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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monocyte dysfunction may persist during antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 30 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected ART-treated adults with sustained viral suppression and CD4 counts ≥500 cells/µL were consecutively analyzed for monocyte phenotypes and function. RESULTS: Nonclassical monocytes (CD14+, CD16++), interleukin (IL)-1ß production, and expression of CD40 and CD86 were lower among ART-treated HIV-infected adults relative to age-matched HIV-negative adults (P = .01, P = .01, and P = .02, respectively). Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, IL6, and soluble CD14 were higher among HIV-infected adults relative to HIV-negative adults (P = .0002, P = .04, and P = .0017, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation is required to understand drivers of persistent monocyte activation and dysfunction.

2.
Clin Immunol ; 201: 55-60, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined NK cell phenotypes and functions after seven years of ART and undetectable viral loads (<50 copies/ml) with restored CD4 T-cell counts (≥500 cells/µl) and age-matched healthy-HIV-uninfected individuals from the same community. METHODS: Using flow-cytometry, NK cell phenotypes were described using lineage markers (CD56+/-CD16+/-). NK cell activation was determined by expression of activation receptors (NKG2D, NKp44 and NKp46) and activation marker CD69. NK cell function was determined by CD107a, granzyme-b, and IFN-gamma production. RESULTS: CD56 dim and CD56 bright NK cells were lower among ART-treated-HIV-infected than among age-matched-HIV-negative individuals; p = 0.0016 and p = 0.05 respectively. Production of CD107a (P = 0.004) and Granzyme-B (P = 0.005) was lower among ART-treated-HIV-infected relative to the healthy-HIV-uninfected individuals. NKG2D and NKp46 were lower, while CD69 expression was higher among ART-treated-HIV-infected than healthy-HIV-uninfected individuals. CONCLUSION: NK cell activation and dysfunction persisted despite seven years of suppressive ART with "normalization" of peripheral CD4 counts.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(2): e0007157, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosoma infection is associated with immune modulation that can influence responses to non-schistosome antigens. Vaccine responses may be impaired in S. mansoni-infected individuals. We investigated effects of S. mansoni infection on responses to childhood measles catch-up immunisation and of praziquantel treatment on this outcome in a randomised trial. METHODOLOGY: The Immune Modulation and Childhood Immunisation (IMoChI) study was based in Entebbe, Uganda. Children aged 3-5 years (193 S. mansoni-infected and 61 uninfected) were enrolled. Infected children were randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive praziquantel 2 weeks before, at time of, or 1 week after, measles catch-up immunisation. Plasma anti-measles IgG was measured at enrolment, 1 week and 24 weeks after measles immunisation. Primary outcomes were IgG levels and percentage of participants with levels considered protective against measles. RESULTS: Anti-measles IgG levels increased following immunisation, but at 1 week post-immunisation S. mansoni-infected, compared to uninfected, children had lower levels of anti-measles IgG (adjusted geometric mean ratio (aGMR) 0.4 [95% CI 0.2-0.7]) and the percentage with protective antibody levels was also lower (adjusted odds ratio 0.1 [0-0.9]). Among S. mansoni-infected children, anti-measles IgG one week post-immunisation was higher among those treated with praziquantel than among those who were not yet treated (treatment before immunisation, aGMR 2.3 [1.5-4.8]; treatment at immunisation aGMR 1.8 [1.1-3.5]). At 24 weeks post-immunisation, IgG levels did not differ between the trial groups, but tended to be lower among previously-infected children who were still S mansoni stool-positive than among those who became stool-negative. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that S. mansoni infection among pre-school children is associated with a reduced antibody response to catch-up measles immunisation, and that praziquantel treatment improves the response. S. mansoni infection may contribute to impaired vaccine responses in endemic populations; effective schistosomiasis control may be beneficial for vaccine efficacy. This should be further explored. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN87107592.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia
4.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205102, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312318

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence supporting a role for antibodies in protection against tuberculosis (TB), with functional antibodies being described in the latent state of TB infection. Antibody avidity is an important determinant of antibody-mediated protection. This study characterised the avidity of antibodies against Ag85A, an immunodominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) antigen and constituent of several anti-TB vaccine candidates, in individuals of varied M.tb infection status. Avidity of Ag85A specific antibodies was measured in 30 uninfected controls, 34 individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) and 75 active pulmonary TB (APTB) cases, employing the more commonly used chaotrope-based dissociation assays, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Chaotrope-based assays indicated that APTB was associated with a higher antibody avidity index compared to uninfected controls [adjusted geometric mean ratio (GMR): 1.641, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.153, 2.337, p = 0.006, q = 0.018] and to individuals with LTBI [adjusted GMR: 1.604, 95% CI: 1.282, 2.006, p < 0.001, q <0.001]. SPR assays showed that APTB was associated with slower dissociation rates, an indication of higher avidity, compared to uninfected controls (adjusted GMR: 0.796, 95% CI: 0.681, 0.932, p = 0.004, q = 0.012) and there was also weak evidence of more avid antibodies in the LTBI compared to the uninfected controls (adjusted GMR: 0.871, 95% CI: 0.763, 0.994, p = 0.041, q = 0.123). We found no statistically significant differences in anti-Ag85A antibody avidity between the APTB and LTBI groups. This study shows that antibodies of increased avidity are generated against a principle vaccine antigen in M.tb infected individuals. It would be important to determine whether TB vaccines are able to elicit a similar response. Additionally, more research is needed to determine whether antibody avidity is important in protection against infection and disease.

5.
Parasite Immunol ; 40(12): e12592, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239006

RESUMO

Larvae of Schistosoma (schistosomula) are highly susceptible to host immune responses and are attractive prophylactic vaccine targets, although cellular immune responses against schistosomula antigens in endemic human populations are not well characterized. We collected blood and stool from 54 Schistosoma mansoni-infected Ugandans, isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated them for 24 hours with schistosome adult worm and soluble egg antigens (AWA and SEA), along with schistosomula recombinant proteins rSmKK7, Lymphocyte Antigen 6 isoforms (rSmLy6A and rSmLy6B), tetraspanin isoforms (rSmTSP6 and rSmTSP7). Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were measured in the culture supernatants using a multiplex luminex assay, and infection intensity was determined before and at 1 year after praziquantel (PZQ) treatment using the Kato-Katz method. Cellular responses were grouped and the relationship between groups of correlated cellular responses and infection intensity before and after PZQ treatment was investigated. AWA and SEA induced mainly Th2 responses. In contrast, rSmLy6B, rSmTSP6 and rSmTSP7 induced Th1/pro-inflammatory responses. While recombinant antigens rSmKK7 and rSmLy6A did not induce a Th1/pro-inflammatory response, they had an association with pre-treatment infection intensity after adjusting for age and sex. Testing more schistosomula antigens using this approach could provide immune-epidemiology identifiers necessary for prioritizing next generation schistosomiasis vaccine candidates.

6.
Parasite Immunol ; 40(12): e12591, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239012

RESUMO

While antigens from Schistosoma schistosomula have been suggested as potential vaccine candidates, the association between antibody responses with schistosomula antigens and infection intensity at reinfection is not well known. Schistosoma mansoni-infected individuals were recruited from a schistosomiasis endemic area in Uganda (n = 372), treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel (PZQ) and followed up at five weeks and at one year post-treatment. Pre-treatment and five weeks post-treatment immunoglobulin (Ig) E, IgG1 and IgG4 levels against recombinant schistosomula antigens rSmKK7, rSmLy6A, rSmLy6B and rSmTSP7 were measured using ELISA. Factors associated with detectable pre-treatment or post-treatment antibody response against the schistosomula antigens and the association between five-week antibody responses and one year post-treatment reinfection intensity among antibody responders were examined. Being male was associated with higher pre-treatment IgG1 to rSmKK7, rSmLy6a and AWA. Five weeks post-treatment antibody responses against schistosomula antigens were not associated with one year post-treatment reinfection intensity among antibody responders' antibody levels against rSmKK7, rSmLy6B and rSmTSP7 dropped, but increased against rSmLy6A, AWA and SEA at five weeks post-treatment among antibody responders. S. mansoni-infected individuals exhibit detectable antibody responses to schistosomula antigens that are affected by treatment. These findings indicate that schistosomula antigens induce highly varied antibody responses and could have implications for vaccine development.

7.
J Infect Dis ; 218(7): 1061-1065, 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741631

RESUMO

We examined anemia and malaria as risk factors for Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seropositivity and antibody levels in a long-standing rural Ugandan cohort, in which KSHV is prevalent. Samples from 4134 children, aged 1-17 years, with a sex ratio of 1:1, and 3149 adults aged 18-103 years, 41% of whom were males, were analyzed. Among children, malaria infection was associated with higher KSHV prevalence (61% vs 41% prevalence among malaria infected and uninfected, respectively); malaria was not assessed in adults. Additionally, lower hemoglobin level was associated with an increased prevalence of KSHV seropositivity, both in children and in adults.

8.
Vaccine ; 36(20): 2870-2875, 2018 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655624

RESUMO

AIMS: Clinical guidelines for management of infants with fever but no evident focus of infection recommend that those aged 1-3 months with a white cell count >15 × 109/l have a full septic screen and be admitted for parenteral antibiotics. However, there is limited information about leucocyte changes following routine immunization, a common cause of fever. We investigated white cell counts shortly after routine immunization in Ugandan infants under 3 months of age. METHODS: White cell counts were measured in 212 healthy infants following routine immunizations (DTwP-HepB-Hib, oral polio and pneumococcal conjugate 7 vaccines) received prior to 3 months of age. RESULTS: Mean leucocyte counts increased from 9.03 × 109/l (95% confidence interval 8.59-9.47 × 109/l) pre-immunizations to 16.46 × 109/l (15.4-17.52 × 109/l) at one-day post-immunizations at 6 weeks of age, and 15.21 × 109/l (14.07-16.36 × 109/l) at one-day post-immunizations at 10 weeks of age. The leucocytosis was primarily a neutrophilia, with neutrophil percentages one-day post-immunization of 49% at 6 weeks of age and 46% at 10 weeks of age. White cell parameters returned to baseline by two-days post-immunization. No participant received antibiotics when presenting with isolated fever post-immunization and all remained well at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In our study almost half the children <3 months old presenting with fever but no evident focus of infection at one-day post-immunization met commonly used criteria for full septic screen and admission for parenteral antibiotics, despite having no serious bacterial infection. These findings add to the growing body of literature that questions the utility of white blood cell measurement in identification of young infants at risk of serious bacterial infections, particularly in the context of recent immunizations, and suggest that further exploration of the effect of different immunization regimes on white cell counts is needed. This observational work was nested within a clinical trial, registration number ISRCTN59683017.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/efeitos adversos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/efeitos adversos , Imunização/efeitos adversos , Leucocitose/induzido quimicamente , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/efeitos adversos , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/terapia , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucocitose/diagnóstico , Leucocitose/epidemiologia , Leucocitose/terapia , Masculino , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , Uganda
9.
AIDS Res Ther ; 15(1): 7, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544508

RESUMO

HIV infection causes upregulation of markers of inflammation, immune activation and apoptosis of host adaptive, and innate immune cells particularly monocytes, natural killer (NK) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4 T-cell counts, the persistent aberrant activation of monocytes, NK and ILCs observed likely contributes to the incomplete recovery of T-cell effector functions. A better understanding of the effects of HIV infection and ART on the phenotype and function of circulating monocytes, NK, and ILCs is required to guide development of novel therapeutic interventions to optimize immune recovery.

10.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 37(8): e225-e228, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369149

RESUMO

We investigated associations between Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seroconversion age and KSHV antibody values in Ugandan children. Every annual delay in KSHV seroconversion age was associated with a reduction of 19% (P < 0.0001) in K8.1 and 27% (P < 0.0001) in ORF73 antibody values at 6 years of age. Early infection may be an important risk factor for KSHV pathogenesis and viral shedding in saliva, leading to transmission.

11.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188396, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161328

RESUMO

QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) supernatants may be important samples for use in assessment of anti-tuberculosis (TB) antibodies when only limited volumes of blood can be collected and when a combination of antibody and cytokine measurements are required. These analytes, when used together, may also have the potential to differentiate active pulmonary TB (APTB) from latent TB infection (LTBI). However, few studies have explored the use of QFT-GIT supernatants for investigations of antibody responses. This study determined the correlation and agreement between anti-CFP-10 and anti-ESAT-6 antibody concentrations in QFT-GIT nil supernatant and serum pairs from 68 TB household contacts. We also explored the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) specific antibodies, or ratios of antibody to interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in QFT-GIT supernatants, to differentiate 97 APTB cases from 58 individuals with LTBI. Sputum smear microscopy was used to define APTB, whereas the QFT-GIT and tuberculin skin test were used to define LTBI. There were strong and statistically significant correlations between anti-CFP-10 and anti-ESAT-6 antibodies in unstimulated QFT-GIT supernatants and sera (r = 0.89; p<0.0001 for both), and no significant differences in antibody concentration between them. Anti-CFP-10 & anti-ESAT-6 antibodies differentiated APTB from LTBI with sensitivities of 88.7% & 71.1% and specificities of 41.4% & 51.7% respectively. Anti-CFP-10 antibody/M.tb specific IFN-γ and anti-ESAT-6 antibody/M.tb specific IFN-γ ratios had sensitivities of 48.5% & 54.6% and specificities of 89.7% and 75.9% respectively. We conclude that QFT-GIT nil supernatants may be used in the place of sera when measuring antibody responses, reducing blood volumes needed for such investigations. Antibodies in QFT-GIT nil supernatants on their own discriminate APTB from LTBI with high sensitivity but have poor specificity, whereas the reverse is true when antibodies are used in combination with M.tb specific cytokines. Further antibody and antibody/cytokine combinations need to be explored to achieve better diagnostic accuracy.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Tuberculose Latente/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/isolamento & purificação , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/imunologia , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Tuberculose Latente/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escarro/imunologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
EBioMedicine ; 23: 8-9, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807515
13.
Trends Parasitol ; 33(12): 918-921, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28818406

RESUMO

There is currently no vaccine against schistosomiasis. With few Schistosoma vaccine candidates in clinical trials, unexplored antigens from the vulnerable schistosomulum should be considered as possible vaccine candidates. In addition, we suggest developing synthetic vesicles as a new delivery vehicle and adjuvant for immunoprophylactic schistosomula vaccine candidates.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Humanos , Schistosoma mansoni/metabolismo
14.
J Exp Med ; 214(9): 2563-2572, 2017 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724616

RESUMO

Until recently, immune responses in filovirus survivors remained poorly understood. Early studies revealed IgM and IgG responses to infection with various filoviruses, but recent outbreaks have greatly expanded our understanding of filovirus immune responses. Immune responses in survivors of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) infections have provided the most insight, with T cell responses as well as detailed antibody responses having been characterized. Immune responses to Marburg virus (MARV), however, remain almost entirely uncharacterized. We report that immune responses in MARV survivors share characteristics with EBOV and SUDV infections but have some distinct differences. MARV survivors developed multivariate CD4+ T cell responses but limited CD8+ T cell responses, more in keeping with SUDV survivors than EBOV survivors. In stark contrast to SUDV survivors, rare neutralizing antibody responses in MARV survivors diminished rapidly after the outbreak. These results warrant serious consideration for any vaccine or therapeutic that seeks to be broadly protective, as different filoviruses may require different immune responses to achieve immunity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/imunologia , Marburgvirus/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Ligante de CD40/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Masculino , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobreviventes , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(5): e0005440, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28472067

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Helminth infection may affect vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Adolescents, a target population for tuberculosis booster vaccines, often have a high helminth burden. We investigated effects of Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) on the immunogenicity and safety of MVA85A, a model candidate tuberculosis vaccine, in BCG-vaccinated Ugandan adolescents. METHODS: In this phase II open label trial we enrolled 36 healthy, previously BCG-vaccinated adolescents, 18 with no helminth infection detected, 18 with Sm only. The primary outcome was immunogenicity measured by Ag85A-specific interferon gamma ELISpot assay. Tuberculosis and schistosome-specific responses were also assessed by whole-blood stimulation and multiplex cytokine assay, and by antibody ELISAs. RESULTS: Ag85A-specific cellular responses increased significantly following immunisation but with no differences between the two groups. Sm infection was associated with higher pre-immunisation Ag85A-specific IgG4 but with no change in antibody levels following immunisation. There were no serious adverse events. Most reactogenicity events were of mild or moderate severity and resolved quickly. CONCLUSIONS: The significant Ag85A-specific T cell responses and lack of difference between Sm-infected and uninfected participants is encouraging for tuberculosis vaccine development. The implications of pre-existing Ag85A-specific IgG4 antibodies for protective immunity against tuberculosis among those infected with Sm are not known. MVA85A was safe in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02178748.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Schistosoma mansoni , Tuberculose/imunologia , Uganda , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
16.
J Immunol Res ; 2017: 1593143, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28255560

RESUMO

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is evidence of immunological control of tuberculosis. Dormancy survival regulator (DosR) regulon-encoded proteins may have a role in the maintenance of LTBI. T cell responses to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins were found to be most frequent among household contacts of TB cases from Uganda compared to other DosR proteins, but antibody responses were not described. We characterized antibody responses to these proteins in individuals from Uganda. Antibodies to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins were measured in 68 uninfected individuals, 62 with LTBI, and 107 with active pulmonary tuberculosis (APTB) cases. There were no differences in the concentrations of antibodies to Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins between individuals with LTBI and APTB and those who were uninfected. LTBI was associated with higher concentrations of antibodies to Rv1733c in female participants [adjusted geometric mean ratio: 1.812, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.105 2.973, and p = 0.019] but not in males (p value for interaction = 0.060). Antibodies to the four DosR regulon-encoded proteins investigated may not serve as good biomarkers of LTBI in the general population. More of the M.tb proteome needs to be screened to identify proteins that induce strong antibody responses in LTBI.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Regulon , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Tuberculose Latente/microbiologia , Masculino , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Vaccine ; 35(2): 273-282, 2017 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27914741

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposures such as infections and immunisation may influence infant responses. We had an opportunity to undertake an analysis of innate responses in infants within the context of a study investigating the effects of maternal mycobacterial exposures and infection on BCG vaccine-induced responses in Ugandan infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maternal and cord blood samples from 29 mother-infant pairs were stimulated with innate stimuli for 24h and cytokines and chemokines in supernatants were measured using the Luminex® assay. The associations between maternal latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), maternal BCG scar (adjusted for each other's effect) and infant responses were examined using linear regression. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to assess patterns of cytokine and chemokine responses. Gene expression profiles for pathways associated with maternal LTBI and with maternal BCG scar were examined using samples collected at one (n=42) and six (n=51) weeks after BCG immunisation using microarray. RESULTS: Maternal LTBI was positively associated with infant IP-10 responses with an adjusted geometric mean ratio (aGMR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 5.10 [1.21, 21.48]. Maternal BCG scar showed strong and consistent associations with IFN-γ (aGMR 2.69 [1.15, 6.17]), IL-12p70 (1.95 [1.10, 3.55]), IL-10 (1.82 [1.07, 3.09]), VEGF (3.55 [1.07, 11.48]) and IP-10 (6.76 [1.17, 38.02]). Further assessment of the associations using PCA showed no differences for maternal LTBI, but maternal BCG scar was associated with higher scores for principal component (PC) 1 (median level of scores: 1.44 in scar-positive versus -0.94 in scar-negative, p=0.020) in the infants. PC1 represented a controlled proinflammatory response. Interferon and inflammation response pathways were up-regulated in infants of mothers with LTBI at six weeks, and in infants of mothers with a BCG scar at one and six weeks after BCG immunisation. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal BCG scar had a stronger association with infant responses than maternal LTBI, with an increased proinflammatory immune profile.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Exposição Materna , Troca Materno-Fetal , Adulto , Cicatriz , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 3(2)2017 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371546

RESUMO

A third of adults with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis (CM) develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is thought to result from exaggerated inflammatory antigen-specific T cell responses. The contribution of monocytes to the immunopathogenesis of cryptococcal IRIS remains unclear. We compared monocyte subset frequencies and immune responses in HIV-infected Ugandans at time of CM diagnosis (IRIS-Baseline) for those who later developed CM-IRIS, controls who did not develop CM-IRIS (Control-Baseline) at CM-IRIS (IRIS-Event), and for controls at a time point matched for ART duration (Control-Event) to understand the association of monocyte distribution and immune responses with cryptococcal IRIS. At baseline, stimulation with IFN-γ ex vivo induced a higher frequency of TNF-α- and IL-6-producing monocytes among those who later developed IRIS. Among participants who developed IRIS, ex vivo IFN-γ stimulation induced higher frequencies of activated monocytes, IL-6⁺, TNF-α⁺ classical, and IL-6⁺ intermediate monocytes compared with controls. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that monocyte subset phenotype and cytokine responses prior to ART are associated with and may be predictive of CM-IRIS. Larger studies to further delineate innate immunological responses and the efficacy of immunomodulatory therapies during cryptococcal IRIS are warranted.

19.
Viruses ; 8(5)2016 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27187443

RESUMO

Robust humoral and cellular immunity are critical for survival in humans during an ebolavirus infection. However, the interplay between these two arms of immunity is poorly understood. To address this, we examined residual immune responses in survivors of the Sudan virus (SUDV) outbreak in Gulu, Uganda (2000-2001). Cytokine and chemokine expression levels in SUDV stimulated whole blood cultures were assessed by multiplex ELISA and flow cytometry. Antibody and corresponding neutralization titers were also determined. Flow cytometry and multiplex ELISA results demonstrated significantly higher levels of cytokine and chemokine responses in survivors with serological neutralizing activity. This correspondence was not detected in survivors with serum reactivity to SUDV but without neutralization activity. This previously undefined relationship between memory CD4 T cell responses and serological neutralizing capacity in SUDV survivors is key for understanding long lasting immunity in survivors of filovirus infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Testes de Neutralização , Sobreviventes , Uganda
20.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0146098, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26771653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the absence of a gold standard for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI), the current tests available for the diagnosis of LTBI are limited by their inability to differentiate between LTBI and active TB disease. We investigated IP-10 as a potential biomarker for LTBI among household contacts exposed to sputum positive active TB cases. METHODS: Active TB cases and contacts were recruited into a cohort with six months' follow-up. Contacts were tested for LTBI using QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFN) assay and the tuberculin skin test (TST). Baseline supernatants from the QFN assay of 237 contacts and 102 active TB cases were analysed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) specific and mitogen specific IP-10 responses. RESULTS: Contacts with LTBI (QFN+TST+) had the highest MTB specific IP-10 responses at baseline, compared to uninfected contacts (QFN-TST-) p<0.0001; and active cases, p = 0.01. Using a cut-off of 8,239 pg/ml, MTB specific IP-10 was able to diagnose LTBI with a sensitivity of 87.1% (95% CI, 76.2-94.3) and specificity of 90.9% (95% CI, 81.3-96.6). MTB specific to mitogen specific IP-10 ratio was higher in HIV negative active TB cases, compared to HIV negative latently infected contacts, p = 0.0004. Concentrations of MTB specific IP-10 were higher in contacts with TST conversion (negative at baseline, positive at 6-months) than in those that were persistently TST negative, p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: IP-10 performed well in differentiating contacts with either latent or active TB from those who were uninfected but was not able to differentiate LTBI from active disease except when MTB specific to mitogen specific ratios were used in HIV negative adults. In addition, IP-10 had the potential to diagnose 'recent TB infection' in persons classified as having LTBI using the TST. Such individuals with strong IP-10 responses would likely benefit from chemoprophylaxis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
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