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2.
Cad. saúde colet., (Rio J.) ; 27(3): 278-286, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039446

RESUMO

Resumo Introdução O desenvolvimento da assistência farmacêutica, assim como de todas as áreas de atuação do SUS, é de responsabilidade das três instâncias gestoras (municipal, estadual e federal) e, nesse contexto, é fundamental a participação dos atores responsáveis pela sua gestão no planejamento da previsão de recursos orçamentários próprios para alocação nessa área, conforme sua capacidade e prioridade, levando-se em conta a escassez de recursos e as necessidades verificadas. Objetivo Descrever a participação dos profissionais responsáveis pela assistência farmacêutica no processo de planejamento em saúde em municípios brasileiros. Método Para este estudo foram utilizados dados da pesquisa "A assistência farmacêutica nas Redes de Atenção à Saúde: um recorte nas regiões do Projeto QualiSUS-Rede", cuja coleta ocorreu de dezembro de 2013 a julho de 2015 em 485 municípios e Distrito Federal, onde foram entrevistados os responsáveis pela assistência farmacêutica nos municípios. Tal estudo teve delineamento transversal, e as variáveis analisadas para o recorte aqui tratado foram as relativas ao perfil dos profissionais responsáveis pela assistência farmacêutica e a participação destes na elaboração e conhecimento dos conteúdos relacionados à assistência farmacêutica nos instrumentos de planejamento orçamentário (PPA, LOA e LDO) e da saúde (PS, PAS, RAG). Verificou-se também a inserção dos instrumentos de planejamento relativos ao período de estudo no Sistema SARGSUS. Resultados Observou-se uma baixa participação dos responsáveis (n=417) na elaboração dos instrumentos de planejamento orçamentário e da saúde, com maior participação na elaboração do PPA (24,0%) e do PS (52,0%). Em relação à PAS e ao RAG, observou-se maior conhecimento da presença de ações relacionadas à assistência farmacêutica por aqueles que participaram da sua elaboração (67,0% e 68,8% respectivamente). Conclusão Os resultados apontam baixa participação dos atores responsáveis pela assistência farmacêutica municipal na elaboração das ferramentas de planejamento dos municípios e pouco conhecimento das ações previstas, e sugerem que os instrumentos de planejamento produzidos podem não condizer com a realidade dos serviços e com a alocação racional dos recursos aplicáveis à assistência farmacêutica.


Abstract Background The development of Pharmaceutical Assistance, as well as all areas of action of the SUS, is the responsibility of the three managing instances (municipal, state and federal). In this context, the participation of the actors responsible for its management in the forecast planning budget resources for allocation in this area is fundamental, according to their capacity and priority, taking into account the scarcity of resources and the needs verified. Objective To describe the participation of the ones involved in the pharmaceutical assistance, regarding instruments development for budgeting and health planning for their municipalities. Method This paper has analyzed information produced by the project "A assistência farmacêutica nas Redes de Atenção à Saúde: um recorte nas regiões do Projeto QualiSUS-Rede", where data gathering, conducted from December 2013 to July 2015, in 485 municipalities and the Federal District, was handled through the interview of those in charge of the Pharmaceutical Assistance in the municipalities. The study was cross-sectional and analyzed variables related to the profile of the professionals responsible for Pharmaceutical Assistance regarding professional training, workload and work relationship, as well as the participation of these professionals in the elaboration of the budget planning (PPA, LOA, LDO) and health instruments (PS, PAS, RAG). Complimentarily, we verified the insertion of the planning instruments related to the study period in the SARGSUS System. Results Pharmaceutical assistance (n=417) was low as in the elaboration of the budget planning and health instruments, with a greater participation in the elaboration of PPP (24.0%) and PS (52.0%). Regarding PAS and RAG, there was a greater knowledge of the presence of actions related to pharmaceutical assistance by those who participated in its elaboration (67.0% and 68.8%, respectively). Conclusion The data depict unsatisfactory engagement of the actors responsible for Pharmaceutical Assistance in elaboration and awareness of the actions foreseen at the municipalities' planning tools and suggests the produced planning instruments may not be linked with the real situation of the health services as well as with the rational use of financing for the Pharmaceutical Assistance.

3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(3): e00073817, 2018 03 26.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590242

RESUMO

The article aimed to identify the sources of medicines for users of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) that reported chronic non-communicable diseases, characterizing the group according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health variables in the different regions of Brazil. Data were analyzed from the National Survey on Access, Use, and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines in Brazil (PNAUM), a cross-sectional population-based study. The dependent variable was "source of medicines", and the associations were analyzed with demographic, socioeconomic, and health status variables. Users that obtained care and medicines solely in the SUS were designated here as SUS-exclusive. Some 39% of persons obtained their medicines from SUS pharmacies and 28.5% from other sources. The study found 42.9%, 41.8%, 40.2%, and 31% of exclusive SUS users in the Southeast, South, North, and Northeast regions of Brazil, respectively. SUS users have the SUS as their primary source of medicines, but there is also a relevant share from other sources, suggesting problems with access in the SUS. In the South and Southeast regions, the population relies less on private pharmacies than in the Northeast and North.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Farmacêutica/provisão & distribução , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(3): e00073817, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-889891

RESUMO

Resumo: Este artigo teve como objetivo identificar as fontes de obtenção de medicamentos utilizadas por usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) com relato de doenças crônicas, caracterizando tal população quanto a variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e de saúde nas diferentes regiões do Brasil. Foram analisados dados da Pesquisa Nacional sobre o Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos no Brasil (PNAUM), um estudo transversal de base populacional. A variável dependente foi a "fonte de obtenção de medicamentos" e foram analisadas associações com variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e com o estado de saúde. Os usuários que obtiveram cuidado e medicamentos unicamente no SUS foram aqui designados como SUS-exclusivos. Cerca de 39% das pessoas obtiveram seus medicamentos exclusivamente em farmácias do SUS e 28,5% recorreram a outras fontes. Foram encontrados 42,9%, 41,8%, 40,2%, 31%, usuários SUS-exclusivos, respectivamente, no Sudeste, Sul, Norte, e Nordeste. Os usuários do SUS têm como fonte primária de medicamentos o próprio SUS, entretanto há uma participação relevante de outras fontes de obtenção, indicando problemas no acesso dentro do SUS. No Sul e Sudeste, a população busca menos a farmácia privada do que no Nordeste e Norte do país.


Abstract: The article aimed to identify the sources of medicines for users of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) that reported chronic non-communicable diseases, characterizing the group according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health variables in the different regions of Brazil. Data were analyzed from the National Survey on Access, Use, and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines in Brazil (PNAUM), a cross-sectional population-based study. The dependent variable was "source of medicines", and the associations were analyzed with demographic, socioeconomic, and health status variables. Users that obtained care and medicines solely in the SUS were designated here as SUS-exclusive. Some 39% of persons obtained their medicines from SUS pharmacies and 28.5% from other sources. The study found 42.9%, 41.8%, 40.2%, and 31% of exclusive SUS users in the Southeast, South, North, and Northeast regions of Brazil, respectively. SUS users have the SUS as their primary source of medicines, but there is also a relevant share from other sources, suggesting problems with access in the SUS. In the South and Southeast regions, the population relies less on private pharmacies than in the Northeast and North.


Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo fue identificar las fuentes de obtención de medicamentos, utilizados por usuarios del Sistema Único de Salud brasileño (SUS), con antecedentes de enfermedades crónicas, caracterizando tanto a la población, como las variables demográficas, socioeconómicas y de salud, en las diferentes regiones del país. Se analizaron los datos de la Encuesta Nacional sobre el Acceso, Utilización y Promoción del Uso Racional de Medicamentos en Brasil (PNAUM), un estudio transversal de base poblacional. La variable dependiente fue la 'fuente de obtención de medicamentos' y se analizaron asociaciones con variables demográficas, socioeconómicas y con el estado de salud. Los usuarios que recibieron cuidados y medicamentos únicamente en el SUS fueron designados aquí como SUS exclusivos. Cerca de un 39% de las personas obtuvieron sus medicamentos exclusivamente en farmacias del SUS y un 28,5% recurrieron a otras fuentes. Se encontraron un 42,9%, 41,8%, 40,2%, 31%, usuarios SUS exclusivos, respectivamente, en el Sudeste, Sur, Norte, y Nordeste. Los usuarios del SUS tienen como fuente primaria de medicamentos el propio SUS, no obstante, existe una participación relevante de otras fuentes de obtención, indicando problemas en el acceso dentro del SUS. En el Sur y Sudeste, la población busca menos la farmacia privada que en el Nordeste y Norte del país.

5.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 28(4): e280402, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-984784

RESUMO

Resumo O estudo pretende analisar e comparar as redes de atenção à saúde mental do Brasil e da Catalunha através dos componentes macroestruturais da política. Trata-se de uma revisão dos documentos orientadores da política de saúde mental do Brasil e da Comunidade Autônoma da Catalunha na Espanha. Ambos os territórios possuem leis que sustentam o modelo de saúde mental de base comunitária. Na Catalunha, a política é construída de modo mais técnico e verticalizado, influenciada pelas OMS, enquanto no Brasil a construção é ascendente, com ampla participação social na definição das ações. O financiamento na Catalunha é maior tanto na saúde global quanto, especificamente, na saúde mental; no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), a saúde mental é área subfinanciada dentro de um sistema subfinanciado. Em ambos, o foco do financiamento vem se alterando, com maior investimento em serviços comunitários, mas a Catalunha ainda despende maior parte do financiamento para os hospitais. O modelo de gestão no Brasil ainda é, fundamentalmente, de gestão direta e na Catalunha, indireto. Ambos possuem uma rede ampla e diversificada de serviços, mas com necessidade de lidar com o contingente de moradores de hospitais psiquiátricos e avançar em mecanismos avaliativos que respondam à complexidade da política.


Abstract The study aims to analyze and compare the networks of mental health care in Brazil and Catalonia through the macrostructural components of the policy. This is a review of the guiding documents of mental health policy in Brazil and the Autonomous Community of Catalonia in Spain. Both territories have laws that support the community-based model of mental health. In Catalonia, the policy is built in a more technical and vertical way, influenced by the WHO, while in Brazil the construction is ascending with broad social participation in the definition of actions. Financing in Catalonia is greater both in global health and, specifically, in mental health; in the SUS, mental health is an underfunded area within an underfunded system. In both, the focus of financing is changing, with more investment in community services, but Catalonia still spends most of the funding for hospitals. The management model in Brazil is still, fundamentally, direct management and in Catalonia, indirect. Both have a wide and diversified network of services, but need to deal with the contingent of residents of Psychiatric Hospitals and advance in evaluation mechanisms that respond to the complexity of the policy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Espanha , Sistema Único de Saúde/tendências , Brasil , Saúde Mental/tendências , Gestão em Saúde , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde Mental , Política de Saúde/tendências
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 4s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160446

RESUMO

The Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos -Serviços (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services) aimed to characterize the organization of pharmaceutical services in the Primary Health Care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). PNAUM - Services is a cross-sectional and evaluative study, with planned sample of 600 cities, held between 2014 and 2015, composed of a remote phase, with telephone interviews with health managers. Of these 600 cities, 300 were selected for a survey on health services. We selected the 27 capitals, the 0.5% largest cities of each region, and the remaining cities were drawn. The estimate of the representative national sample size considered three levels: cities, medicine dispensing services, and patients. The interviews were carried out with a structured questionnaire specific for: municipal secretaries of health, professionals responsible for pharmaceutical services in the city, professionals responsible for the dispensing of medicines, physicians, and patients. The secondary data were obtained in official databases, in the latest update date. PNAUM - Services was the first nationwide research aimed at the assessment and acquisition of national and regional indicators on access to medicines, as well as use and rational use, from the perspective of various social subjects.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
7.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 14s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discuss factors related to the financing of the Basic Component of Pharmaceutical Services within the municipal management of the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS: The Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos no Brasil - Serviços (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services) is a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study that performed an information survey in a representative sample, stratified by Brazilian regions It considered different study populations in the sampling plan, which represent primary health care services in the cities. Data were collected in 2015 by two methods: in person, by applying direct observation scripts and interviews with users, physicians, and professionals responsible for the dispensing of medicines in primary care services; by telephone interviews with municipal health managers and municipal professionals responsible for Pharmaceutical Services. The results were extracted from the questionnaires applied by telephone. RESULTS: Of the sample of 600 eligible cities, we collected 369 interviews (61.5%) with secretaries and 507 (84.5%) with pharmaceutical services managers. 70.8% of the cities have a computerized management system; and 11.9% have qualification/training of professionals. More than half (51.3%) of the cities received funds for the structuring of pharmaceutical services, and almost 60% of these cities performed this type of spending. In 35.4% of cases, municipal secretaries of health said that they use resources of medicines from the Componente Básico da Assistência Farmacêutica (CBAF - Basic Component of Pharmaceutical Services) to cover demands of other medicines, but only 9.7% believed that these funds were sufficient to cover the demands. The existence of a permanent bidding committee exclusively for acquiring medicines was reported in 40.0% of the cities. CONCLUSIONS: We found serious deficiencies in the public financing of medicines, as well as little concern about the formality in the use of public resources, expenses that meet individual demands to the detriment of the community, insufficient resources allocated to the Basic Component of Pharmaceutical Services, and exhaustion of the financing model.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia , Assistência Farmacêutica/economia , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Financiamento Governamental , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Entrevistas como Assunto , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 10s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the availability of tracer medicines in pharmaceutical services in primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional and evaluative study, part of the Pesquisa Nacional Sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). To analyze the availability of medicines, we verified 50 items selected from the Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (Rename - National List of Essential Medicines) of 2012. Observation scripts were applied to medicine dispensing services in the primary health care. Interviews were carried out with patients, health care professionals, and public managers, using semi-structured questionnaires. The availability index was presented as the percentage of health units where the medicines were available. For statistical analysis, absolute, relative, and mean frequencies were presented (with 95% confidence intervals). The comparison of groups was carried out by Pearson Chi-square tests or variance analysis, when needed. RESULTS: One thousand, one hundred, and seventy-five observation scripts were filled in a national representative sample composed by 273 cities. Statistically significant differences were observed regarding the type of unit, infrastructure, and presence of a pharmacist between regions of Brazil. The average availability of tracer medicines in primary health care was 52.9%, with differences between regions and sampling strata. This index increased to 62.5% when phytotherapic medicines were excluded. We found limited availability of medicines for treatment of chronic and epidemiological diseases, such as tuberculosis and congenital syphilis. CONCLUSIONS: The low availability of essential medicines purchased centrally by the Brazilian Ministry of Health indicates deficiencies in supply chain management. The different views on the availability of tracer medicines in SUS confirm the general availability verified in this study. Among patients, about 60% said they obtain medicines in SUS units, data consistent with the lack of medicines reported by medicine dispensers and in line with physicians' evaluations.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Medicamentos Essenciais/classificação , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 15s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify limiting factors in the management of pharmaceutical services in the primary health care provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). METHODS: This study was based on the data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos no Brasil (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), and it was conducted by interviews with professionals responsible for pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities, in 2015. To identify the management limiting factors, we considered the organizational, operational, and sustainability indicators of the management. For the analyses, we included the weights and structure of analysis plan for complex samples. The results were expressed by frequencies and measures of central tendency with 95% confidence interval, considering the Brazilian geographic regions. RESULTS: We identified the following limiting factors: lack of pharmaceutical services in the Municipal Health Secretariat organization chart (24%) and in the health plan (18%); lack of participation of managers in the Health Board and the absence of reference to this topic in the agenda of meetings (58.4%); lack of financial autonomy (61.5%) and lack of knowledge on the available values (81.7%); lack of adoption of operational procedures (about 50%) for selection, scheduling, and acquisition; and the fact that most professionals evaluate the organization of pharmaceutical services as good and great (58.8%), despite the worrisome indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmaceutical services management is currently supported by a legal and political framework that should guide and contribute to improve the pharmaceutical services in the Brazilian Unified Health System primary health care. However, there is a mismatch between the goals established by these guidelines and what is actually happening.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica/provisão & distribução
10.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 9s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the process of selection of medicines for primary health care in the Brazilian regions. METHODS: This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015), a cross-sectional study that consisted of an information gathering in a sample of cities in the five regions of Brazil. The data used were collected by interviews with those responsible for pharmaceutical services (PS) (n = 506), professionals responsible for the dispensing of medicines (n = 1,139), and physicians (n = 1,558). To evaluate the difference between ratios, we adopted the Chi-square test for complex samples. The differences between the averages were analyzed in generalized linear models with F-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The analyses considered significant had p≤0.05. RESULTS: The professionals responsible for pharmaceutical services reported non-existence of a formally constituted Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (PTC) (12.5%). They claimed to have an updated (80.4%) list of Essential Medicines (85.3%) and being active participants of this process (88.2%). However, in the perception of respondents, the list only partially (70.1%) meets the health demands. Of the interviewed professionals responsible for the dispensing of medicines, only 16.6% were pharmacists; even so, 47.8% reported to know the procedures to change the list. From the perspective of most of these professionals (70.9%), the list meets the health demands of the city. Among physicians, only 27.2% reported to know the procedures to change the list, but 76.5% would have some claim to change it. Most of them reported to base their claims in clinical experiences (80.0%). For 13.0% of them, the list meets the health demands. CONCLUSIONS: As this is the first national survey of characterization of the process of selection of medicines within primary health care, it brings unpublished data for the assessment of policies related to medicines in Brazil.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais/classificação , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 17s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients of primary health care services according to demographic and socioeconomic aspects, habits and lifestyle, health condition, and demand for health services and medicines. METHODS: This study is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services), a cross-sectional study carried out between 2014 and 2015. Interviews were conducted with patients over the age of 17 years, with a standardized questionnaire, in primary health care services of a representative sample of cities, stratified by regions of Brazil. The analysis was performed for complex samples and weighted according to the population size of each region. RESULTS: A total of 8,676 patients were interviewed, being 75.8% women, most of them aged from 18 to 39 years; 24.2% men, most of them aged from 40 to 59 years; 53.7% with elementary school; 50.5% reported to be of mixed race ethnicity, 39.7%, white, and 7.8%, black. Half of patients were classified as class C and 24.8% received the Bolsa Familia benefit. Only 9.8% had health insurance, with higher proportion in the South and lower in the North and Midwest. The proportion of men who consumed alcohol was higher than among women, as well as smokers. The self-assessment of health showed that 57% believed it to be very good or good, with lower proportion in the Northeast. The prevalence of chronic diseases/conditions, such as hypertension (38.6%), dyslipidemia (22.7%), arthritis/rheumatism (19.4%), depression (18.5%), diabetes (13.6%), and others are higher in these patients them among the general population. Medicines were predominantly sought in the health care service or in pharmacies of the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to characterize the profile of patients of Primary Health Care, but the originality of the research and its national scope hinders the comparison of results with official data or other articles.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 12s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the technical issues and conditions of medicines conservation in Primary Health Care of Brazilian regions, responsible for pharmacy/dispensing unit profile; environmental, storage, and dose fractioning conditions; inventory control and waste management; fire and electrical failure safety items; transportation problems; advertising regulation; and pharmacovigilance. METHODS: This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services)-, a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of an information survey within a representative sample of municipalities, stratified by Brazilian regions, which constitute the study domains, and a sample of Primary Health Care services. Pharmaceutical services (PS) were directly observed with photographic record and face-to-face interviews with those responsible for the dispensing of medicines and over the telephone with those responsible for pharmaceutical services. Data were processed with the SPSS® software version 21. RESULTS: The investigated dimensions showed relevant deficiencies and inequalities between the regions, generally more favorable in the Southeast and Midwest regions and weaker in the Northeast and North regions. We verified non-compliance with technical requirements and conditions essential to the conservation of medicines, which may interfere with the maintenance of stability and, thus, on their quality, efficacy, and safety. The regulation of advertising/promotion of medicines is still incipient and there is some progress in the structuring of mechanisms regarding pharmacovigilance. CONCLUSIONS: The sanitary situation of medicines in Brazilian Primary Health Care is alarming due to the violation of the specific sanitary legislation for dispensing establishments and due to a wide range of requirements essential to the conservation of medicines. We observed a disconnection between the efforts made in the Brazilian Unified Health System to promote access to medicines for all population and the organization and qualification of pharmaceutical services.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Medicamentos/normas , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Armazenamento de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Nacionais de Saúde
13.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 5s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify and discuss the conceptions of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian Primary Health Care, according to different subjects. METHODS: This study is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015), which is composed of an information survey in a representative sample of cities, stratified according to Brazilian regions, and a subsample of primary health care services. Municipal secretaries of health, those responsible for pharmaceutical services, and those responsible for medicine delivery in pharmacies/dispensing units of the selected services were interviewed. The questionnaires included one question about the understanding of the interviewee regarding pharmaceutical services. The content analysis technique was used to apprehend, in the statements, the meanings attributed to pharmaceutical services, which were subsequently classified into categories according to their main conceptions. RESULTS: Among the wide diversity of conceptions on pharmaceutical services (PS), we highlight the ones focused on 1) logistic control of medicines with activities concerning guidance or information on their use and 2) guidance or information to users on the use of medicine. The findings reveal a shifting tendency from a medicine-focused conception to one that considers the users and their needs as the final recipient of these actions. However, the lack of references to conceptions regarding care management and integrality point out the slowness of this change; after all, this is a social and historical process that comprises the production of meanings that transcend legal, logistic, and technical arrangements in pharmaceutical services. CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of conceptions expresses the several meanings attributed to pharmaceutical services; we also identified, in their reorientation process, a movement that reflects a gradual shift in the technical paradigm, from the focus on medicine logistics to a user-oriented approach of health services.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 6s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the activities of clinical nature developed by pharmacists in basic health units and their participation in educational activities aiming at health promotion. METHODS: This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015), a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of a survey of information in a representative sample of cities, stratified by the Brazilian regions that constitute domains of study, and a subsample of primary health care services. The interviewed pharmacists (n=285) were responsible for the delivery of medicines and were interviewed in person with the use of a script. The characterization of the activities of clinical nature was based on information from pharmacists who declared to perform them, and on participation in educational activities aiming at health promotion, according to information from all pharmacists. The results are presented in frequency and their 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: From the interviewed subjects, 21.3% said they perform activities of clinical nature. Of these, more than 80% considered them very important; the majority does not dispose of specific places to perform them, which hinders privacy and confidentiality in these activities. The main denominations were "pharmaceutical guidance" and "pharmaceutical care." The registration of activities is mainly made in the users' medical records, computerized system, and in a specific document filed at the pharmacy, impairing the circulation of information among professionals. Most pharmacists performed these activities mainly along with physicians and nurses; 24.7% rarely participated in meetings with the health team, and 19.7% have never participated. CONCLUSIONS: Activities of clinical nature performed by pharmacists in Brazil are still incipient. The difficulties found point out to the professionals' improvisation and effort. The small participation in educational activities of health promotion indicates little integration of pharmacists with the health team and of pharmaceutical services with other health actions.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 16s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the workforce in the pharmaceutical services in the primary care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). METHODS This is a cross-sectional and quantitative study, with data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). For the analysis, we considered the data stratification into geographical regions. We analyzed the data on workers in the municipal pharmaceutical services management and in the medicine dispensing units, according to the country's regions. For the statistical association analysis, we carried out a Pearson correlation test for the categorical variables. RESULTS: We analyzed 1,175 pharmacies/dispensing units, 507 phone interviews (495 pharmaceutical services coordinators), and 1,139 professionals responsible for medicine delivery. The workforce in pharmaceutical services was mostly constituted by women, aged from 18 to 39 years, with higher education (90.7% in coordination and 45.5% in dispensing units), having permanent employment bonds (public tender), being for more than one year in the position or duty, and with weekly work hours above 30h, working both in municipal management and in medicine dispensing units. We observed regional differences in the workforce composition in dispensing units, with higher percentage of pharmacists in the Southeast and Midwest regions. CONCLUSIONS: The professionalization of municipal management posts in primary health care is an achievement in the organization of the workforce in pharmaceutical services. However, significant deficiencies exist in the workforce composition in medicine dispensing units, which may compromise the medicine use quality and its results in population health.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Farmácias , Telefone , Recursos Humanos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 13s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the infrastructure of the primary health care pharmacies of the Brazilian Unified Health System, aiming at humanizing the offered services. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, of quantitative approach, from data obtained in the Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). Information on 1,175 pharmacies/dispensing units were gathered from direct observation and assessment of dispensing units installations conducted by trained researchers who used a standardized form. The analyzed variables refer to the physical structure of pharmacies or medicine dispensing units of the health units under research. RESULTS: The pharmacy area was greater than 14 m2 in 40.3% of the sampled units, highlighting those from Midwest (56.9%) and Southeast (56.2%) regions and those of Northeast, with only 23.3%. About 80.2% units had waiting rooms with chairs for patients, 31.8% of them had dispensing areas inferior to 5m2, while in 46.2% these areas were superior to 10m2. Bars were found in service counters in 23.8% of health units, thus separating the patient from the professional; 44.1% had internet access. In most units, the area of medicine storage had no refrigerator or freezer for their exclusive storage and 13.7% had a specific room for pharmaceutical consultation. CONCLUSION: Aiming at achieving care humanization and improving working conditions for professionals, the structuring of the environment of pharmacy services is necessary. This would contribute to the better qualification of pharmacy services, comprising more than medicine delivery. Data on the Northeast region indicated less favorable conditions to the development of adequate dispensing services. Based on the panorama pointed out, we suggest the expansion of stimulus concerning the physical structure of pharmaceutical services, considering regional specificities.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Farmácias/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Farmácias/normas
17.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 11s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the medicine dispensing services in the primary health care network in Brazil and in its different regions, aiming to promote the access and rational use of medicines. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, quantitative study with data obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), 2015. Observation visits were carried out in 1,175 dispensing units, and interviews were held with 1,139 professionals responsible for the dispensation of medicines in the dispensing units and 495 municipal coordinators of pharmaceutical services. RESULTS: More than half (53%) of the units presented a space smaller than 10 m2 for dispensing of medicines; 23.8% had bars or barriers between users and dispenser; 41.7% had computerized system; and 23.7% had counters for individual care. Among those responsible for dispensation, 87.4% said they always or repeatedly inform users how to use the medicines, and 18.1% reported developing some type of clinical activity. Isolated pharmacies presented a more developed physical and personal structure than those belonging to health units, but we found no significant differences regarding the information provided and the development of clinical activities. CONCLUSIONS: There are major differences in the organization models of dispensation between cities, with regional differences regarding the physical structure and professionals involved. The centralization of medicine dispensing in pharmacies separated from the health services is associated with better structural and professional conditions, as in the dispensing units of the South, Southeast, and Midwest regions. However, the development of dispensation as health service does not prevail in any pharmacy or region of the Country yet.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Geografia , Promoção da Saúde , Entrevistas como Assunto , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica/provisão & distribução
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 22s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of patients of the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) and its associated factors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). Data were collected with a questionnaire that included the EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument. Patients from the five regions of Brazil were interviewed. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze their Health-Related Quality of Life and its associated factors. RESULTS: Of the total of 8,590 patients, the most frequent dimensions were pain/discomfort (50.7%) and anxiety/depression (38.8%). About 10% of the patients reported extreme problems in these dimensions. The following factors were significantly associated with a worse quality of life: being female; having arthritis, osteoarthritis, or rheumatism; cerebrovascular accident; heart disease; depression; health self-assessment as poor or very poor; drinking alcoholic beverages once or more per month; dieting to lose weight, avoiding salt consumption, and reducing fat intake. Significant association was observed between a better quality of life and: living in the North and Southeast regions of Brazil; practicing physical activities; and having a higher educational level. No association was observed with factors related to the health services. CONCLUSIONS: The Health-Related Quality of Life of patients was influenced by demographic and socioeconomic factors that were related to health conditions and lifestyle, being useful to guide specific actions for promoting health and the integral care to patients of the Brazilian Unified Health System.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Autoavaliação , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 7s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the current stage of the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities. METHODS: This study is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study composed by an information survey in a representative sample of cities, stratified by Brazilian regions. We interviewed municipal secretaries of health, responsible for pharmaceutical services, and pharmacists responsible for the dispensing of medicines. The variables selected from the interviews were grouped into five dimensions that defined three stages of pharmaceutical services institutionalization: incipient (0%-34.0%), partial (35.0%-69.0%), and advanced (70.0%-100%), estimated based on the interviewees' answers. Frequencies were estimated with 95% confidence intervals. For the statistical association analysis, the Chi-square test was applied, with significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: Our results show a partial and heterogeneous process of institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazil, and an advanced stage in formal structures, such as the municipal health plans and the existence of a standardized list of medicines. The analysed variables in the "organization, structure, and financing" dimension configured stages that range from partial to advanced. The management presented partial institutionalization, positively showing the existence of computerized system, but also disparate results regarding the autonomy in the management of financial resources. Indispensable items related to the structure expressed disparities between the regions, with statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: The study showed a partial and heterogeneous process of institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities, showing regional disparities. Variables related to the normative aspects of institutionalization were positively highlighted in all dimensions; however, it is necessary to conduct new studies to evaluate the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services' finalistic activities.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica/economia
20.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 2): 19s, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the polypharmacy in primary health care patients and to identify its associated factors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study, part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). The variable of interest was polypharmacy, defined as the use of five or more medicines. We sought to identify the association of sociodemographic variables and indicators of health conditions to polypharmacy. For group comparison, the Pearson's Chi-square test was used. The association between polypharmacy and explanatory variables was evaluated by logistic regression model (p < 0.05). The quality of the adjustment was verified by Hosmer-Lemeshow test. RESULTS: The prevalence of polypharmacy among medicine users was 9.4% (95%CI 7.8-12.0) in the general population and 18.1% (95%CI 13.6-22.8) in older adults above 65 years old. We found statistically significant association between polypharmacy and age above 45 years, lower self-perception of health, presence of chronic diseases, having health insurance, care in emergency services, and region of the Country. South users presented the highest chances to polypharmacy. The most used medicines were those of the cardiovascular system, being compatible with the national epidemiological profile. CONCLUSIONS: Polypharmacy is a reality in the population met within the primary care of Brazilian Unified Health System and may be related to excessive or inappropriate use of medicines. The main challenge to qualify health care is to ensure that prescription of multiple medicines be appropriate and safe.


Assuntos
Polimedicação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Autoimagem , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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