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2.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284424

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of a partly fermented infant formula (using the bacterial strains Bifidobacterium breve C50 and Streptococcus thermophilus 065) with a specific prebiotic mixture (short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS) and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS; 9:1)) on the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms, stool characteristics, sleeping and crying behaviour, growth adequacy and safety. Two-hundred infants ≤28 days of age were assigned either to experimental infant formula containing 30% fermented formula and 0.8 g/100 mL scGOS/lcFOS or to non-fermented control infant formula without scGOS/lcFOS. A group of breastfed infants served as a reference. No relevant differences in parent-reported gastrointestinal symptoms were observed. Stool consistency was softer in the experimental versus control group with values closer to the breastfed reference group. Daily weight gain was equivalent for both formula groups (0.5 SD margins) with growth outcomes close to breastfed infants. No clinically relevant differences in adverse events were observed, apart from a lower investigator-reported prevalence of infantile colic in the experimental versus control group (1.1% vs. 8.7%; p < 0.02). Both study formulae are well-tolerated, support an adequate infant growth and are safe for use in healthy term infants. Compared to the control formula, the partly fermented formula with prebiotics induces stool consistencies closer to breastfed infants.

3.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(4): 493-497, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211764

RESUMO

Because of its possible effect on mesenteric blood flow, the presence of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is often of concern for the introduction of enteral feeds in preterm neonates. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows a continuous monitoring of splanchnic oxygenation (SrSO2) and may provide useful hemodynamic information. This observational study evaluated SrSO2 patterns in response to first feed administration in 50 preterm infants <32 weeks' gestation with different ductal status. According to their echocardiographic characteristics, the enrolled infants were divided into the following groups: pulsatile PDA with hemodynamically significant features, restrictive PDA, and no evidence of PDA. The presence of PDA, either with restrictive or hemodynamically significant characteristics, does not significantly affect SrSO2 response to enteral feeding introduction and is not associated with increased rates of gut complications. This finding may provide encouraging evidence in support of early enteral nutrition in very preterm infants with PDA.

4.
Early Hum Dev ; 135: 16-22, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants born at 23-24 weeks' gestation have the highest risk of developing a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA), that is refractory to pharmacological closure requiring surgical ligation. Thus, these patients might have the greatest benefits from hsPDA closure, although previous studies on PDA closure were not focused on this population. AIM: To compare the occurrence of hsPDA, failure rate of the first course of ibuprofen in closing hsPDA, and need of surgical closure in infants born at 23+0-24+6 weeks' gestation to those in infants born at 25+0-28+6 weeks' gestation. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective multicenter study including infants born at 23+0-28+6 weeks of gestation admitted to the neonatal care units from January 2013 to December 2017. All infants underwent echocardiographical assessment for hsPDA diagnosis and eventually pharmacological treatment, and surgical closure. RESULTS: We studied a total of 842 infants of which 562 (67%) developed a PDA. Among those with PDA, 511 (91%) received a pharmacological treatment for a hsPDA. We found that a hsPDA occurred in 70% (106/151) of infants born at 23-24 weeks and in 59% (405/691) of infants born at 25-28 weeks of gestation (P < 0.001). Failure of closure with the first-treatment cycle (69 vs. 40%; P < 0.001) and need of surgical closure (19 vs 10%) were more frequent (P < 0.011) in infants born at 23-24 than 25-28 gestational weeks. Paracetamol vs. ibuprofen treatment and gestational age of 23-24 versus 25-28 weeks increased closure failure, while less severe RDS and maternal clinical chorioamnionitis decreased it. CONCLUSIONS: Among extremely preterm infants, infants born at 23-24 weeks of gestation have the highest risk of developing a hsPDA refractory to pharmacological treatment requiring surgical closure. Our findings support the need of individualized more careful strategies for hsPDA management in this special population.

5.
Trials ; 20(1): 67, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and feeding intolerance are common conditions in preterm infants and among the major causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. For many years, preterm infants with RDS have been treated with mechanical ventilation, increasing risks of acute lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In recent years non-invasive ventilation techniques have been developed. Showing similar efficacy and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) have become the most widespread techniques in neonatal intensive care units. However, their impact on nutrition, particularly on feeding tolerance and risk of complications, is still unknown in preterm infants. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of NCPAP vs HHHFNC on enteral feeding and to identify the most suitable technique for preterm infants with RDS. METHODS: A multicenter randomized single-blind controlled trial was designed. All preterm infants with a gestational age of 25-29 weeks treated with NCPAP or HHHFNC for RDS and demonstrating stability for at least 48 h along with the compliance with inclusion criteria (age less than 7 days, need for non-invasive respiratory support, suitability to start enteral feeding) will be enrolled in the study and randomized to the NCPAP or HHHFNC arm. All patients will be monitored until discharge, and data will be analyzed according to an intention-to-treat model. The primary outcome is the time to reach full enteral feeding, while parameters of respiratory support, feeding tolerance, and overall health status will be evaluated as secondary outcomes. The sample size was calculated at 141 patients per arm. DISCUSSION: The identification of the most suitable technique (NCPAP vs HHHFNC) for preterm infants with feeding intolerance could reduce gastrointestinal complications, improve growth, and reduce hospital length of stay, thus improving clinical outcomes and reducing health costs. The evaluation of the timing of oral feeding could be useful in understanding the influence that these techniques could have on the development of sucking-swallow coordination. Moreover, the evaluation of the response to NCPAP and HHHFNC could clarify their efficacy as a treatment for RDS in extremely preterm infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03548324 . Registered on 7 June 2018.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Respiração , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Apoio Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2512, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405571

RESUMO

Mother's own milk represents the optimal source for preterm infant nutrition, as it promotes immune defenses and gastrointestinal function, protects against necrotizing enterocolitis, improves long-term clinical outcome and is hypothesized to drive gut microbiota assembly. Preterm infants at birth usually do not receive their mother's milk directly from the breast, because active suckling and coordination between suckling, swallowing and breathing do not develop until 32-34 weeks gestational age, but actual breastfeeding is usually possible as they grow older. Here, we enrolled moderately preterm infants (gestational age 32-34 weeks) to longitudinally characterize mothers' milk and infants' gut and oral microbiomes, up to more than 200 days after birth, through 16S rRNA sequencing. This peculiar population offers the chance to disentangle the differential contribution of human milk feeding per se vs. actual breastfeeding in the development of infant microbiomes, that have both been acknowledged as crucial contributors to short and long-term infant health status. In this cohort, the milk microbiome composition seemed to change following the infant's latching to the mother's breast, shifting toward a more diverse microbial community dominated by typical oral microbes, i.e., Streptococcus and Rothia. Even if all infants in the present study were fed human milk, features typical of healthy, full term, exclusively breastfed infants, i.e., high percentages of Bifidobacterium and low abundances of Pseudomonas in fecal and oral samples, respectively, were detected in samples taken after actual breastfeeding started. These findings underline the importance of encouraging not only human milk feeding, but also an early start of actual breastfeeding in preterm infants, since the infant's latching to the mother's breast might constitute an independent factor helping the health-promoting assembly of the infant gut microbiome.

7.
Front Public Health ; 6: 272, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320052

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effects of two different protein intake regimes on feeding tolerance, in-hospital growth, anthropometric data and psychomotor outcome up to 24 months corrected age (CA) in extremely low birth-weight (ELBW; birth weight <1000 g) infants. Methods: During the period 2008-2013, 52 ELBW infants admitted at birth to two Neonatal Intensive Care Units of Emilia Romagna (Italy) were fed according to different protocols of protein fortification of human milk: an estimated protein intakes at maximum fortification levels of 3.5 gr/kg/day in the Standard Nutrition Population-SNP group (n = 26) and 4.8 g/kg/day in the Aggressive Nutrition Population-ANP group (n = 26). During hospitalization, infants' growth, biochemical indices of nutritional status, enteral intake, feeding tolerance, clinical history and morbidity were evaluated. After discharge, anthropometric data and psychomotor outcome, evaluated by Revised Griffiths Mental Development Scales (GMDS-R) 0-2 years, were assessed up to 24 months CA. Results: During hospitalization, the ANP group showed significantly higher weight (18.87 vs. 15.20 g/kg/day) and head circumference (0.70 vs. 0.52 cm/week) growth rates compared to SNP, less days of parenteral nutrition (7.36 ± 2.7 vs. 37.75 ± 29.6) and of hospitalization (60.0 ± 13.3 vs. 78.08 ± 21.32). After discharge, ANP infants had a greater head circumference compared to SNP (45.64 ± 0.29; 46.80 ± 0.31). Furthermore, the General Quotient of GMDS-R mean scores in the SNP group significantly decreased from 12 to 24 months CA, while no difference was seen in the ANP group. Conclusions: Increased protein intake may provide short and long term benefits in terms of growth and neurodevelopment in human milk-fed ELBW infants.

8.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308999

RESUMO

The use of probiotics among very low-birth-weight infants is constantly increasing, as probiotics are believed to reduce the incidence of severe diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and to improve feeding tolerance. However, despite the enthusiasm towards these products in neonatal medicine, theoretical knowledge and clinical applications still need to be improved. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the most important gaps in the current literature about potential uses of probiotics in preterm infants, highlighting promising directions for future research. Specifically, further well-designed studies should aim at clarifying the impact of the type of feeding (mother's milk, donor milk, and formula) on the relationship between probiotic supplementation and clinical outcome. Moreover, future research is needed to provide solid evidence about the potential greater efficacy of multi-strain probiotics compared to single-strain products. Safety issues should also be addressed properly, by exploring the potential of paraprobiotics and risks connected to antibiotic resistance in preterm infants. Last, in light of increasing commercial and public interests, the long-term effect of routine consumption of probiotics in such a vulnerable population should be also evaluated.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are crucial for neural and visual development after premature birth. Preterm infants usually require tube feeding (TF) until the achievement of adequate oral feeding skills; the impact of TF on DHA and AA delivery has not been investigated yet. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different TF techniques on the delivery of AA and DHA contained in human milk (HM). METHODS: HM samples (65 mL each) were collected and divided into three 20-mL aliquots. The remaining 5 mL served as baseline. Three TF techniques were simulated (1 for each aliquot): gravity bolus feeding (BF), 3-hour continuous feeding using a horizontal feeding pump, and 3-hour continuous feeding with the feeding pump angled at 45°. For horizontal continuous feeding (HCF) and 45° angled continuous feeding (ACF), aliquots delivered between 0 and 90 minutes (T1) and 91 and 180 minutes (T2) were collected separately. AA and DHA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and compared among the TF methods. DHA and AA delivery at T1 and T2 was also evaluated. RESULTS: Fifty-one simulated feeds were performed. DHA and AA amounts after BF and ACF did not differ significantly compared with baseline, whereas HCF resulted in significantly lower DHA and AA concentration. During T2, ACF delivered almost twice the DHA and AA amounts compared with T1. CONCLUSION: The delivery of HM AA and DHA is significantly affected by TF, with potential clinical implications. When BF is not tolerated, ACF might represent a feasible alternative to reduce TF-related DHA and AA loss.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 7397659, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057683

RESUMO

This review will examine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and explore potential preventive and therapeutic antioxidant strategies. Preterm infants are particularly exposed to OS as a result of several perinatal stimuli and constitutive defective antioxidant defenses. For this reason, OS damage represents a contributing factor to several complications of prematurity, including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Being NEC a multifactorial disease, OS may act as downstream component of the pathogenetic cascade. To counteract OS in preterm infants with NEC, several antioxidant strategies have been proposed and different antioxidant compounds have been experimented. It is well known that human milk (HM) is an important source of antioxidants. At the same time, the role of an exclusive HM diet is well recognized in the prevention of NEC. However, donor HM (DHM) processing may impair antioxidant properties. As DHM is becoming a common nutritional intervention for high risk PI, the antioxidant status of preterm and DHM and potential ways to preserve its antioxidant capacity may merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/metabolismo , Enterocolite Necrosante/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/metabolismo , Doenças do Prematuro/patologia , Leite Humano , Gravidez
11.
J Perinatol ; 38(5): 431-443, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29472709

RESUMO

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive, continuous monitoring of regional tissue oxygenation. NIRS assessment of neonatal splanchnic oxygenation (SrSO2) has gained increasing interest over the last decade, as local hypoxia and ischemia underlie the most feared gut complications in neonates. Current literature provides encouraging evidence in support of SrSO2 reliability in detecting mesenteric hemodynamic changes related to various physiological and pathological conditions in-term and preterm infants. Even so, while splanchnic NIRS monitoring looks promising for investigating gut physiopathology in research settings, further studies are needed to evaluate its feasibility as a routine monitoring tool in neonatal care and to investigate its potential role in clinical decision making. After a brief introduction to NIRS technical principles, this review aims to provide a complete overview of current neonatal applications for splanchnic NIRS monitoring, to discuss its possible limitations and to suggest future directions for research and clinical applications.

12.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 66(5): 755-759, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112084

RESUMO

Preterm infants with antenatal absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) in umbilical arteries are at major risk for gastrointestinal (GI) complications, such as necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal perforation and feeding intolerance. Near-infrared spectroscopy provides continuous monitoring of splanchnic oxygenation (SrSO2) and may represent a useful tool to predict GI outcomes in this high-risk population. This observational, pilot study assessed feed-related SrSO2 patterns at enteral feeding introduction and full enteral feeding (FEF) achievement in twenty AREDF infants with gestational age ≤34 weeks. Enrolled infants were divided into 2 groups according to the development versus lack of GI complications. Infants developing GI complications showed significantly lower SrSO2 and increased splanchnic oxygen extraction in response to enteral feeds at both enteral feeding introduction and FEF. The potential role of these findings in predicting GI complications in AREDF preterm infants seems promising and deserves further evaluation.

13.
Nutrients ; 9(11)2017 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143799

RESUMO

Functional regurgitation (FR) is common in early infancy and represents a major drain on healthcare resources. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a formula containing partially hydrolysed, 100% whey protein, starch and Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) on gastric emptying rate (GErate) and regurgitation frequency in infants with FR. Enrolled infants were randomly allocated to receive either the test formula or a standard starter formula for four weeks. Ultrasound GErate assessment was performed at baseline (week 0) and at week 4; the number of regurgitations, feed volumes and potential adverse events were recorded in a daily diary. Eighty infants aged four weeks to five months were enrolled; 72 (test group = 37; control group = 35) completed the study. Compared to controls, the test group showed greater percentage changes in GErate (12.3% vs. 9.1%, p < 0.01). Mean daily regurgitations decreased from 7.4 (0.8) at week 0 to 2.6 (1.0) at week 4 in the test group and from 7.5 (1.0) to 5.3 (1.0) in controls (between-group difference, p < 0.0001). Compared to a standard formula, a starch-thickened partially hydrolysed whey protein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus reuteri is more effective in decreasing the frequency of regurgitation and improving GErate, and can be of benefit to infants with FR.


Assuntos
Esvaziamento Gástrico , Fórmulas Infantis , Lactobacillus reuteri/fisiologia , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administração & dosagem , Amido/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/efeitos adversos , Itália , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/diagnóstico por imagem , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/fisiopatologia , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Hidrolisados de Proteína/efeitos adversos , Amido/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/efeitos adversos
14.
Front Pediatr ; 5: 178, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28879172

RESUMO

Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response. Postnatal intestinal colonization, in turn determined by maternal flora, mode of delivery, early skin-to-skin contact and neonatal diet, leads to specific epigenetic signatures that can affect the barrier properties of gut mucosa and their protective role against later insults, thus potentially predisposing to the development of late-onset inflammatory diseases. The aim of this review is to outline the epigenetic mechanisms of programming and development acting within early-life stages and to examine in detail the role of maternal and neonatal nutrition, microbiota composition, and other environmental factors in determining epigenetic changes and their short- and long-term effects.

15.
Nutrients ; 9(8)2017 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28829405

RESUMO

Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics' efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71-0.88), p < 0.0001). According to feeding type, the beneficial effect of probiotics was confirmed only in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.86), p < 0.0001). Among HM-fed infants, only probiotic mixtures, and not single-strain products, were effective in reducing LOS incidence (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.57-0.80) p < 0.00001). The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Leite Humano , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Peso ao Nascer , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 1214, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28713343

RESUMO

The progressive building of the infants' gut microbiota is pivotal for educating their immune system. Human breast milk is among the first sources of microbes for the assembly of the infant's microbiota, but research struggles to give a demonstration for the origin of bacteria in milk. Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on assembly of the mother's milk and infant's microbiome, here we characterized the oral, gut and milk ecosystems in a homogeneous cohort of 36 healthy mother-infants pairs, by 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing. A limited number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was shared among the three ecosystems, including not only OTUs assigned to the well-known immune-modulating Bifidobacterium genus, but also specific Streptococcus and Staphylococcus OTUs, which were dominant in the infant's mouth ecosystem. The high conservation of these OTUs among the three ecosystems seems to call for a worth exploring ecological role through targeted and/or culture-dependent techniques. Notwithstanding the limitations of a 16S rRNA gene-based molecular characterization, we might hypothesize that the baby's mouth, being the transition point for the milk to reach the intestine, could play a role in both the gut microbiota assembly, via deglutition, and mother's milk duct colonization, during suction.

17.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 64(4): 550-554, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27467111

RESUMO

Preterm infants are at risk of developing gastrointestinal complications such as feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides continuous monitoring of abdominal oxygenation (ArSO2) and could help to predict gastrointestinal complications in preterm neonates. In this prospective observational study, ArSO2 patterns at first enteral feed were evaluated by NIRS in 61 clinically stable preterm infants. Splanchnic-cerebral oxygenation ratio, which is a marker of gut hypoxia, was also calculated. ArSO2 and splanchnic-cerebral oxygenation ratio were significantly lower both at baseline and after feeding administration in infants who later developed feeding intolerance (n = 23). NIRS could help the early prediction of gastrointestinal complications in high-risk preterm infants.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Circulação Esplâncnica , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/metabolismo , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
18.
Nutrients ; 8(8)2016 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27483319

RESUMO

Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD -3.15 days (95% CI -5.25/-1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/metabolismo , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Pediatrics ; 138(2)2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27405769

RESUMO

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most severe gastrointestinal complication of prematurity. Surgery, either peritoneal drainage placement or laparotomy with resection of the intestinal necrotic tracts, is the definitive treatment of perforated NEC; however, when clinical conditions contraindicate surgical approaches, little is known about medical treatments adjuvant or alternative to surgery. Octreotide is a synthetic somatostatin analog that inhibits pancreatic secretion and leads to splanchnic vasoconstriction. In preterm neonates, it is mainly used off-label for chylothorax and congenital hyperinsulinism, whereas gastrointestinal indications are limited. We describe the case of a critically ill extremely low birth weight infant with perforated NEC, who had unsuccessfully undergone peritoneal drainage placement and laparotomy. Her unstable condition contraindicated a further laparotomy, thus off-label treatment with octreotide was attempted. No adverse events occurred. The infant's condition gradually improved and progressive reduction of peritoneal outputs and successful resolution of pneumoperitoneum were achieved, with no relapse after octreotide discontinuation.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Perfuração Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Octreotida/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal , Enterocolite Necrosante/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Perfuração Intestinal/complicações , Laparotomia , Indução de Remissão
20.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0157527, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27332552

RESUMO

The faecal microbiota composition of infants born to mothers receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with ampicillin against group B Streptococcus was compared with that of control infants, at day 7 and 30 of life. Recruited newborns were both exclusive breastfed and mixed fed, in order to also study the effect of dietary factors on the microbiota composition. Massive parallel sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR analysis were performed. Antibiotic prophylaxis caused the most marked changes on the microbiota in breastfed infants, mainly resulting in a higher relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, compared with control infants (52% vs. 14%, p = 0.044) and mixed-fed infants (52% vs. 16%, p = 0.13 NS) at day 7 and in a lower bacterial diversity compared to mixed-fed infants and controls. Bifidobacteria were also particularly vulnerable and abundances were reduced in breastfed (p = 0.001) and mixed-fed antibiotic treated groups compared to non-treated groups. Reductions in bifidobacteria in antibiotic treated infants were also confirmed by qPCR. By day 30, the bifidobacterial population recovered and abundances significantly increased in both breastfed (p = 0.025) and mixed-fed (p = 0.013) antibiotic treated groups, whereas Enterobacteriaceae abundances remained highest in the breastfed antibiotic treated group (44%), compared with control infants (16%) and mixed-fed antibiotic treated group (28%). This study has therefore demonstrated the short term consequences of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on the infant faecal microbial population, particularly in that of breastfed infants.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus agalactiae/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Aleitamento Materno , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
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