14 with a progression disease within one year of anti-HER2 therapy in a control group named Early Progressors (EP). The expression of 770 genes and 13 molecular pathways were evaluated using Nanostring PanCancer pathway panel performed on FFPE BC tissues. RESULTS: Considering baseline patients and tumor characteristics, EP women had more CNS spread and more metastatic burden of disease compared to LR (p > 0.05). Gene expression analysis identified 30 genes with significantly different expression in the two cohorts; five were driver genes (BRCA1, PDGFRA, AR, PHF6 and MSH2). The majority of these genes were over-expressed, mainly in LR patients, and encoded growth factors, pro- or anti-inflammatory interleukins and DNA repair factors. Only four genes were down regulated, all in EP group (TNFSF10, CACNG1, IL20RB and BRCA1). Most of these genes were involved in MAPK and PI3K pathways. MAPK pathway was differently expressed between LR and EP (p = 0.05). PI3K was the only pathway overexpressed in EP patients. CONCLUSIONS: Whole genome expression analysis comparing LR vs. EP identified a group of genes that may predict more favourable long-term outcomes. Up-regulation of MAPK and down-regulation of PI3K pathway could be a positive predictive factors. Further clinical implications are warranted. ABBREVIATIONS: BC: breast cancer; MBC: metastatic breast cancer; LR: long responder; EP: early progressor; FFPE: formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded; CNS: central nervous system; PFS: progression free survival; OS: overall survival.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098212

RESUMO

This article evaluates the breast cancer (BC) screening efficacy of biannual ultrasound (US) in three different risk categories. In a single-center, prospective, nonrandomized comparison study, BRCA mutation carriers and women with high risk (HR) or intermediate risk (IR) received mammography (MMG), ultrasound, (US) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), scheduled according to the risk categories. Single and combined sensitivity were evaluated in specific groups of risk and the US performance at six-monthly interval was notably considered. Among 2,313 asymptomatic women at different risk (136 mutation carriers, 1,749 at HR and 428 at IR) 211 developed a BC, of which 193 (91.5%) were screen detected BC (SDBC) and 18 (8.5%) were interval BC (IBC). The SDBC detection rate (DR) was 11.2 per 1.000 person-years (37.9, 8.5 and 16.1 for BRCA, HR and IR, respectively); 116 BC were detected by MMG (DR = 6.6 × 1,000 persons-years), 62 by US (DR = 3.6 × 1,000 persons-years) and 15 by MRI, that was applied only in 60 BRCA women (DR = 37 × 1,000 persons-years). At the six-monthly US, 52 BC were detected (DR = 3.0 × 1,000 persons/years), of which 8 were BRCA-related. The most sensitive technique was MRI (93.7%) followed by MMG (55%) and US (29.4%). Combined sensitivity for MMG plus US was 100% in HR and 80.4% for IR women (p < 0.01). In BRCA mutated patients, MRI alone with annual US performed after six months, could be offered. In HR patients, MMG plus biannual US provide the most sensitive diagnosis and for IR group an annual MMG could be sufficient.

19.
Eur J Cancer ; 99: 9-19, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886394

RESUMO

Premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer are candidates for adjuvant endocrine therapy, as recommended by the major international guidelines. To date, adjuvant endocrine options for premenopausal women include tamoxifen with or without ovarian function suppression (OFS) or an aromatase inhibitor with OFS. Multiple strategies for endocrine treatment of premenopausal women with hormone-responsive breast cancer have been assessed, and the results of randomised clinical trials have been reported over the last years. Despite this evidence, the optimal algorithm for endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early stage invasive breast cancer shows open questions regarding the role of OFS in addition to tamoxifen and the optimal use of hormonal agents. The panel of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) Clinical Practice Guidelines on Breast Cancer applied the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology on three critical questions on the choice of the adjuvant hormonal therapy in premenopausal breast cancer patients to summarise available evidence and to create recommendations to help physicians in their clinical practice.

20.
Eur J Intern Med ; 55: 35-39, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a frequent characteristic of elderly people and represents an actual and still poorly debated topic. OBJECTIVE: We investigated pain prevalence and intensity, and its pharmacological therapy in elderly patients hospitalized in 101 internal medicine wards. METHODS: Taking advantage of the "REgistro POliterapie Società Italiana Medicina Interna" (REPOSI), we collected 2535 patients of whom almost a quarter was older than 85 years old. Among them, 582 patients were affected by pain (either chronic or acute) and 296 were diagnosed with chronic pain. RESULTS: Patients with pain showed worse cognitive status, higher depression and comorbidities, and a longer duration of hospital stay compared to those without pain (all p < .0366). Patients with chronic pain revealed lower level of independency in their daily life, worse cognitive status and higher level of depression compared to acute pain patients (all p < .0156). Moreover, most of them were not treated for pain at admission (73.4%) and half of them was not treated with any analgesic drug at discharge (50.5%). This difference affected also the reported levels of pain intensity. Patients who received analgesics at both admission and discharge remained stable (p = .172). Conversely, those not treated at admission who received an analgesic treatment during the hospital stay decreased their perceived pain (p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the need to focus more attention on the pharmacological treatment of chronic pain, especially in hospitalized elderly patients, in order to support them and facilitate their daily life after hospital discharge.

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