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1.
Nanotechnology ; 31(27): 275708, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235041

RESUMO

Since its discovery, the environmental instability of exfoliated black phosphorus (2D bP) has emerged as a challenge that hampers its wide application in chemistry, physics, and materials science. Many studies have been carried out to overcome this drawback. Here we show a relevant enhancement of ambient stability in few-layer bP decorated with nickel nanoparticles as compared to pristine bP. In detail, the behavior of the Ni-functionalized material exposed to ambient conditions in the dark is accurately studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Raman Spectroscopy, and high resolution x-ray Photoemission and Absorption Spectroscopy. These techniques provide a morphological and quantitative insight of the oxidation process taking place at the surface of the bP flakes. In the presence of Ni nanoparticles (NPs), the decay time of 2D bP to phosphorus oxides is more than three time slower compared to pristine bP, demonstrating an improved structural stability within 20 months of observation.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065182

RESUMO

The self-assembly of leucoquinizarin molecules on Au(111) surfaces is shown to be characterized by the molecules mostly being in their keto-enolic tautomeric form, with evidence of their temporary switching to other tautomeric forms. This reveals a metastable chemistry of the assembled molecules, to be considered for their possible employment in the formation of more complex hetero-organic interfaces.

3.
Langmuir ; 36(3): 697-703, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762273

RESUMO

Fundamental understanding of the correlation between the structure and reactivity of chemically addressable N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) molecules on various surfaces is essential for the design of functional NHC-based self-assembled monolayers. In this work, we identified the ways by which the deposition of chemically addressable OH-NHCs on Au(111) or Pt(111) surfaces modified the anchoring geometry and chemical reactivity of surface-anchored NHCs. The properties of surface-anchored NHCs were probed by conducting X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and polarized near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurements. While no preferred orientation was identified for OH-NHCs on Pt(111), the anchored molecules adopted a preferred flat-lying position on Au(111). Dehydrogenation and aromatization of the imidazoline ring along with partial hydroxyl oxidation were detected in OH-NHCs that were anchored on Au(111). The dehydrogenation and aromatization reactions were facilitated, along with partial decomposition, for OH-NHCs that were anchored on Pt(111). The spectroscopic results reveal that stronger metal-adsorbate interactions increase the reactivity of surface-anchored OH-NHCs while decreasing their molecular orientational order.

4.
Chemistry ; 25(66): 15009, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774940

RESUMO

Invited for the cover of this issue are Elad Gross, F. Dean Toste, and co-workers at The Hebrew University and UC Berkeley. The image depicts the flexible anchoring geometry of addressable carbene molecules on Au surface, which upon exposure to reducing conditions changed their orientation from a standing into a flat-lying position. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201903434.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 151(13): 134306, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594342

RESUMO

We performed a theoretical investigation on the influence of electronic correlation effects on the B1s NEXAFS spectrum of boronic acid derivatives, namely, boric acid [B(OH)3], phenyl boronic acid (PBA), and 1,4-phenyl diboronic acid (PDBA), employing different computational schemes of increasing complexity, ranging from the purely one-electron scheme based on the transition potential method of density functional theory (DFT-TP), time-dependent DFT (TDDFT), and multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MCSCF). We also report experimental measurements of the B1s NEXAFS spectra of the aforementioned molecules together with the high-resolution C1s NEXAFS spectrum of PBA. We demonstrate that due to the shallow B1s core energy levels compared to C, O, and N, the inclusion of static correlation effects, which can be incorporated by using multireference approaches to excited states, assumes a decisive role in reconciling experiment and theory on B1s core-electron excitation energies and oscillator strengths to valence states. This claim is corroborated by the good agreement that we find between the DFT-TP calculated C1s NEXAFS spectrum and that experimentally measured for PBA and by the failure of both DFT-TP and TDDFT approaches with a selection of xc functionals kernels to properly describe the B1s NEXAFS spectrum of PBA and PDBA, at variance with the good agreement with the experiment that is found by employing the MCSCF wave function approach.

6.
Chemistry ; 25(66): 15067-15072, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394002

RESUMO

The formation of flexible self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in which an external trigger modifies the geometry of surface-anchored molecules is essential for the development of functional materials with tunable properties. In this work, it is demonstrated that NO2 -functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene molecules (NHCs), which were anchored on Au (111) surface, change their orientation from tilted into flat-lying position following trigger-induced reduction of their nitro groups. DFT calculations identified that the energetic driving force for reorientation was the lower steric hindrance and stronger interactions between the chemically reduced NHCs and the Au surface. The trigger-induced changes in the NHCs' anchoring geometry and chemical functionality modified the work function and the hydrophobicity of the NHC-decorated Au surface, demonstrating the impact of a chemically tunable NHC-based SAM on the properties of the metal surface.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 5099-5104, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386382

RESUMO

The development of chemically addressable N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) requires in-depth understanding of the influence of NHC's anchoring geometry on its chemical functionality. Herein, it is demonstrated that the chemical reactivity of surface-anchored NO2-functionalized NHCs (NO2-NHCs) can be tuned by modifying the distance between the functional group and the reactive surface, which is governed by the deposition technique. Liquid deposition of NO2-NHCs on Pt(111) induced a SAM in which the NO2-aryl groups were flat-lying on the surface. The high proximity between the NO2 groups and the Pt surface led to high reactivity, and 85% of the NO2 groups were reduced at room temperature. Lower reactivity was obtained with vapor-deposited NO2-NHCs that assumed a preferred upright geometry. The separation between the NO2 groups in the vapor-deposited NO2-NHCs and the reactive surface circumvented their surface-induced reduction, which was facilitated only after exposure to harsher reducing conditions.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(95): 13423-13426, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427327

RESUMO

Metal-containing enzyme cofactors achieve their unusual reactivity by stabilizing uncommon metal oxidation states with structurally complex ligands. In particular, the specific cofactor promoting both methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation is a porphyrinoid chelated to a nickel(i) atom via a multi-step biosynthetic path, where nickel reduction is achieved through extensive molecular hydrogenation. Here, we demonstrate an alternative route to porphyrin reduction by charge transfer from a selected copper substrate to commercially available 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-porphyrin nickel(ii). X-ray absorption measurements at the Ni L3-edge unequivocally show that NiTPP species adsorbed on Cu(100) are stabilized in the highly reactive Ni(i) oxidation state by electron transfer to the molecular orbitals. Our approach highlights how some fundamental properties of synthetically inaccessible biological cofactors may be reproduced by hybridization of simple metalloporphyrins with metal surfaces, with implications towards novel approaches to heterogenous catalysis.


Assuntos
Coenzimas/metabolismo , Metaloporfirinas/metabolismo , Adsorção , Catálise , Coenzimas/química , Cobre/química , Metaloporfirinas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
Chem Sci ; 9(31): 6523-6531, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310583

RESUMO

Catalytic nanoparticles are heterogeneous in their nature and even within the simplest particle various surface sites exist and influence the catalytic reactivity. Thus, detailed chemical information at the nanoscale is essential for understanding how surface properties and reaction conditions direct the reactivity of different surface sites of catalytic nanoparticles. In this work, hydroxyl-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene molecules (NHCs) were anchored to the surface of Pt particles and utilized as chemical markers to detect reactivity variations between different surface sites under liquid and gas phase oxidizing conditions. Differences in the chemical reactivity of surface-anchored NHCs were identified using synchrotron-radiation-based infrared nanospectroscopy with a spatial resolution of 20 nanometers. By conducting IR nanospectroscopy measurements, along with complementary spatially averaged IR and X-ray spectroscopy measurements, we identified that enhanced reactivity occurred on the particles' periphery under both gas and liquid phase oxidizing conditions. Under gas phase reaction conditions the NHCs' hydroxyl functional groups underwent preferential oxidization to the acid along the perimeter of the particle. Exposure of the sample to harsher, liquid phase oxidizing conditions induced modification of the NHCs, which was mostly identified at the particle's periphery. Analysis of X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed that exposure of the sample to oxidizing conditions induced aromatization of the NHCs, presumably due to oxidative dehydrogenation reaction, along with reorientation of the NHCs from perpendicular to parallel to the Pt surface. These results, based on single particle measurements, demonstrate the high reactivity of surface sites that are located at the nanoparticle's periphery and the influence of reaction conditions on site-dependent reactivity.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(28): 8582-8586, 2018 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931817

RESUMO

On-surface synthesis is an emerging approach to obtain, in a single step, precisely defined chemical species that cannot be obtained by other synthetic routes. The control of the electronic structure of organic/metal interfaces is crucial for defining the performance of many optoelectronic devices. A facile on-surface chemistry route has now been used to synthesize the strong electron-acceptor organic molecule quinoneazine directly on a Cu(110) surface, via thermally activated covalent coupling of para-aminophenol precursors. The mechanism is described using a combination of in situ surface characterization techniques and theoretical methods. Owing to a strong surface-molecule interaction, the quinoneazine molecule accommodates 1.2 electrons at its carbonyl ends, inducing an intramolecular charge redistribution and leading to partial conjugation of the rings, conferring azo-character at the nitrogen sites.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(32): 3971-3973, 2018 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29610817

RESUMO

The synthesis and preliminary characterization of a boron-based 2D framework are presented. The peculiar electronic and morphological properties of this compound, together with its facile formation process, enable it to be used as a novel smart material for the design of electronic devices.

12.
Nanoscale ; 10(17): 8014-8022, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667672

RESUMO

We compare the ultrafast charge transfer dynamics of molecules on epitaxial graphene and bilayer graphene grown on Ni(111) interfaces through first principles calculations and X-ray resonant photoemission spectroscopy. We use 4,4'-bipyridine as a prototypical molecule for these explorations as the energy level alignment of core-excited molecular orbitals allows ultrafast injection of electrons from a substrate to a molecule on a femtosecond timescale. We show that the ultrafast injection of electrons from the substrate to the molecule is ∼4 times slower on weakly coupled bilayer graphene than on epitaxial graphene. Through our experiments and calculations, we can attribute this to a difference in the density of states close to the Fermi level between graphene and bilayer graphene. We therefore show how graphene coupling with the substrate influences charge transfer dynamics between organic molecules and graphene interfaces.

13.
Nanoscale ; 10(4): 2067-2072, 2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323391

RESUMO

A regular 2D array of crown molecules, which would spontaneously self-assemble into disordered molecular clusters, is obtained by exploiting a guest-host process, based on the chemical affinity between amino and carboxylic groups on a gold surface. First a carboxylic organic template is formed, which then serves as a host for amino-functionalized crown molecules. The amino-carboxylic interaction thereby drives the formation of a monolayer of guest molecules, regularly distributed at the nanometer scale, preventing their aggregation in unordered clusters observed on a bare gold surface. This method, which can be applied to other guest molecules, represents a novel route to overcome the shape-matching requirements of the standard guest-host architectures. Furthermore, it is intrinsically selective, due to the chemical nature of the anchoring process.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(36): 30992-31004, 2017 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805058

RESUMO

2,2',6,6'-Tetraphenyl-4,4'-dipyranylidene (DIPO-Ph4) was grown by vacuum deposition on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The films were characterized by atomic force microscopy as well as synchrotron radiation UV and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to gain an insight into the material growth and to better understand the electronic properties of the ITO/DIPO-Ph4 interface. To interpret our spectroscopic data, we consider the formation of cationic DIPO-Ph4 at the ITO interface owing to a charge transfer from the organic layer to the substrate. Ionization energy DFT calculations of the neutral and cationic species substantiate this hypothesis. Finally, we present the energetic diagram of the ITO/DIPO-Ph4 system, and we discuss the application of this interface in various technologically relevant systems, as a hole-injector in OLEDs or as a hole-collector interfacial layer adjacent to the prototypical OPV layer P3HT:PCBM.

15.
Chem Sci ; 8(5): 3789-3798, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28580111

RESUMO

We performed a combined experimental and theoretical study of the assembly of phenylboronic acid on the Au(111) surface, which is found to lead to the formation of triphenylboroxines by spontaneous condensation of trimers of molecules. The interface between the boroxine group and the gold surface has been characterized in terms of its electronic properties, revealing the existence of an ultra-fast charge delocalization channel in the proximity of the oxygen atoms of the heterocyclic group. More specifically, the DFT calculations show the presence of an unoccupied electronic state localized on both the oxygen atoms of the adsorbed triphenylboroxine and the gold atoms of the topmost layer. By means of resonant Auger electron spectroscopy, we demonstrate that this interface state represents an ultra-fast charge delocalization channel. Boroxine groups are among the most widely adopted building blocks in the synthesis of covalent organic frameworks on surfaces. Our findings indicate that such systems, typically employed as templates for the growth of organic films, can also act as active interlayers that provide an efficient electronic transport channel bridging the inorganic substrate and organic overlayer.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(2): 1449-1457, 2017 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27982139

RESUMO

A number of studies have investigated the properties of monomeric and double-decker phthalocyanines (Pcs) adsorbed on metal surfaces, in view of applications in spintronics devices. In a combined experimental and theoretical study, we consider here a different member of the Pcs family, the (RuPc)2 dimer, whose structure is characterized by two paired up magnetic centers embedded in a double-decker architecture. For (RuPc)2 on Ag(111), we show that this architecture works as a preserving cage by shielding the Ru-Ru pair from a direct interaction with the surface atoms. In fact, while noticeable surface-to-molecule charge transfer occurs with the ensuing quenching of the molecular magnetic moment, such phenomena occur here in the absence of a direct Ru-Ag coupling or structural rearrangement, at variance with other Pcs and thanks to the above shielding effect. These unique properties of the (RuPc)2 architecture are expected to permit an easy control of the surface-to-molecule charge-transfer process as well as of the molecular magnetic properties, thus making the (RuPc)2 dimer a significant paradigm for innovative "cage" structures as well as a promising candidate for applications in spintronics nano or single-molecule devices.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(51): 16696-16702, 2016 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27958750

RESUMO

Surface-confined polymerization via Ullmann coupling is a promising route to create one- and two-dimensional covalent π-conjugated structures, including the bottom-up growth of graphene nanoribbons. Understanding the mechanism of the Ullmann reaction is necessary to provide a platform for rationally controlling the formation of these materials. We use fast X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in kinetic measurements of epitaxial surface polymerization of 1,4-dibromobenzene on Cu(110) and devise a kinetic model based on mean field rate equations, involving a transient state. This state is observed in the energy landscapes calculated by nudged elastic band (NEB) within density functional theory (DFT), which assumes as initial and final geometries of the organometallic and polymeric structures those observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The kinetic model accounts for all the salient features observed in the experimental curves extracted from the fast-XPS measurements and enables an enhanced understanding of the polymerization process, which is found to follow a nucleation-and-growth behavior preceded by the formation of a transient state.

18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(46): 14267-14271, 2016 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27714900

RESUMO

Advanced molecular electronic components remain vital for the next generation of miniaturized integrated circuits. Thus, much research effort has been devoted to the discovery of lossless molecular wires, for which the charge transport rate or conductivity is not attenuated with length in the tunneling regime. Herein, we report the synthesis and electrochemical interrogation of DNA-like molecular wires. We determine that the rate of electron transfer through these constructs is independent of their length and propose a plausible mechanism to explain our findings. The reported approach holds relevance for the development of high-performance molecular electronic components and the fundamental study of charge transport phenomena in organic semiconductors.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(32): 22140-5, 2016 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27444572

RESUMO

Charge transfer rates at metal/organic interfaces affect the efficiencies of devices for organic based electronics and photovoltaics. A quantitative study of electron transfer rates, which take place on the femtosecond timescale, is often difficult, especially since in most systems the molecular adsorption geometry is unknown. Here, we use X-ray resonant photoemission spectroscopy to measure ultrafast charge transfer rates across pyridine/Au(111) interfaces while also controlling the molecular orientation on the metal. We demonstrate that a bi-directional charge transfer across the molecule/metal interface is enabled upon creation of a core-exciton on the molecule with a rate that has a strong dependence on the molecular adsorption angle. Through density functional theory calculations, we show that the alignment of molecular levels relative to the metal Fermi level is dramatically altered when a core-hole is created on the molecule, allowing the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital to fall partially below the metal Fermi level. We also calculate charge transfer rates as a function of molecular adsorption geometry and find a trend that agrees with the experiment. These findings thus give insight into the charge transfer dynamics of a photo-excited molecule on a metal surface.

20.
Nano Lett ; 16(3): 1955-9, 2016 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26835843

RESUMO

Charge transport properties of a vertically stacked organic heterojunction based on the amino-carboxylic (A-C) hydrogen bond coupling scheme are investigated by means of X-ray resonant photoemission and the core-hole clock method. We demonstrate that hydrogen bonding in molecular bilayers of benzoic acid/cysteamine (BA/CA) with an A-C coupling scheme opens a site selective pathway for ultrafast charge transport through the junction. Whereas charge transport from single BA layer directly coupled to the Au(111) is very fast and it is mediated by the phenyl group, the interposition of an anchoring layer of CA selectively hinders the delocalization of electrons from the BA phenyl group but opens a fast charge delocalization route through the BA orbitals close to the A-C bond. This evidences that hydrogen bonding established upon A-C recognition can be exploited to spatially/orbitally manipulate the charge transport properties of heteromolecular junctions.


Assuntos
Ácido Benzoico/química , Cisteamina/química , Transporte de Elétrons , Ouro/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Propriedades de Superfície
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