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1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103532, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800655

RESUMO

In the era of precision medicine, monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors are the mainstays of the biological therapy in patients with solid tumors. However, resistance to treatment and the "undruggability" of certain key oncogenic proteins emerged as major limitations and jeopardize the clinical benefit of modern therapeutic approaches. Targeted protein degraders are novel molecules entering the early phase of clinical development that exploit the intracellular ubiquitine-proteasome system to promote a specific degradation of target proteins. Since the peculiar mechanism of action, targeted protein degraders have the potential to limit and overcome resistance to treatment and to allow a full actionability of certain cancer drivers that are actually elusive targets. Here, we discuss the state-of-the-art and the open issues in the development of these emerging biological agents from a clinical perspective and with a focus on solid tumors.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), baseline circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) variant allele fraction (VAF) might serve as a surrogate of disease burden and should be evaluated in comparison with CEA and RECIST-defined sum of target lesions. METHODS: In this pre-planned analysis of the VALENTINO trial, we included patients with RAS wild-type mCRC receiving upfront FOLFOX/panitumumab with available baseline liquid biopsy. CtDNA was analysed by means of a 14-gene NGS panel. For each patient, the gene with the highest VAF in ctDNA was selected. RESULTS: The final cohort included 135 patients. The median VAF was 12.6% (IQR: 2.0-45.2%). Higher VAF was observed in patients with liver metastases and with synchronous metastases presentation. Patients with high VAF had poorer median OS compared to those with low VAF (21.8 vs 36.5 months; HR: 1.82, 95%CI: 1.20-2.76; p = 0.005). VAF outperformed baseline CEA and target lesion diameter in the prognostic stratification and remained significantly correlated with OS (p = 0.003) in a multivariate model. VAF was not significantly correlated with dimensional response and PFS. CONCLUSION: CtDNA measured by VAF is prognostic in patients with RAS wild-type mCRC. Response and PFS after an anti-EGFR-based first-line strategy are independent from initial tumour burden.

3.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211054302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707691

RESUMO

Background: Considering the growing genitourinary (GU) cancer population undergoing systemic treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we planned a clinical audit in 24 Italian institutions treating GU malignancies. Objective: The primary objective was investigating the clinical impact of COVID-19 in GU cancer patients undergoing ICI-based therapy during the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Italy. Design setting and participants: The included centers were 24 Oncology Departments. Two online forms were completed by the responsible Oncology Consultants, respectively, for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients receiving at least one administration of ICIs between 31 January 2020 and 30 June 2020. Results and limitation: In total, 287 mRCC patients and 130 mUC patients were included. The COVID-19 incidence was, respectively, 3.5%, with mortality 1%, in mRCC patients and 7.7%, with mortality 3.1%, in mUC patients. In both groups, 40% of patients developing COVID-19 permanently discontinued anticancer treatment. The pre-test SARS-CoV-2 probability in the subgroup of patients who underwent nasal/pharyngeal swab ranged from 14% in mRCC to 26% in mUC. The main limitation of the work was its nature of audit: data were not recorded at the single-patient level. Conclusion: GU cancer patients undergoing active treatment with ICIs have meaningful risk factors for developing severe events from COVID-19 and permanent discontinuation of therapy after the infection. Treatment delays due to organizational issues during the pandemic were unlikely to affect the treatment outcome in this population.

4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in patients with microsatellite instability (MSI)-high metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is unprecedented. A relevant proportion of subjects achieving durable disease control may be considered potentially 'cured', as opposed to patients experiencing primary ICI refractoriness or short-term clinical benefit. We developed and externally validated a nomogram to estimate the progression-free survival (PFS) and the time-independent event-free probability (EFP) in patients with MSI-high mCRC receiving ICIs. METHODS: The PFS and EFP were estimated using a cure model fitted on a developing set of 163 patients and validated on a set of 146 patients with MSI-high mCRC receiving anti-programmed death (ligand)1 (PD-(L)1) ± anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) agents. A total of 23 putative prognostic factors were chosen and then selected using a random survival forest (RSF). The model performance in estimating PFS probability was evaluated by assessing calibration (internally-developing set and externally-validating set) and quantifying the discriminative ability (Harrell C index). RESULTS: RFS selected five variables: ICI type (anti-PD-(L)1 monotherapy vs anti-CTLA-4 combo), ECOG PS (0 vs >0), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (≤3 vs >3), platelet count, and prior treatment lines. As both in the developing and validation series most PFS events occurred within 12 months, this was chosen as cut-point for PFS prediction. The combination of the selected variables allowed estimation of the 12-month PFS (focused on patients with low chance of being cured) and the EFP (focused on patients likely to be event-free at a certain point of their follow-up). ICI type was significantly associated with disease control, as patients receiving the anti-CTLA-4-combination experienced the best outcomes. The calibration of PFS predictions was good both in the developing and validating sets. The median value of the EFP (46%) allowed segregation of two prognostic groups in both the developing (PFS HR=3.73, 95% CI 2.25 to 6.18; p<0.0001) and validating (PFS HR=1.86, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.23; p=0.0269) sets. CONCLUSIONS: A nomogram based on five easily assessable variables including ICI treatment was built to estimate the outcomes of patients with MSI-high mCRC, with the potential to assist clinicians in their clinical practice. The web-based system 'MSI mCRC Cure' was released.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444926

RESUMO

Gastric cancer treatments are rapidly evolving, leading to significant survival benefit. Recent evidence provided by clinical trials strongly encouraged the use of perioperative chemotherapy as standard treatment for the localized disease, whereas in the advanced disease setting, molecular characterization has improved patients' selection for tailored therapeutic approaches, including molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy. The role of nutritional therapy is widely recognized, with oncologic treatment's tolerance and response being better in well-nourished patients. In this review, literature data on strategies or nutritional interventions will be critically examined, with particular regard to different treatment phases (perioperative, metastatic, and palliative settings), with the aim to draw practical indications for an adequate nutritional support of gastric cancer patients and provide an insight on future directions in nutritional strategies. We extensively analyzed the last 10 years of literature, in order to provide evidence that may fit current clinical practice both in terms of nutritional interventions and oncological treatment. Overall, 137 works were selected: 34 Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs), 12 meta-analysis, 9 reviews, and the most relevant prospective, retrospective and cross-sectional studies in this setting. Eleven ongoing trials have been selected from clinicaltrial.gov as representative of current research. One limitation of our work lies in the heterogeneity of the described studies, in terms of sample size, study procedures, and both nutritional and clinical outcomes. Indeed, to date, there are no specific evidence-based guidelines in this fields, therefore we proposed a clinical algorithm with the aim to indicate an appropriate nutritional strategy for gastric cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/tendências , Cuidados Paliativos/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/complicações , Adulto Jovem
6.
Oncologist ; 26(12): 1079-1084, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of patients with metastatic melanoma discontinuing BRAF-targeted therapy for cumulative toxicity after sustained response are unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective case series analysis conducted at a single Cancer Center in Italy included patients with BRAF mutated metastatic melanoma treated with a BRAF inhibitor as a single agent or in combination with a MEK inhibitor between June 1, 2011 and January 1, 2020 and interrupted treatment due to cumulative toxicity after achieving complete response (CR) or long-lasting partial response (PR; i.e. >12 months). RESULTS: We included 24 patients with a median treatment duration of 59.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 55.4-63.4; range, 12-88). CR and PR were achieved in 71% and 29% of patients, respectively. At a median follow-up after treatment discontinuation of 37.8 months (95% CI, 33.7-41.9), the 12-month progression-free survival after discontinuation (dPFS) rate was 70.8% (95% CI 54.8-91.6) and 24-month dPFS rate was 58.3% (95% CI, 41.6-81.8). Baseline patient and tumor characteristics as well as treatment duration and best response did not significantly impact on dPFS. Patients with CR and negative circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) at time of discontinuation had a significantly improved dPFS compared with patients with either radiological residual disease or ctDNA positivity (p = .007). No patient in CR with undetectable ctDNA experienced progression. CONCLUSION: The risk of progression is high even in patients with sustained sensitivity to BRAF/MEK inhibitors. Integration of liquid biopsy in clinical trials investigating the optimal management of patients with sustained sensitivity to BRAF/MEK inhibitors is warranted. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Outcomes of patients with metastatic melanoma discontinuing BRAF-targeted therapy for cumulative toxicity are unknown. This study analyzed patients with sustained responses (median treatment duration 59.4 months). Twelve- and 24-month progression-free survival following discontinuation were 70.8% and 58.3%, respectively. Complete response and negative circulating tumor DNA at time of discontinuation are promising prognostic biomarkers in this setting.

7.
Front Oncol ; 11: 628324, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221958

RESUMO

This case report shows, for the first time, a patient experiencing a complete response after one dose of avelumab following extensive disease progression with prior electrochemotherapy (ECT) treatment. We suggest that ECT may help to establish a tumor microenvironment favorable to immunotherapy. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive skin cancer with seldom durable chemotherapy responses. ECT has recently emerged as a potential treatment option for several malignancies, including MCC. Avelumab, an anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody, became the first approved treatment for patients with metastatic MCC. ECT has been shown to activate the immune response, but it is still unknown how ECT may affect patient's response to subsequent immunotherapy. We report a case of a patient with MCC who presented with a rapidly growing skin nodule of the right cheek and experienced extensive disease progression following surgical debulking and ECT treatment. The patient received a flat dose of 800 mg avelumab intravenously every 2 weeks showing complete tumor regression after only one dose. Immunohistochemical analysis of surgical and post-ECT biopsies collected from the primary lesion revealed tumor expression of programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), but not PD-L1. Analysis of the tumor samples also revealed no expression of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Comparison of the biopsies showed a decrease in myeloid and T-cell markers after ECT but an increase in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression on tumor cells. Additionally, the patient experienced an increase in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and lactate dehydrogenase values post-ECT, which subsequently decreased with avelumab treatment. As of 30 October 2019, the patient was still receiving avelumab treatment and had an ongoing complete response. In this case report, a patient with PD-L1-negative and MCPyV-negative MCC who had disease progression following ECT experienced complete tumor regression with avelumab treatment, suggesting, for the first time to our knowledge, that ECT may help to establish a tumor microenvironment favorable to immunotherapy via a potential abscopal effect. Tumor-intrinsic PD-1 expression and modulation of MHC class I antigens after ECT may contribute to the clinical efficacy of avelumab in this context.

8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162717

RESUMO

The event of pseudoprogression is rare in patients with MSI-high metastatic colorectal cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this response to the Letter to the Editor by Colle et al, we highlight that the timing of disease re-assessment may influence the incidence of pseudoprogression, with early assessments being associated with higher incidence. Such dynamics should be considered when interpreting the efficacy of treatment.

9.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 28(7): 467-479, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979777

RESUMO

Although combination therapy is not recommended in patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), this strategy is widely used in clinical practice. This network meta-analysis of randomized trials evaluates targeted therapies and somatostatin analogues in GEP-advanced NETs, either alone or in combination, comparing the efficacy of different, single or combined treatment strategies in terms of progression-free survival (PFS). Interventions were grouped as analogs, everolimus, everolimus plus SSAs, sunitinib and placebo. In a secondary analysis, we also assessed the efficacy of individual-specific pharmacological treatments vs placebo or each other. From 83 studies identified, 8 randomized controlled trials were selected, with a total of 1849 patients with either functioning or non-functioning NETs. The analysis confirmed the superiority of all treatments over placebo (HR ranging from 0.34, 95% CI: 0.24-0.37 with the combination of everolimus plus SSAs to 0.42, 0.31-0.57 with the analogs; moderate quality of evidence). On ranking analysis, the combination of everolimus plus SSA (P score = 0.86) and then everolimus alone (P score = 0.65) ranked highest in increasing PFS. On comparative evaluation of different interventions, pasireotide (P score = 0.96) and everolimus + octreotide (P score = 0.82) ranked as the best pharmacological treatment options. Our findings support the use of combination therapy in the treatment of functioning and non-functioning GEP NETs. The role of pasireotide should be explored in selected subgroups of patients. Lastly, the combination of everolimus and octreotide appears promising and should be more widely considered in clinical practice.

10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the new standard of care in microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H)/deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Since tumor response dynamic parameters already shown a strong association with survival outcomes in patients with mCRC treated with first-line therapy, we investigated the association of early tumor shrinkage (ETS) and depth of response (DoR) in patients with MSI-H/dMMR mCRC treated with ICIs. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicenter, cohort study in patients with dMMR and/or MSI-high mCRC treated with ICIs (anti-PD-1/PD-L1 with or without anti-CTLA-4 agents) with measurable disease and at least one post-baseline radiological disease reassessment. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used for survival analyses. A maximally selected statistics method in a Cox regression model for progression-free survival (PFS) was used to determine the optimal cut-offs for ETS and DoR. RESULTS: We included a total of 169 patients: 116 (68.6%) were treated with anti-PD-1 monotherapy, whereas 53 (31.4%) with anti-PD-1 plus anti-CTLA-4 agents. Patients with primary progressive disease (N=37, 21.9%), experienced an extremely poor overall survival (OS) and were evaluated separately. In patients with clinical benefit, we observed a significant association between ETS and DoR with both OS and PFS, and we identified a relative reduction of at least 1% as the optimal cut-off for ETS and a relative reduction of at least 50% as the optimal cut-off for DoR. CONCLUSIONS: ETS and DoR are important prognostic factors in patients with MSI-high mCRC treated with ICIs that might be useful to design treatment intensification/deintensification strategies. A prospective validation of both is warranted.

11.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 155-167, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) yielded unprecedented efficacy in patients with microsatellite instability (MSI)-high metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Since the Pan-Immune-Inflammation Value (PIV) is a blood-based biomarker with prognostic usefulness in mCRC, it might predict clinical outcomes and primary resistance to ICIs. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the association of PIV and its early modulation at 3/4 weeks after treatment initiation with the outcomes of MSI-high mCRC patients receiving anti-programmed death-(ligand)1 (PD-[L]1) +/- anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) agents. PIV was calculated as follows: (neutrophil count × platelet count × monocyte count)/lymphocyte count. PIV cut-offs were determined using the maximally selected rank statistics. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients were included. In the multivariable models for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), both high (>492) baseline PIV (OS: adjusted [a] HR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.49-6.04, p = 0.002; PFS: aHR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.06-3.44, p = 0.031) and early PIV increase ≥+30% (OS: aHR, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.65-6.23, p < 0.001; PFS: aHR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.30-3.89, p = 0.003) confirmed an independent prognostic impact. After stratifying patients according to baseline PIV and ICI regimen, OS and PFS were significantly worse in subjects with high PIV receiving anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy. Early PIV increase was an independent predictor of clinical benefit (aOR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.08-0.66; p = 0.007), whereas a trend was observed for baseline PIV (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.10-1.07; p = 0.065). CONCLUSION: PIV is a strong predictor of outcomes in MSI-high mCRC patients receiving ICIs. Prospective validation of these results is required to establish its role as a stratification factor for personalised combination strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/imunologia , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Idoso , Plaquetas/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Monócitos/imunologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Fenótipo , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(3): 161-169, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618994

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung represent about 20% to 30% of all neuroendocrine tumors. On the basis of clinical and pathologic characteristics, 2 different categories of tumors may be defined: poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms, characterized by a high rate of recurrences and poor prognosis, and well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (typical carcinoids and atypical carcinoids), which generally display an indolent course. Lung carcinoids represent only 1% to 5% of all lung malignancies, but their incidence has significantly increased over the past 30 years. Surgery is the reference standard of treatment for lung carcinoids with locoregional disease. For advanced or unresectable lung carcinoids, several therapeutic options are available, but the choice should be shared within a multidisciplinary team to ensure optimal therapeutic outcomes. We describe the current management of these rare neoplasms.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(9): 2505-2514, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547199

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The routine use of liquid biopsy is not recommended for the choice of initial treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We included patients with left-sided, RAS/BRAF wild-type, HER2-negative, and microsatellite stable mCRC, treated with upfront panitumumab/FOLFOX-4 in the Valentino study. We performed amplicon-based genomic profiling of 14 genes in baseline plasma samples and compared these data with tumor tissue ultra-deep sequencing results. Specific gene mutations in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and their clonality were associated with progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and radiological dynamics. RESULTS: Ten and 15 of 120 patients had a mutation of RAS and PIK3CA in ctDNA, with a positive concordance with tissue deep sequencing of only 31.3% and 47.1%, respectively. Presence of RAS or PIK3CA mutations in baseline ctDNA was associated with worse median PFS [8 vs. 12.8 months; HR, 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-4.81; P = 0.007 and 8.5 vs. 12.9 months; HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.63-5.04; P < 0.001] and median OS (17.1 vs. 36.5 months; HR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.03-4.96; P = 0.042 and 21.1 vs. 38.9 months; HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.16-4.07; P = 0.015). RAS mutations in ctDNA were associated with worse RECIST response, early tumor shrinkage, and depth of response, while PIK3CA mutations were not. Patients with higher levels of RAS/PIK3CA variant allele fraction (VAF) in ctDNA had the worst outcomes (VAF ≥ 5% vs. all wild-type: median PFS, 7.7 vs. 13.1 months; HR, 4.02; 95% CI, 2.03-7.95; P < 0.001 and median OS, 18.8 vs. 38.9 months; HR, 4.07; 95% CI, 2.04-8.12; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline ctDNA profiling may add value to tumor tissue testing to refine the molecular hyperselection of patients with mCRC for upfront anti-EGFR-based strategies.

14.
Tumori ; 107(4): 353-359, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The RECOURSE trial (Study of TAS-102 in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Refractory to Standard Chemotherapies) demonstrated an overall survival (OS) benefit of trifluridine/tipiracil (FTD/TPI) vs placebo in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Given the limited benefit of later line treatments, we developed the Colon Life nomogram to assess the 12-week death probability in the refractory setting. METHODS: This post hoc analysis of RECOURSE included patients with available data to calculate the nomogram score: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status, primary tumor resection, lactate dehydrogenase, and peritoneal metastases. The nomogram calibration was assessed by calibration plots and C-index. The nomogram prognostic and predictive ability was assessed by Cox model analyses and the nomogram score predictive value was explored according to the cutoff identified at maximum value of the Youden index in time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 251 trial patients were evaluable: 90 in the placebo arm and 161 in the FTD/TPI arm. The calibration was optimal in the placebo arm (C-index 0.807) and suboptimal in the FTD/TPI arm (0.657). The cutoff of the nomogram score of 23 showed the best discriminative ability for 12-week OS (hazard ratio 3.46, 95% confidence interval 2.17-5.51 for scores 40 vs 15) and had maximum value of the Youden index (0.381). Median OS and 3-month PFS were 9.0 vs 7.5 months and 39.3% vs 5.2%, respectively, for FTD/TPI vs placebo in the low-risk group (score <23) and 4.8 vs 3.4 months and 22.3% vs 9.8% in the high-risk group (score ⩾23) (interaction NS). CONCLUSION: The Colon Life nomogram is an accurate tool for estimating life expectancy in refractory mCRC. The benefit of FTD/TPI was independent of the predicted risk of early death.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Nomogramas , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Tumori ; 107(1): 17-25, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529962

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although many reports have analyzed the outcomes of central venous catheters (CVCs) in oncologic and oncohematologic patients, current guidelines do not routinely recommend a specific type of CVC over the other. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of 178 patients with CVCs referred to an Italian specialized cancer center between January 2016 and December 2018. The analysis compares midterm peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) with long-term centrally inserted catheters, including totally implanted ports and tunneled catheters with central insertion (tCVCs). RESULTS: A total of 130 PICCs (73%) and 48 tCVCs (27%) were analyzed. The overall complication rate was significantly increased in the PICC cohort compared to the tCVC cohort (43.1% vs 25%, respectively; p = 0.037), leading to complication-related device removal in 30.8% of PICCs vs 12.5% of tCVCs (p = 0.013). No significant differences in terms of catheter-related thromboses (p = 0.676) or catheter-related infections (p = 0.140) were detected. Nonthrombotic obstructions were significantly higher in the PICC group compared to the tCVC cohort (p = 0.006). Overall complication-free survival was significantly longer for tCVCs compared to PICCs (hazard ratio [HR], 0.262; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.128-0.536; p < 0.0001), as well as obstruction-free survival (HR, 0.082; 95% CI, 0.018-0.372; p < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, the type of CVC was independently correlated with the occurrence of any complication (HR, 0.273; 95% CI, 0.135-0.553; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This Italian real-world experience suggests that PICCs are associated with a higher risk of overall complications compared with tCVCs. Catheter choice in oncologic patients should be guided by treatment type and duration, risk-benefit assessment, patient preferences, and compliance.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/complicações , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/patologia , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(1)2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35008233

RESUMO

The prognostic role of diabetes mellitus (DM) in advanced enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is unclear. Progression free survival (PFS) was assessed in post-hoc analyses of the 96-week, phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled CLARINET study of lanreotide 120 mg in patients with advanced non-functional enteropancreatic NETs with DM (with/without metformin) and without DM. Of 204 patients, there were 79 with DM (lanreotide, n = 42 {metformin, n = 14}; placebo, n = 37 {metformin, n = 10}) and 125 without DM (lanreotide, n = 59; placebo, n = 66). Median PFS was 96.0 and 98.0 weeks with and without DM, respectively (hazard ratio 1.20 {95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.82}; p = 0.380). No difference in PFS was observed in lanreotide-treated patients with/without DM (p = 0.8476). In the placebo group, median PFS was numerically shorter with versus without DM (p = 0.052) and was significantly longer in patients with DM and metformin (85.7 weeks) versus without metformin (38.7 weeks; p = 0.009). Multivariable Cox analyses showed that DM at baseline was not associated with PFS (p = 0.079); lanreotide was significantly associated with lower disease progression risk (p = 0.017). Lanreotide efficacy was confirmed in patients with advanced enteropancreatic NETs, regardless of diabetic status; DM was not a negative prognostic factor. A potential antitumor effect of metformin was observed in patients receiving placebo.

17.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920970081, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335565

RESUMO

Background: Neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy (ChT) is a standard of care treatment option for stage II-III breast cancer (BC) patients. However, the optimal duration of neoadjuvant ChT has been poorly investigated so far. Material and methods: We retrospectively retrieved clinical data of patients with stage II-III human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) BC who were treated between October 2007 and January 2018 with neoadjuvant AT (doxorubicin-paclitaxel) for three cycles followed by CMF (cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil) for three cycles (cohort A) or with four AT cycles followed by four CMF cycles (cohort B). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of neoadjuvant ChT duration (cohort A versus cohort B) on pathological complete response (pCR) rates, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Of 209 HER2- BC patients included, 62 had triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and 147 had hormone receptor-positive (HR+) BC. Median age was 48 years (range 30-74 years). A total of 111 patients belonged to cohort A and 98 patients belonged to cohort B. pCR was detected in 29 (13.9%) patients, 25 (40.3%) of whom had TNBC and four (2.7%) had HR+ HER2- BC. Patients achieving pCR had significantly longer DFS and OS, with statistical significance reached only in patients with TNBC. We found no differences between cohort A and cohort B in terms of pCR rates (15.3% versus 12.2%; p = 0.55), DFS (p = 0.49) or OS (p = 0.94). The incidence of grade 3/4 adverse events was similar in cohort A versus cohort B as well (22.5% versus 19.4%; p = 0.54). Conclusion: Shorter duration of neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane ChT was not associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with stage II-III BC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether the duration of neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane-based ChT can be reduced in specific patient subgroups without negatively affecting clinical outcomes.

18.
Immunotargets Ther ; 9: 273-288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224904

RESUMO

Over the last 20 years, different therapies have been considered as the mainstay for the treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Since angiogenesis is a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of renal carcinoma, research is still focusing on the inhibition of new vessel growth through the development of novel and potent tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as cabozantinib. On the other hand, a new therapeutic scenario has opened up in the forefront with immunotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which already represent a standard treatment option in pretreated mRCC patients, are revolutionizing the frontline therapeutic armamentarium of mRCC. Upfront combination immunotherapy as well as combinations of immunotherapy with targeted agents showed to significantly improved outcomes of mRCC patients compared to single-agent TKIs. ICIs are associated with long-lasting responses. Nonetheless, several unmet needs remain, as a small proportion of patients shows primary refractoriness to immunotherapy. Multiple treatment strategies combining different mechanisms of action or targeting immune escape pathways are emerging with the aim to improve response rates and survival outcomes. This review summarizes current immunotherapeutic targets and therapies approved for mRCC, while examining mechanisms of resistance and future directions, with the aim to address novel treatment strategies and help in improving the management of this tumor.

19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for malignancy; however, its prognostic role in patients with metastatic melanoma is controversial. We aim to investigate the prognostic role of body mass index (BMI) in patients with metastatic melanoma receiving mitogen-activated pathway kinase inhibitors (MAPKi), immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) alone or their sequence. METHODS: Data on patients with metastatic melanoma receiving ≥1 line of systemic treatment were retrieved from prospectively collected databases. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by means of multivariable stratified Cox regression models; disease control rate (DCR) was analyzed by multivariable stratified logistic regression models. Subgroup analyzes according to the type of treatments received, and in BRAF-mutated patients were pre-planned. All multivariable models included BMI, age, gender, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, performance status, lactate dehydrogenase and treatment sequencing strategy as covariates. RESULTS: Between November 2010 and November 2018, 688 patients from three Italian and two Polish centers were enrolled. 379 (57%) patients had M1c/d disease, 273 (41%) were female and the mean BMI was 27.1 (SD=4.9). Considering first-line treatment, 446 patients (66.8%) received ICIs and 222 MAPKi. No impact of BMI on OS was detected either considering the first line of ICIs, or ICIs sequencing (HR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.05, p=0.202, and HR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.04, p=0.237, respectively). A late effect of BMI on OS was found in patients treated with MAPKi: for five units increment, a 51% of risk reduction at 18 months and a 76% of risk reduction at 30 months were observed. No significant effect of BMI on PFS and DCR was found in any of the subgroup analyzes. CONCLUSION: In patients with metastatic melanoma receiving ICIs, there is no impact of BMI on DCR, PFS and OS. The late prognostic effect of BMI in patients treated with MAPKi should be considered hypothesis generating and needs to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Imunoterapia/métodos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/complicações , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 12(8): 833-849, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879662

RESUMO

Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms represent up to 95% of pancreatic cancers (PCs) and are widely recognized among the most lethal solid cancers, with a very poor 5-year survival rate of 5%-10%. The remaining < 5% of PCs are neuroendocrine tumors that are usually characterized by a better prognosis, with a median overall survival of 3.6 years. The most common type of PC is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which accounts for roughly 85% of all exocrine PCs. However up to 10% of exocrine PCs have rare histotypes, which are still poorly understood. These subtypes can be distinguished from PDAC in terms of pathology, imaging, clinical presentation and prognosis. Additionally, due to their rarity, any knowledge regarding these specific histotypes is mostly based on case reports and a small series of retrospective analyses. Therefore, treatment strategies are generally deduced from those used for PDAC, even if these patients are often excluded or not clearly represented in clinical trials for PDAC. For these reasons, it is essential to collect as much information as possible on the management of PC, as assimilating it with PDAC may lead to the potential mistreatment of these patients. Here, we report the most significant literature regarding the epidemiology, typical presentation, possible treatment strategies, and prognosis of the most relevant histotypes among rare PCs.

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