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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine management and outcomes of (Stanford) type A aortic dissection (TAAAD) in patients aged >70 years. METHODS: All patients with TAAAD enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection database (1996-2018) were studied (n = 5553). Patients were stratified by age and therapeutic strategy. Outcomes for octogenarians were compared with those for septuagenarians. Variables associated with in-hospital mortality were identified by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: In-hospital mortality for all patients (all ages) was 19.7% (1167 deaths), 16.1% after surgical intervention vs 52.1% for medical management (P < 0.001). Of the study population, 1281 patients (21.6%) were aged 71-80 years and 475 (8.0%) were >80 years. Fewer octogenarians underwent surgery versus septuagenarians (68.1% vs 85.9%, P < 0.001). Overall mortality was higher for octogenarians versus septuagenarians (32.0% vs 25.6%, P = 0.008); however, surgical mortality was similar (25.1% vs 21.7%, P = 0.205). Postoperative complications were comparable between surgically managed cohorts, although reoperation for bleeding was more common in septuagenarians (8.1% vs 3.2%, P = 0.033). Kaplan-Meier 5-year survival was significantly superior after surgical repair in all age groups, including septuagenarians (57.0% vs 13.7%, P < 0.001) and octogenarians (35.5% vs 22.6%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: When compared with septuagenarians, a smaller percentage of octogenarians undergo surgical repair for TAAAD, even though postoperative outcomes are similar. Age alone should not preclude consideration for surgery in appropriately selected patients with TAAAD.

3.
Artif Organs ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881809

RESUMO

As a native Houstonian, the notoriety surrounding Dr. Denton A Cooley's implantation of the total artificial heart on Good Friday, April 4, 1969, was inescapable. At the time, Drs. Cooley and Michael E. DeBakey were the two most famous surgeons in Houston and much of the world. They had worked together professionally for 18 years, revolutionizing cardiothoracic surgery and mastering aortic surgery from beginning to end. However, this working relationship ended abruptly, and one of the most famous feuds in medicine began. Little did I know at the time that I would train with both men, work in both their respective institutions (which are located on the most competitive block of the Texas Medical Center), and play a role four decades later as their relationship rekindled. Here, I recount what I have come to learn about these events.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify the optimal temperature for moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest in patients undergoing elective hemiarch replacement with antegrade brain perfusion. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons adult cardiac surgery database was queried for elective hemiarch replacements using antegrade brain perfusion for aneurysmal disease (2014-2019). Generalized estimating equations and restricted cubic splines were used to determine the risk-adjusted relationships between temperature as a continuous variable and outcomes. RESULTS: Elective hemiarch replacement with antegrade brain perfusion occurred in 3898 patients at 374 centers with a median nadir temperature of 24.9 °C (first quartile, third quartile = 22.0 °C, 27.5 °C) and median circulatory arrest time of 19 minutes (first quartile, third quartile = 14.0 minutes, 27.0 minutes). After adjustment for comorbidities, circulatory arrest time, and individual surgeon, patients cooled between 25 and 28 °C had an early survival advantage compared with 24 °C, whereas those cooled between 21 and 23 °C had higher risks of mortality compared with 24 °C. A nadir temperature of 27 °C was associated with the lowest risk-adjusted odds of mortality (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.91). A nadir temperature of 21 °C had the highest risk of mortality (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.73). Risk of experiencing a major morbidity was elevated in patients cooled between 21 and 23 °C, with the highest risk occurring in patients cooled to 21 °C (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with aneurysmal disease undergoing elective hemiarch with antegrade brain perfusion, circulatory arrest with a nadir temperature of 27 °C confers the greatest early survival benefit and smallest risk of postoperative morbidity.

5.
J Card Surg ; 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncomplicated Stanford Type B aortic dissection (un-TBAD) is characterized by a tear in the aorta distal to the left subclavian artery without ascending aorta and arch involvement. Optimized cardiovascular control (blood pressure and heart rate) is the current gold standard treatment according to current international guidelines. However, emerging evidence indicates that thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is both safe and effective in the treatment of un-TBAD with improved long-term survival outcomes in combination with optimal medical therapy (OMT) relative to OMT alone. However, the optimal timeframe for intervention is not entirely clarified. AIMS: This review critically addresses current state-of-the-art comparing TEVAR with OMT and corresponding clinical outcomes for un-TBAD based on timing of intervention. METHODS: We carried out a comprehensive literature search on multiple electronic databases including PUBMED and Scopus to collate all research evidence on timing of TEVAR in uncomplicated Type B aortic dissection. RESULTS: TEVAR has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for un-TBAD in combination with OMT through comparable survival outcomes, improved aortic remodeling, and relatively low periprocedural added risks. Though the timing of intervention remains controversial, it is becoming clear that performing TEVAR during the subacute phase of un-TBAD yields better outcomes compared to earlier and delayed (>90 days) intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is required into both short- and long-term outcomes of TEVAR in addition to its optimal therapeutic window for un-TBAD. With stronger evidence, TEVAR is likely to be adopted as the gold-standard intervention for un-TBAD with definitive timeframe guidelines.

6.
J Surg Res ; 272: 105-116, 2021 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome induces pyroptosis, tissue inflammation, and extracellular matrix destruction. We tested the hypothesis that the AIM2 inflammasome contributes to aortic aneurysm and dissection (AAD) development by promoting pyroptosis in smooth muscle cells (SMCs). METHODS: We examined AIM2 expression in aortic tissues from patients with ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) and aortic dissection (ATAD) and from organ donor controls. AIM2's role in AAD development was evaluated in AIM2-deficient mice in a sporadic AAD model induced by challenging mice with a high-fat diet and angiotensin II infusion. The direct effects of dsDNA on SMC death in vitro were studied. RESULTS: Western blot analyses showed that AIM2 was increased in ATAD compared to ATAA and control tissue. Immunofluorescence demonstrated increased AIM2 in SMCs and macrophages in the aortic media and adventitia of dissected tissue. Increased AIM2 abundance was associated with increased cleavage of caspase-1 and cleavage of gasdermin-D, indicating activation of pyroptosis. In a mouse model of sporadic AAD induced by high-fat diet and angiotensin II infusion, AIM2-deficient mice showed significant reduction in aortic dissection, but not aneurysm formation in all aortic segments, versus wild-type mice. Finally, treating cultured human aortic SMCs with double-stranded DNA induced AIM2 expression, caspase-1 cleavage, and gasdermin-D cleavage; these effects were reduced by silencing AIM2 and caspase-1 genes, suggesting involvement of the AIM2 inflammasome in cytosolic DNA-induced activation of SMC pyroptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of the AIM2 inflammasome cascade contributes to aortic degeneration and dissection, in part, by activating pyroptosis.

7.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 10(6): 768-777, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926179

RESUMO

Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a less invasive method for treating thoracic and some thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms, dissections of the thoracic aorta and blunt traumatic aortic injury, compared with conventional open surgery. Maximizing the likelihood of a successful outcome requires diligent multidisciplinary (surgical, critical care, nursing, pharmacy, nutrition and physical therapy) perioperative care. In this article, we discuss fundamentals for managing patients after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. These principles focus on the transition between the operating room and the intensive care unit, prevention and management of spinal cord deficits (SCD), and vital neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal and hematological concerns. The better the care team understands the expected postoperative course, the earlier that deviations can be recognized and the more likely that successful rescue can be achieved to reduce the incidence and severity of adverse outcomes. Achieving optimal results after TEVAR requires attention to detail across the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative phases of care.

8.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 10(5): 630-640, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733690

RESUMO

Background: Valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve replacement (ViV-TAVR) has emerged as a safe, effective alternative to redo aortic valve surgery in high-risk patients with degenerated surgical bioprosthetic valves. However, ViV-TAVR has been associated high postprocedural valvular gradients, compared with TAVR for native-valve aortic stenosis. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of all patients who underwent ViV-TAVR for a degenerated aortic valve bioprosthesis between January 1, 2013 and March 31, 2019 at our center. The primary outcome was postprocedural mean aortic valve gradient. Outcomes were compared across surgical valve type (stented versus stentless), surgical valve internal diameter (≤19 versus >19 mm), and transcatheter aortic valve type (self-expanding vs. balloon-expandable). Results: Overall, 89 patients underwent ViV-TAVR. Mean age was 69.0±12.6 years, 61% were male, and median Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality score was 5.4 [interquartile range, 3.2-8.5]. Bioprosthesis mode of failure was stenotic (58% of patients), regurgitant (24%), or mixed (18%). The surgical valve was stented in 75% of patients and stentless in 25%. The surgical valve's internal diameter was ≤19 mm in 45% of cases. A balloon-expandable transcatheter valve was used in 53% of procedures. Baseline aortic valve area and mean gradients were 0.87±0.31 cm2 and 36±18 mmHg, respectively. These improved after ViV-TAVR to 1.38±0.55 cm2 and 18±11 mmHg at a median outpatient follow-up of 331 [67-394] days. Higher postprocedural mean gradients were associated with surgical valves having an internal diameter ≤19 mm (24±13 versus 16±8, P=0.002) and with stented surgical valves (22±11 versus 12±6, P<0.001). Conclusions: ViV-TAVR is an effective option for treating degenerated surgical aortic bioprostheses, with acceptable hemodynamic outcomes. Small surgical valves and stented surgical valves are associated with higher postprocedural gradients.

9.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 10(5): 641-650, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733691

RESUMO

Background: Open surgical repair of a failed valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSARR) or stentless bioroot aortic root replacement (bio-ARR) entails significant operative risks. Whether valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve replacement (ViV-TAVR) is feasible in patients with a previous VSARR or stentless bio-ARR remains unclear, given lingering concerns about the ill-defined aortic annulus in these patients and the potential for coronary obstruction. We present our experience with patients who had a previous VSARR or stentless bio-ARR and underwent ViV-TAVR to repair a degenerated aortic valve with combined valvular disease, aortic insufficiency and aortic stenosis. Methods: In this retrospective data review, we identified and analyzed consecutive patients with a previous VSARR or stentless bio-ARR who underwent ViV-TAVR between December 1, 2014 and August 31, 2019. Results: ViV-TAVR was performed in twelve high-risk patients with previous VSARR or bio-ARR during the study period. Of these, seven received Medtronic Freestyle porcine stentless bioprosthetic aortic roots, three received homograft aortic roots, one underwent a Ross procedure and one underwent VSARR. ViV-TAVR restored satisfactory valve function in all patients, and technical success was 100%. No patient had more than mild regurgitation after implantation. No thirty-day mortality was seen. One patient had major bleeding after transapical access, one patient had a transient ischemic stroke, and one patient needed permanent pacemaker implantation. At a median last follow-up of 21.5 months (interquartile range, 9.0-69.0 months), all patients remained alive and had satisfactory valve function. Conclusions: In this study, ViV-TAVR was a clinically effective option for treating patients with a failed stentless bio-ARR or previous VSARR. Short-term and intermediate-term results after these procedures were favorable. These findings may have important implications for treating high-risk patients with structural aortic root deterioration and call for better transcatheter heart valves that are suitable for treating aortic insufficiency.

11.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staged open repair of extensive aortic aneurysm by using the elephant trunk (ET) technique has facilitated the treatment of aortic aneurysms that affect the entire thoracic aorta. We describe our nearly 3-decade experience with classic ET repairs. METHODS: From 1990 through 2021, we performed 363 stage-1 ET repairs to replace the transverse aortic arch in patients with a median age of 65 years [interquartile range: 56-71]. Fifty-six patients (15.4%) presented with acute symptoms, and 182 (50.1%) underwent redo sternotomy. After a median interval of 3.2 months [IQR: 2.0-7.3], 203 (55.9%) patients underwent stage-2 ET completion; few (n=16; 7.9%) had acute symptoms. Stage-2 repairs comprised 162 (80.6%) extent I or II thoracoabdominal aortic replacements. We examined postoperative outcomes including operative mortality, adverse event (a composite end point), survival, and repair failure. RESULTS: Operative mortality was 12.4% (45/363) after stage-1 and 10.3% (21/203) after stage-2. The rates of adverse event were 18.5% (67/363) for stage-1 and 18.4% (38/203) for stage-2. Acute symptoms independently predicted operative mortality and adverse event for both stage-1 and stage-2 repairs; additional predictors for stage-2 repairs were older age and extent II repair. Survival was significantly worse for patients who did not receive their stage-2 completion repair than for those who did (p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Treating extensive aortic aneurysms by using the ET technique for staged repair is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients who present with acute symptoms are at greater risk of operative mortality and adverse event. Diligent surveillance is needed between stages.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare midterm outcomes of aortic valve-replacing root replacement (AVR) and aortic valve-sparing root replacement (AVS) operations in patients with Marfan syndrome. METHODS: Patients who met strict Ghent diagnostic criteria for Marfan syndrome and who underwent either AVR or AVS between March 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010 were enrolled in a 3-year follow-up prospective, multicenter, international registry study; the study was subsequently amended to include 20-year follow-up. Enrollees were followed clinically and echocardiographically. RESULTS: Of the 316 patients enrolled, 77 underwent AVR and 239 underwent AVS; 214 gave reconsent for 20-year follow-up. The median clinical follow-up time for surviving patients was 64 months (interquartile range, 42-66 months). Survival rates for the AVR and AVS groups were similar at 88.2% ± 4.4% and 95.0% ± 1.5%, respectively (P = .1). Propensity score-adjusted competing risk modeling showed associations between AVS and higher cumulative incidences of major adverse valve-related events, valve-related morbidity, combined structural valve deterioration and nonstructural valve dysfunction, and aortic regurgitation ≥2+ (all P < .01). No differences were found for reintervention (P = .7), bleeding (P = .2), embolism (P = .3), or valve-related mortality (P = .8). CONCLUSIONS: Five years postoperatively, major adverse valve-related events and valve-related morbidity were more frequent after AVS than after AVR procedures, primarily because of more frequent aortic valve dysfunction. No between-group differences were found in rates of survival, valve-related mortality, reintervention on the aortic valve, or bleeding. We plan to follow this homogenous cohort for 20 years after aortic root replacement.

14.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Machine learning may enhance prediction of outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We sought to develop and validate a dynamic machine learning model to predict CABG outcomes at clinically relevant pre- and postoperative timepoints. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) registry data elements from 2,086 isolated CABG patients were divided into training and testing datasets and input into XGBoost decision-tree machine learning algorithms. Two prediction models were developed based on data from the pre- (80 parameters) and postoperative (125 parameters) phases of care. Outcomes included operative mortality, major morbidity or mortality, high-cost, and 30-day readmission. Machine learning and STS model performance was assessed using accuracy and the area under the precision-recall curve (AUC-PR). RESULTS: Preoperative machine learning models predicted mortality (Accuracy=98%; AUC-PR=0.16; F1=0.24), major morbidity or mortality (Accuracy =75%; AUC-PR=0.33; F1=0.42), high cost (Accuracy =83%; AUC-PR=0.51; F1=0.52), and 30-day readmission (Accuracy =70%; AUC-PR=0.47; F1=0.49) with high accuracy. Preoperative machine learning models performed similar to the STS for prediction of mortality (STS AUC-PR=0.11;p=0.409) and outperformed STS for prediction of mortality or major morbidity (STS AUC-PR=0.28;p<0.001). Addition of intraoperative parameters further improved machine learning model performance for major morbidity or mortality (AUC-PR=0.39;p<0.01) and high cost (AUC-PR=0.64;p<0.01), with cross-clamp and bypass times emerging as important additive predictive parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning can predict mortality, major morbidity, high cost, and readmission after isolated CABG. Prediction based on the phase of care allows for dynamic risk assessment through the hospital course, which may benefit quality assessment and clinical decision making.

17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recruiting and promoting women and racial/ethnic minorities could help enhance diversity and inclusion in the academic cardiothoracic (CT) surgery workforce. However, the demographics of trainees and faculty at US training programs have not yet been studied. METHODS: Traditional, integrated (I-6), and fast-track (4+3) programs listed in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) public database were analyzed. Demographics of trainees and surgeons, including gender, race/ethnicity, subspecialty, and academic appointment (if applicable), were obtained from ACGME Data Resource Books, institutional websites, and public profiles. Chi-square and Cochran-Armitage trend tests were performed. RESULTS: In July 2020, 78 institutions had at least 1 CT surgery training program; 40 (51%) had only a traditional program, 20 (26%) traditional and I-6, 6 (8%) all 3 types of program, and 4 (5%) only I-6. The proportion of female trainees increased significantly from 2011 to 2019 (19% vs 24%, P < .001), with female I-6 trainees outnumbering female traditional trainees since 2018. Significant increases by race/ethnicity were observed overall and by program type, notably for Asian and Hispanic individuals in I-6 programs and Black individuals in traditional programs. Finally, of the 1175 CT surgeons identified, 633 (54%) were adult cardiac surgeons, 360 (37%) assistant professors, 116 (10%) women, and 33 (3%) Black. CONCLUSIONS: The demographic landscape of CT surgery trainees and faculty across multiple training pathways reflects increasing representation by gender and race/ethnicity. However, we must continue to work toward equitable representation in the workforce to benefit the diverse patients we treat.

18.
JTCVS Tech ; 5: 4-5, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318089
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