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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(7): 671-681, July 2011. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-595699

RESUMO

The limited amount of information on the primary age-related deficiencies in the innate immune system led us to study the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase, and cytokines in macrophages of young (8 weeks old) and old (72 weeks old) female BALB/c mice. We first evaluated iNOS and arginase inducers on peritoneal (PMΦ) and bone marrow-derived (BMMΦ) macrophages of young BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and then investigated their effects on macrophages of old mice. Upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), resident and thioglycolate-elicited PMΦ from young mice presented higher iNOS activity than those from old mice (54.4 percent). However, LPS-stimulated BMMΦ from old mice showed the highest NO levels (50.1 percent). Identical NO levels were produced by PMΦ and BMMΦ of both young and old mice stimulated with interferon-γ. Arginase activity was higher in resident and elicited PMΦ of young mice stimulated with LPS (48.8 and 32.7 percent, respectively) and in resident PMΦ stimulated with interleukin (IL)-4 (64 percent). BMMΦ of old mice, however, showed higher arginase activity after treatment with IL-4 (46.5 percent). In response to LPS, PMΦ from old mice showed the highest levels of IL-1α (772.3 ± 51.9 pg/mL), whereas, those from young mice produced the highest amounts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (937.2 ± 132.1 pg/mL). Only TNF-α was expressed in LPS-treated BMMΦ, and cells from old mice showed the highest levels of this cytokine (994.1 ± 49.42 pg/mL). Overall, these results suggest that macrophages from young and old mice respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, depending on the source and maturity of the cell donors.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Arginase/biossíntese , Citocinas/biossíntese , Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/biossíntese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Macrófagos/metabolismo
2.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 44(7): 671-81, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21625821

RESUMO

The limited amount of information on the primary age-related deficiencies in the innate immune system led us to study the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase, and cytokines in macrophages of young (8 weeks old) and old (72 weeks old) female BALB/c mice. We first evaluated iNOS and arginase inducers on peritoneal (PMΦ) and bone marrow-derived (BMMΦ) macrophages of young BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and then investigated their effects on macrophages of old mice. Upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), resident and thioglycolate-elicited PMΦ from young mice presented higher iNOS activity than those from old mice (54.4%). However, LPS-stimulated BMMΦ from old mice showed the highest NO levels (50.1%). Identical NO levels were produced by PMΦ and BMMΦ of both young and old mice stimulated with interferon-γ. Arginase activity was higher in resident and elicited PMΦ of young mice stimulated with LPS (48.8 and 32.7%, respectively) and in resident PMΦ stimulated with interleukin (IL)-4 (64%). BMMΦ of old mice, however, showed higher arginase activity after treatment with IL-4 (46.5%). In response to LPS, PMΦ from old mice showed the highest levels of IL-1α (772.3 ± 51.9 pg/mL), whereas, those from young mice produced the highest amounts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (937.2 ± 132.1 pg/mL). Only TNF-α was expressed in LPS-treated BMMΦ, and cells from old mice showed the highest levels of this cytokine (994.1 ± 49.42 pg/mL). Overall, these results suggest that macrophages from young and old mice respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, depending on the source and maturity of the cell donors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Arginase/biossíntese , Citocinas/biossíntese , Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/biossíntese , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
3.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 40(8): 1111-20, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17665048

RESUMO

Aging is accompanied by a decrease in several physiological functions that make older individuals less responsive to environmental challenges. In the present study, we analyzed the immune response of female BALB/c mice (N = 6) of different ages (from 2 to 96 weeks) and identified significant age-related alterations. Immunization with hapten-protein (trinitrophenyl-bovine serum albumin) conjugates resulted in lower antibody levels in the primary and secondary responses of old mice (72 weeks old). Moreover, young mice (2, 16, and 32 weeks old) maintained specific antibodies in their sera for longer periods after primary immunization than did old mice. However, a secondary challenge efficiently induced memory in old mice, as shown by the increased antibody levels in their sera. The number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen increased until 8 weeks of age but there was no change in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio with aging. Splenic T cells from old mice that had or had not been immunized were less responsive to concanavalin-A and showed reduced cytokine production compared to young mice (IL-2: 57-127 vs 367-1104 pg/mL, IFN-gamma: 2344-12,836 vs 752-23,106 pg/mL and IL-10: 393-2172 vs 105-2869 pg/mL in old and young mice, respectively). These data suggest that there are significant changes in the organization of the immune system throughout life. However, the relevance of these alterations for the functioning of the immune system is unknown.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Haptenos/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Relação CD4-CD8 , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Concanavalina A/farmacologia , Feminino , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitógenos/farmacologia , Baço/citologia
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(8): 1111-1120, Aug. 2007. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-456804

RESUMO

Aging is accompanied by a decrease in several physiological functions that make older individuals less responsive to environmental challenges. In the present study, we analyzed the immune response of female BALB/c mice (N = 6) of different ages (from 2 to 96 weeks) and identified significant age-related alterations. Immunization with hapten-protein (trinitrophenyl-bovine serum albumin) conjugates resulted in lower antibody levels in the primary and secondary responses of old mice (72 weeks old). Moreover, young mice (2, 16, and 32 weeks old) maintained specific antibodies in their sera for longer periods after primary immunization than did old mice. However, a secondary challenge efficiently induced memory in old mice, as shown by the increased antibody levels in their sera. The number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen increased until 8 weeks of age but there was no change in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio with aging. Splenic T cells from old mice that had or had not been immunized were less responsive to concanavalin-A and showed reduced cytokine production compared to young mice (IL-2: 57-127 vs 367-1104 pg/mL, IFN-g: 2344-12,836 vs 752-23,106 pg/mL and IL-10: 393-2172 vs 105-2869 pg/mL in old and young mice, respectively). These data suggest that there are significant changes in the organization of the immune system throughout life. However, the relevance of these alterations for the functioning of the immune system is unknown.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Haptenos/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Concanavalina A/farmacologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitógenos/farmacologia , Baço/citologia
5.
Mediators Inflamm ; 6(1): 46-52, 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18472833

RESUMO

Macrophages harvested from the peritoneal cavities of rats release a neutrophil chemotactic factor (MNCF) in response to stimulation with Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MNCF has been shown to be active in rats treated with dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid that usually inhibits the neutrophil migration induced in this species by interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), IL-8, C5a and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)). Here we report that macrophages harvested from peritoneal cavities of mice, and stimulated in vitro with LPS, also release a factor that induces neutrophil migration in dexamethasone-treated animals. This chemotactic activity was neutralized by the incubation of the LPS-stimulated macrophage supernatants with a purified polyclonal IgG anti-mouse TNFalpha. In addition, significant amounts of TNF were detected in the supernatants. The neutrophil migration induced by intraperitoneal administration of recombinant murine TNFalpha was also unaffected by pretreatment of the mice with dexamethasone. Moreover, neutrophil migration induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS was completely blocked by pretreatment of the mice with a monoclonal antibody against murine TNFalpha. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that, in contrast to the role of TNF in rats (where it indirectly induces neutrophil migration), in mice, it may be an important mediator in the recruitment of neutrophils to inflammatory sites.

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