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1.
Future Oncol ; 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567377

RESUMO

Aim: This article refers to the European School of Oncology Clinical Training Centers (CTCs) program, which is a granted Fellowships program dedicated to young oncologists in training. Materials & methods: A total of 74 fellowships were offered by several CTCs during the last 7 years. Candidates were enrolled for 3-6 months of training rotations as fellows or observers in more than 30 training programs in well known Cancer Centers around Europe. Fellowships were covering medical, surgical, radiation and pediatric oncology specialties, laboratory diagnostic training and experimental, translational and clinical research. Fellows originated from Europe, Latin America and Mediterranean Africa. Results: Analysis of the questionnaire assessment showed that 95.5% of the fellows evaluated CTC programs with an 'excellent' or 'very good' score, while 100% declare that they had reached their objectives. Conclusion: The European School of Oncology CTC program designed for an additional practical education abroad meets the needs of young oncologists.

2.
Physiol Rep ; 8(12): e14486, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Ts65Dn mouse is the most widely used animal model of Down syndrome (DS). Differences in autonomic regulation of heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with DS have been hypothesized. Pharmacological studies in animal models may help us understand mechanisms underlying observed changes in HRV in people with DS. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use a new, noninvasive technique to assess cardiac autonomic modulation in Ts65Dn mice under the effect of adrenergic and cholinergic agonists. METHOD: We recorded electrocardiograms (ECGs) from 12 Ts65Dn and 12 euploid control mice. A 30-min baseline recording was followed by the injection of an adrenergic (isoproterenol [Iso]) or cholinergic (carbachol [CCh]) agonist. Heart rate and HRV were analyzed using a series of methods customized for mice. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The ECG apparatus described here allowed us to detect noninvasively long series of heartbeats in freely-moving animals. During baseline conditions, the yield of detectable heartbeats was 3%-27% of the estimated total number of events, which increased to 35%-70% during the 15-min period after either Iso or CCh injections. Ts65Dn mice displayed a robust enhanced Iso-induced negative chronotropic rebound response compared with euploid control mice. We observed a significantly smaller CCh response in Ts65Dn versus control euploid mice in the 6- to 10-min-interval postcarbachol injection. CONCLUSION: This work showed that the techniques described here are sufficient for this type of study. However, future studies involving the use of more selective pharmacological agents and/or genetic manipulations will be key to advance a mechanistic understanding of cardiac autonomic regulation in DS.

3.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 151: 102976, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389896

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of the European School of Oncology's (ESO) Masterclass (MCO) in Clinical Oncology on the career development of young participants. MCO represents the flagship educational activity of ESO and is organized annually, mostly in collaboration with the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) in five different geographical regions. A questionnaire consisting of 21 questions was sent to all doctors who attended the ESO MCOs from 2009 to 2016. The 228 responders were mostly from European countries and hold the specialty of Medical Oncology. Ninety-five percent of them evaluated ESO MCOs as "extremely useful" or "useful" for their professional career. Around 60% were trained at University Hospitals or Cancer Institutes and currently, one-third of them are employed in Academic Centers. Eighty percent have performed translational or clinical research and 77.5% were able to publish in pertinent international journals. The contribution of ESO MCOs to trainees' career development in different oncology disciplines around the world is discussed.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada , Educação Profissionalizante/organização & administração , Oncologia/educação , Neoplasias , Médicos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Oncologia/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(5): 25, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416604

RESUMO

Purpose: Ophthalmic disorders are among the most prevalent Down syndrome (DS) comorbidities. Therefore, when studying mouse models of DS, ignoring how vision is affected can lead to misinterpretation of results from assessments dependent on the integrity of the visual system. Here, we used imaging and electroretinography (ERG) to study eye structure and function in two important mouse models of DS: Ts65Dn and Dp(16)1Yey/+. Methods: Cornea and anterior segment were examined with a slit-lamp. Thickness of retinal layers was quantified by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Eye and lens dimensions were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Retinal vasculature parameters were assessed by bright field and fluorescent imaging, and by retinal flat-mount preparations. Ganzfeld ERG responses to flash stimuli were used to assess retinal function in adult mice. Results: Total retinal thickness is significantly increased in Ts65Dn and Dp(16)1Yey/+ compared with control mice, because of increased thickness of inner retinal layers, including the inner nuclear layer (INL). Increased retinal vessel caliber was found in both chromosomally altered mice when compared with controls. ERG responses in Ts65Dn and Dp(16)1Yey/+ mice showed subtle alterations compared with controls. These, however, seemed to be unrelated to the thickness of the INL, but instead dependent on the anesthetic agent used (ketamine, tribromoethanol, or urethane). Conclusions: We provide evidence of retinal alterations in Ts65Dn and Dp(16)1Yey/+ mice that are similar to those reported in persons with DS. Our ERG results are also a reminder that consideration should be given to the choice of anesthetic agents in such experiments.

5.
J Cancer Educ ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303982

RESUMO

In this article, we report on the clinical case presentations that have been delivered during the ESO or ESO-ESMO Masterclasses in Clinical Oncology in the last 10 years. Masterclasses have been held in three different geographical continents including Europe, Middle East, and Latin America, in which participants had to submit a clinical case and present it either in front of a tumor board (multidisciplinary-like sessions) or in small groups. Clinical case presentation is a unique part of the educational program preparing young oncologists to present and discuss their own patients with distinguished experts. In each Masterclass, between 40 and 55 clinical cases-depending on the number of participants-are presented. All presentations are assessed and evaluated by faculty members as well as by the rest of the participants.

6.
Breast ; 51: 65-84, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217457

RESUMO

This article is an update of the requirements of a specialist breast centre, produced by EUSOMA and endorsed by ECCO as part of Essential Requirements for Quality Cancer Care (ERQCC) programme, and ESMO. To meet aspirations for comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations must consider the requirements in this article, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis, to treatment, to survivorship.

7.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 148: 102861, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ECCO Essential Requirements for Quality Cancer Care (ERQCC) are written by experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care in Europe. They give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of essential care throughout the patient journey. PROSTATE CANCER: Prostate cancer is the second most common male cancer and has a wide variation in outcomes in Europe. It has complex diagnosis and treatment challenges, and is a major healthcare burden. Care must only be a carried out in prostate/urology cancer units or centres that have a core multidisciplinary team (MDT) and an extended team of health professionals. Such units are far from universal in European countries. To meet European aspirations for comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations must consider the requirements in this paper, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis, to treatment, to survivorship.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Neoplasias da Próstata , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
8.
J Nat Prod ; 83(2): 333-343, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031802

RESUMO

Propolis samples collected from five areas in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Midwest Brazil, comprising portions of the Cerrado, Pantanal, and Atlantic Forest ecosystems, were investigated for metabolomic profiles and evaluated for antioxidant and antitumor potential. Chemical profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS data and evaluated using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis to discern chemical composition patterns. Based on phytogeographical origin and chemical composition, 20 potential markers were identified and five groups were distinguished: (I) Cerrado/Central, (II) Atlantic Forest/South, (III) Cerrado-Pantanal transition area/Northwest, (IV) Cerrado/North, and (V) Pantanal/West. Drawing on HPLC-DAD-MS/MS and NMR data, 47 compounds were successfully or tentatively identified, including prenylated phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and di- and triterpenoids, among other constituents. Isoflavonoids, typically found in red propolis from Northeast Brazil, are being reported for the first time in a propolis sample from the Midwest. A new prenylated aromatic compound, (E)-3-[4-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl)-5-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)phenyl]propenoic acid, was obtained. Samples in group II exhibited promising antitumor potential against prostate and breast carcinoma cells, as did samples in groups III and IV against the latter cell line. The sample in group I, despite containing the highest amount of total phenolic compounds and being the only sample to exhibit scavenging activity against DPPH, was not the most cytotoxic against the cell lines tested.

9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 146: 102798, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918958

RESUMO

In this review, we summarize the history of the 41 Masterclasses in Clinical Oncology (MCO) organized by ESO or ESO-ESMO during the last 17 years. MCOs have been held in five different geographical regions including: a) Central Europe, b) Eastern Europe and Balkans, c) Baltic and Euroasia, d) Arab World and Southern European Countries and e) Latin America. More than 2.000 young oncologists have attended and more than 250 distinguished faculty members have actively participated. The program exposes students to sessions covering all major tumors ("big killers") and to spotlights updating information on various important cancers and related topics. Participants are able to present their own clinical case in front of a tumor board or in parallel group sessions and are evaluated by a Learning Assessment Test (LAT) at the end of the event. They are asked to discuss the programme, using a questionnaire on the goals, quality and organization of the MCOs, which has been very highly scored by most of the participants. The Masterclass in Clinical Oncology has become the major educational event of ESO, intending to educate young oncologists from various countries within or outside Europe, providing an up-to-date interactive program based on solid evidence for all presented topics.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Oncologia/educação , Oncologistas/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Oncologia/tendências , Sociedades Médicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino
10.
Cancer Lett ; 474: 127-137, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991154

RESUMO

Although cancer was originally considered a disease driven only by genetic mutations, it has now been proven that it is also an epigenetic disease driven by DNA hypermethylation-associated silencing of tumor suppressor genes and aberrant histone modifications. Very recently, a third component has emerged: the so-called epitranscriptome understood as the chemical modifications of RNA that regulate and alter the activity of RNA molecules. In this regard, the study of genetic and epigenetic disruption of the RNA-modifying proteins is gaining momentum in advancing our understanding of cancer biology. Furthermore, the development of epitranscriptomic anticancer drugs could lead to new promising and unexpected therapeutic strategies for oncology in the coming years.

12.
J Cancer Educ ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845109

RESUMO

Masterclass in Clinical Oncology (MCO) represents the "key educational event" of European School of Oncology's (ESO) teaching program. MCO in collaboration with European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) is a multidisciplinary and clinical oriented educational event offered mainly to young oncologists worldwide. It provides full immersion in oncology with clinical case presentations and a Learning Self-Assessment Test (LSAT).LSAT is consisting of 45 multiple choice questions on an electronic platform referring to the material taught during the MCO. Three questions related to their topics are requested in advance from each faculty member. The major intentions of LSAT are the following: (a) the learning reflection of the massive information given during 4-5 days of intensive teaching and (b) to offer the opportunity to the participants to prepare themselves for their National Boards or for ESMO examination.In this article, we are analyzing and evaluating the results of LSAT from the ESO-ESMO Central European MCOs. We used the information of Central European MCOs for analysis due to the homogeneity of the available data. We assessed the level of participants' knowledge in relation to their oncology specialty or to their country of origin and the level of the quality of faculty teaching.

13.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25051, jan.- dez. 2019. Tabela, Figuras
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048737

RESUMO

O estudo teve como objetivo mapear geograficamente os atletas paralímpicos brasileiros de natação e atletismo, bem como identificar suas deficiências. Os dados dos atletas foram obtidos junto ao Comitê Paralímpico Brasileiro (CPB), onde buscamos informações sobre os atletas que participaram do Circuito Loterias Caixa de 2015. A amostra foi de 1.708 atletas paralímpicos das modalidades natação e atletismo, sendo 913 da natação e 795 do atletismo. Observou-se que a maioria dos atletas é da região Sudeste (66%), seguida das regiões Sul (11%), Nordeste (11%), Centro-Oeste (9%) e Norte (3%). Houve predominância de atletas com deficiência físico-motora (65,5%), seguida das deficiências visual (25,1%) e intelectual (9,4%). Concluímos que a região brasileira com maior número de atletas no atletismo e na natação é a Sudeste e a região com menor número foi a Norte. Além disso, encontramos predominância da deficiência físico-motora, tanto no atletismo quanto na natação


The study conducted a geographic mapping of Brazilian Paralympic athletes practicing swimming and athletics and identified their disabilities. Data about the athletes were provided by the Brazilian Paralympic Committee (CPB), where we sought information about those who participated in the 2015 competition Circuito Loterias Caixa. The sample consisted of 1,708 paralympic swimming and athletics athletes ­ 913 and 795 respectively. The study found that most athletes came from Brazil's Southeast region (66%), followed by the South (11%), Northeast (11%), Center-West (9%) and North (3%). Athletes with physical-motor disabilities (65.5%) were the majority, followed by the visually (25.1%) and intellectually (9.4%) impaired. We concluded that the Brazilian region with the most athletics and swimming athletes is the Southeast while the North region had lowest number. In addition, we found predominance of physical-motor disabilities in both sports


El estudio tuvo como objetivo mapear geográficamente a los atletas paralímpicos brasileños de natación y atletismo, además de identificar sus deficiencias. Los datos de los atletas fueron obtenidos junto al Comité Paralímpico Brasileño (CPB), donde buscamos informaciones sobre los atletas que participaron del Circuito Loterías Caixa de 2015. La muestra fue de 1.708 atletas paralímpicos de la modalidades natación y atletismo, siendo 913 de natación y 795 de atletismo. Se observó que la mayoría de los atletas son de la región Sudeste (66%), seguida de la Sur (11%), Nordeste (11%), CentroOeste (9%) y Norte (3%). Se observó un predominio de atletas con deficiencia físico-motora (65,5%), seguida de las deficiencias visual (25,1%) e intelectual (9,4%). Concluimos que la región brasileña con mayor número de atletas en atletismo y natación es la Sudeste y la región con menor número fue la Norte. Además, encontramos predominancia de la deficiencia físico-motora, tanto en el atletismo como en la natación


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Mapeamento Geográfico , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação , Atletismo
14.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25034, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048161

RESUMO

Treinadores do esporte paralímpico apresentam diferenças na atuação comparados a outros treinadores. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a trajetória profissional dos treinadores da Delegação Paralímpica Brasileira dos Jogos Rio 2016. Este estudo contou com 35 treinadores (idade: 39,7±9,4 anos, tempo de atuação: 10,7±5,4 anos) que responderam a um questionário estruturado com perguntas fechadas relacionadas à sua trajetória e formação profissional. Em relação à formação acadêmica, 97,1% dos treinadores apresentaram graduação em Educação Física, 65,7% cursaram pós-graduação lato sensu e 22,9% pós-graduação stricto sensu (mestrado) na área. Além disso, 65,7% dos treinadores realizaram alguma disciplina na universidade relacionada ao esporte paralímpico e 85% realizaram cursos de formação complementar. Concluimos que os treinadores tiveram oportunidades de aprendizado formal durante a graduação em Educação Física e em outros cursos de formação após a conclusão do curso, bem como oportunidades informais para construírem sua carreira no esporte paralímpico


Paralympic sports coaches work differently from other coaches. This study analyzed the professional trajectory of coaches working with the Brazilian Paralympic Delegation to the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. It included 35 coaches (age: 39.7±9.4; working experience: 10.7±5,4 years) who answered a structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions related to their history and professional training. As for academic training, 97.1% held degrees in Physical Education; 65.7% held specialization diplomas; and 22.9% held master's degrees in the area. In addition, 65.7% of the coaches attended some collegelevel course on Paralympic sports and 85% attended complementary training courses. We concluded that coaches had formal learning opportunities during their undergraduate training in Physical Education and other courses after that, as well as informal opportunities to build their career in Paralympic sports


Los entrenadores del deporte paralímpico presentan diferencias en su actuación en comparación a otros entrenadores. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la trayectoria profesional de los entrenadores de la Delegación Paralímpica Brasileña de los Juegos Río 2016. Este estudio contó con 35 entrenadores (edad: 39,7±9,4 años, tiempo de actuación: 10,7±5,4 años) que respondieron a un cuestionario estructurado con preguntas relacionadas a su trayectoria y formación profesional. En lo referente a formación académica, el 97,1% de los entrenadores eran graduados en Educación Física, 65,7% cursó postgrado lato sensu y 22,9% posgrado strito sensu en el área. Además, 65,7% de los entrenadores realizaron alguna disciplina en la universidad relacionada deporte paralímpico y el 85% realizaron cursos de formación complementaria. Concluimos que los entrenadores tuvieron oportunidades de aprendizaje formal durante su graduación en Educación Física y en otros cursos de formación después de la conclusión del curso, así como oportunidades informales para construir su carrera en el deporte paralímpico


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Capacitação Profissional , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência
15.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e031732, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare patient's and physician's ratings of inhaled medication adherence and to identify predictors of patient-physician discordance. DESIGN: Baseline data from two prospective multicentre observational studies. SETTING: 29 allergy, pulmonology and paediatric secondary care outpatient clinics in Portugal. PARTICIPANTS: 395 patients (≥13 years old) with persistent asthma. MEASURES: Data on demographics, patient-physician relationship, upper airway control, asthma control, asthma treatment, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and healthcare use were collected. Patients and physicians independently assessed adherence to inhaled controller medication during the previous week using a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Discordance was defined as classification in distinct VAS categories (low 0-50; medium 51-80; high 81-100) or as an absolute difference in VAS scores ≥10 mm. Correlation between patients' and physicians' VAS scores/categories was explored. A multinomial logistic regression identified the predictors of physician overestimation and underestimation. RESULTS: High inhaler adherence was reported both by patients (median (percentile 25 to percentile 75) 85 (65-95) mm; 53% VAS>80) and by physicians (84 (68-95) mm; 53% VAS>80). Correlation between patient and physician VAS scores was moderate (rs=0.580; p<0.001). Discordance occurred in 56% of cases: in 28% physicians overestimated adherence and in 27% underestimated. Low adherence as assessed by the physician (OR=27.35 (9.85 to 75.95)), FEV1 ≥80% (OR=2.59 (1.08 to 6.20)) and a first appointment (OR=5.63 (1.24 to 25.56)) were predictors of underestimation. An uncontrolled asthma (OR=2.33 (1.25 to 4.34)), uncontrolled upper airway disease (OR=2.86 (1.35 to 6.04)) and prescription of short-acting beta-agonists alone (OR=3.05 (1.15 to 8.08)) were associated with overestimation. Medium adherence as assessed by the physician was significantly associated with higher risk of discordance, both for overestimation and underestimation of adherence (OR=14.50 (6.04 to 34.81); OR=2.21 (1.07 to 4.58)), while having a written action plan decreased the likelihood of discordance (OR=0.25 (0.12 to 0.52); OR=0.41 (0.22 to 0.78)) (R2=44%). CONCLUSION: Although both patients and physicians report high inhaler adherence, discordance occurred in half of cases. Implementation of objective adherence measures and effective communication are needed to improve patient-physician agreement.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13434, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530855

RESUMO

Our research team previously developed an accelerometry-based device, which can be worn on the waist during daily life activities and detects the occurrence of dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease. The goal of this study was to analyze the magnitude of correlation between the numeric output of the device algorithm and the results of the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS), administered by a physician. In this study, 13 Parkinson's patients, who were symptomatic with dyskinesias, were monitored with the device at home, for an average period of 30 minutes, while performing normal daily life activities. Each patient's activity was simultaneously video-recorded. A physician was in charge of reviewing the recorded videos and determining the severity of dyskinesia through the UDysRS for every patient. The sensor device yielded only one value for dyskinesia severity, which was calculated by averaging the recorded device readings. Correlation between the results of physician's assessment and the sensor output was analyzed with the Spearman's correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient between the sensor output and UDysRS result was 0.70 (CI 95%: 0.33-0.88; p = 0.01). Since the sensor was located on the waist, the correlation between the sensor output and the results of the trunk and legs scale sub-items was calculated: 0.91 (CI 95% 0.76-0.97: p < 0.001). The conclusion is that the magnitude of dyskinesia, as measured by the tested device, presented good correlation with that observed by a physician.

17.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(6): 1053-1074, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428936

RESUMO

Tumors have aberrant proteomes that often do not match their corresponding transcriptome profiles. One possible cause of this discrepancy is the existence of aberrant RNA modification landscapes in the so-called epitranscriptome. Here, we report that human glioma cells undergo DNA methylation-associated epigenetic silencing of NSUN5, a candidate RNA methyltransferase for 5-methylcytosine. In this setting, NSUN5 exhibits tumor-suppressor characteristics in vivo glioma models. We also found that NSUN5 loss generates an unmethylated status at the C3782 position of 28S rRNA that drives an overall depletion of protein synthesis, and leads to the emergence of an adaptive translational program for survival under conditions of cellular stress. Interestingly, NSUN5 epigenetic inactivation also renders these gliomas sensitive to bioactivatable substrates of the stress-related enzyme NQO1. Most importantly, NSUN5 epigenetic inactivation is a hallmark of glioma patients with long-term survival for this otherwise devastating disease.

18.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 39: 332-340, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099640

RESUMO

Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) have been recommended as a key part of best cancer care for 25 years. Here, we set out the functions and approaches of MDTs and review their impact. Although the literature is patchy in quality, MDTs contribute to improving cancer care and outcomes. They must be well organized, efficient, and well led; work with sound and timely information; and communicate well within the team and with their patients. Patients need carefully prepared information to help them share in the decision-making process. MDTs will be improved by a series of ongoing innovative developments. Increasing information from molecular pathology will increase the precision of their decisions, although the technologies remain expensive and may not be accessible in all countries for some time. New point-of-care testing technologies will improve the quality and timeliness of testing. Good informatics is essential to deliver the information to patients and the MDT. MDTs should be research active, delivering clinical trials, and this should improve outcomes for all of their patients. Patient engagement and empowerment in MDTs should improve patient satisfaction and outcomes. Patient-reported outcome measures will improve MDTs' insights into their patients' problems and symptoms and can improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Informática Médica/métodos , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/normas , Oncologia/tendências , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Pesquisa
19.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820859

RESUMO

The rostral prefrontal cortex (rPFC) is crucial in prospective memory (PM) behavior. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that its medial (mrPFC) and lateral (lrPFC) portions dissociate during PM tasks. In light of the Multiprocess theory (McDaniel and Einstein 2000), here we tested whether the two portions of the rPFC are dissociable by modulating strategic vs. spontaneous processes during a PM task. We investigated these two processes by means of a 2 × 2 experimental design in which focal vs. non-focal conditions were modulated by varying the conjoint nature of the ongoing task (i.e., lexical decision vs. syllable matching) and the PM cue (words vs. syllables). Using the two portions of the rPFC as regions of interest, we found an effect of the non-focal condition in the lrPFC and, conversely, an effect of the focal condition in the mrPFC. In the whole-brain analysis we found an effect of the non-focal condition in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus, the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor areas and the vermis of the cerebellum, whereas we found an effect of the focal condition in the ventromedial PFC. Overall, our results show that different brain regions are involved when multiple processes underlying PM behavior are modulated.

20.
Brain Sci ; 8(12)2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486228

RESUMO

Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetically-defined cause of intellectual disability. Neurodevelopmental deficits displayed by individuals with DS are generally global, however, disproportionate deficits in cognitive processes that depend heavily on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are also well documented. Additionally, DS is associated with relative strengths in visual processing and visuospatial short-term memory, and weaknesses in the verbal domain. Although reports of pharmacological rescuing of learning and memory deficits in mouse models of DS abound in the literature, proving the principle that cognitive ability of persons with DS can be boosted through pharmacological means is still an elusive goal. The design of customized batteries of neuropsychological efficacy outcome measures is essential for the successful implementation of clinical trials of potential cognitive enhancing strategies. Here, we review the neurocognitive phenotype of individuals with DS and major broad-based test batteries designed to quantify specific cognitive domains in these individuals, including the one used in a pilot trial of the drug memantine. The main goal is to illustrate the essential considerations in planning trials to enhance cognitive functions in individuals with DS, which should also have implications for the design of similar studies in individuals with other forms of intellectual disability.

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