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1.
Br Poult Sci ; : 1-8, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106712

RESUMO

1. In this study, classical and molecular microbiological methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter spp. were used to estimate their prevalence in faecal samples and skin swabs collected from 31 broiler flocks (20 farms) in Portugal, and measure the impact of transport-related factors on the expected rising excretion rates from the farm to the slaughterhouse.2. Data on husbandry practices and transport conditions were gathered, including time in transit, distance travelled or ante-mortem plant-holding time.3. A generalised linear mixed model was used to evaluate the significance of a potential post-transport rise in Campylobacter spp. counts and to assess risk determinants.4. At least one flock tested positive for Campylobacter spp. in 80% of the sampled farms. At the slaughterhouse, Campylobacter spp. were detected in all faecal samples, C. jejuni being the most commonly isolated.5. A post-transport rise of Campylobacter spp. counts from skin swabs was observed using classical microbiological methods (from a mean of 1.43 to 2.40 log10 CFU/cm2) and molecular techniques (from a mean of 2.64 to 3.31 log10 genome copies/cm2).6. None of the husbandry practices or transport-related factors were found to be associated with Campylobacter spp. counts.7. This study highlights the need for more research to better understand the multi-factorial nature of Campylobacter spp., a public health threat that was found to be highly prevalent in a sample of Portuguese poultry farms.

2.
Theriogenology ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088039

RESUMO

Infertility is a growing issue in modern society, being the fifth highest serious global disability according to the World Health Organization. To study infertility and other reproductive system complications, bench science still relies on 2D and animal studies, which regularly have been criticized due to their inability to mimic the human body. Particular challenges in 2D studies include the inability to mimic fluid dynamics, gametes modulation and their crosstalk, hormonal patterns as well as the low quality and viability of gametes and embryos. Animal models also present other drawbacks, namely the absence of menstruation, making it difficult to establish a reliable predictive model for the human system. Additionally, reproductive studies should not be limited to the fallopian tube as the sole responsible for most infertility cases, but instead the research spectrum should be widened to the whole reproductive system given the tight interconnectivity between each and every organ. In the last few decades, new in vitro technologies have been developed and applied to the study of reproductive system complications. These systems allow to create complex three-dimensional structures, which are therefore able to more closely resemble specific microenvironments and provide more realistic physical and biochemical cues. 3D (bio)printing, organoids and organs-on-chips are some of the dynamic technologies which are replacing conventionally employed static 2D culture. Herein, we provide an overview of the challenges found in conventional 2D and animal models of the reproductive system and present potential technological solutions for those same challenges.

3.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 149: 192-217, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982574

RESUMO

The central nervous system (CNS) is vulnerable to pathologic processes that lead to the development of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, Multiple sclerosis or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These are chronic and progressive pathologies characterized by the loss of neurons and the formation of misfolded proteins. Additionally, neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by a structural and functional dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although serving as a protection for the CNS, the existence of physiological barriers, especially the BBB, limits the access of several therapeutic agents to the brain, constituting a major hindrance in neurotherapeutics advancement. In this regard, nanotechnology-based approaches have arisen as a promising strategy to not only improve drug targeting to the brain, but also to increase bioavailability. Lipid nanocarriers such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), microemulsions and nanoemulsions, have already proven their potential for enhancing brain transport, crossing more easily into the CNS and allowing the administration of medicines that could benefit the treatment of neurological pathologies. Given the socioeconomic impact of such conditions and the advent of nanotechnology that inevitably leads to more effective and superior therapeutics for their management, it is imperative to constantly update on the current knowledge of these topics. Herein, we provide insight on the BBB and the pathophysiology of the main neurodegenerative disorders. Moreover, this review seeks to highlight the several approaches that can be used to improve the delivery of therapeutic agents to the CNS, while also offering an extensive overview of the latest efforts regarding the use of lipid-based nanocarriers in the management of neurodegenerative diseases.

4.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000000752, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to report the natural history and prognosis of tumours after augmentation enterocystoplasty (AE) and to perform a molecular analysis using an oncogene panel to search for potential targeted therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicentre nationwide retrospective study included 16 patients. A panel of 21 clinically relevant oncogenes was tested on archival tumor specimens using next-generation sequencing. Survival rate was the main clinical outcome, and sequences were compared to the reference genome for the genetic outcome. RESULTS: AEs were performed mainly for congenital neurogenic bladders and bladder exstrophies at a median age of 17 years (4 months-45 years). Most of the malignancies were diagnosed because of clinical manifestations, with a median latency period of 20 years. Adenocarcinomas were mainly found after gastrocystoplasties, whereas urothelial cell carcinomas were typically found after colocystoplasties. Thirteen out of 16 patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease (positive lymph nodes in 7, distant metastases in 6). The overall 1-year survival rate was 56%. Only 3 patients remained disease-free at a median follow-up of 70 months. Of the 9 tumors with analysable DNA, four were wild-type and five harboured missense mutations (KIT-p.Pro573Ser, PDGFRA-p.Glu587Lys, KRAS-p.Gly12Asp, ERBB4p.Arg484Lys, CTNNB1-p.Ser37Phe and p.Ser47Asn).. CONCLUSION: Malignancy after AE is diagnosed late with frequent metastases and a very low 1-year survival rate. More than half the tested samples harboured missense mutations in oncogenes accessible to targeted therapies. An international collaboration to enlarge the genetic panel analysis of these tumours may offer new therapeutic hope to patients.

5.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 96(3): 114870, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955953

RESUMO

Continuous hemodialysis system monitoring is necessary to prevent microorganism growth and health problems. This study evaluates single- and dual-species biofilm formation in microtiter plates by using dialysis solutions under aerobiosis or 5% CO2 atmosphere. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida parapsilosis sensu lato, and Mycobacterium smegmatis produce single-species biofilms in all dialysis solutions in both oxygenation conditions. Dual-species biofilm cultures grown at 5% CO2 atmosphere and in dialysate containing glucose reveal that M. smegmatis benefits from its association with C. parapsilosis. The dialysate and its constituent solutions support the growth of all the mono-species and the inter-kingdom mycobacterial/yeast biofilms in both aerobiosis and microaerophilic conditions.

6.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-23, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964426

RESUMO

A child's diet contains nutrients and other substances that influence intestinal health. This study aimed to evaluate the relations between complementary feeding, intestinal barrier function, and environmental enteropathy (EE) in infants. Data from 233 children were obtained from the Brazilian site of the MAL-ED cohort study. Habitual dietary intake from complementary feeding was estimated using seven 24 h dietary recalls, from 9 to 15 months of age. Intestinal barrier function was assessed using the lactulose/mannitol test (L/M) and EE was determined as a composite measure using fecal biomarkers concentrations - alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neopterin (NEO) at 15 months of age. The nutrient adequacies explored the associations between dietary intake and the intestinal biomarkers. Children showed adequate nutrient intakes (with the exception of fiber), impaired intestinal barrier function, and intestinal inflammation. There was a negative correlation between energy adequacy and L/M (ρ = -0.19, p <0.05) and between folate adequacy and NEO concentrations (ρ = -0.21, p <0.01). In addition, there was a positive correlation between thiamine adequacy and MPO concentration (ρ = 0.22, p <0.01) and between calcium adequacy and NEO concentration (ρ = 0.23; p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression models showed that energy intakes were inversely associated with intestinal barrier function (ß = -0.19, p = 0.02) and, fiber intake was inversely associated with the EE scores (ß = -0.20, p = 0.04). Findings suggest that dietary intake from complementary feeding is associated with decreased intestinal barrier function and EE in children.

7.
J Control Release ; 320: 180-200, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978444

RESUMO

Standard cancer therapies sometimes fail to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to tumor cells in a safe and effective manner. Nanotechnology takes the lead in providing new therapeutic options for cancer due to major potential for selective targeting and controlled drug release. Antibodies and antibody fragments are attracting much attention as a source of targeting ligands to bind specific receptors that are overexpressed on cancer cells. Therefore, researchers are devoting time and effort to develop targeting strategies based on nanoparticles functionalized with antibodies, which hold great promise to enhance therapeutic efficacy and circumvent severe side effects. Several methods have been described to immobilize antibodies on the surface of nanoparticles. However, selecting the most appropriate for each application is challenging but also imperative to preserve antigen binding ability and yield stable antibody-conjugated nanoparticles. From this perspective, we aim to provide considerable knowledge on the most widely used methods of functionalization that can be helpful for decision-making and design of conjugation protocols as well. This review summarizes adsorption, covalent conjugation (carbodiimide, maleimide and "click" chemistries) and biotin-avidin interaction, while discussing the advantages, limitations and relevant therapeutic approaches currently under investigation.

8.
Anaesthesia ; 75(3): 374-385, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792941

RESUMO

The multidisciplinary International Committee for the Advancement of Procedural Sedation presents the first fasting and aspiration prevention recommendations specific to procedural sedation, based on an extensive review of the literature. These were developed using Delphi methodology and assessment of the robustness of the available evidence. The literature evidence is clear that fasting, as currently practiced, often substantially exceeds recommended time thresholds and has known adverse consequences, for example, irritability, dehydration and hypoglycaemia. Fasting does not guarantee an empty stomach, and there is no observed association between aspiration and compliance with common fasting guidelines. The probability of clinically important aspiration during procedural sedation is negligible. In the post-1984 literature there are no published reports of aspiration-associated mortality in children, no reports of death in healthy adults (ASA physical status 1 or 2) and just nine reported deaths in adults of ASA physical status 3 or above. Current concerns about aspiration are out of proportion to the actual risk. Given the lower observed frequency of aspiration and mortality than during general anaesthesia, and the theoretical basis for assuming a lesser risk, fasting strategies in procedural sedation can reasonably be less restrictive. We present a consensus-derived algorithm in which each patient is first risk-stratified during their pre-sedation assessment, using evidence-based factors relating to patient characteristics, comorbidities, the nature of the procedure and the nature of the anticipated sedation technique. Graded fasting precautions for liquids and solids are then recommended for elective procedures based upon this categorisation of negligible, mild or moderate aspiration risk. This consensus statement can serve as a resource to practitioners and policymakers who perform and oversee procedural sedation in patients of all ages, worldwide.


Assuntos
Sedação Consciente/métodos , Sedação Consciente/normas , Jejum , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sedação Consciente/efeitos adversos , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/prevenção & controle
9.
Climacteric ; 23(1): 84-92, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365272

RESUMO

Objectives: Considering that bio-psycho-sociocultural variables influence menopause, this research aimed to assess the suitability of the self-regulation model in explaining the menopausal experience, and to explore differences among participants with different characteristics (e.g. health, sexual related) regarding menopause representations.Methods: Overall, 27 Portuguese women aged 40-65 years were assessed for sociodemographics, health, and sexual activity, as well as menopausal status and symptoms. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted. A directed content analysis was performed, and the qualitative data presented. Afterward, the frequencies of the categories were analyzed through quantitative methods (Mann-Whitney U tests).Results: Aging was the most frequently mentioned feature regarding menopause Identity, whereas vasomotor symptoms were the most mentioned regarding Negative Consequences and menses cessation regarding Positive Consequences. Features related to Cause (hormonal changes) and Control (need for acceptance) of menopause were also identified. No differences were found in the frequency of menopause representations between women with different characteristics (e.g. with higher vs. lower vasomotor symptom severity).Conclusion: The suitability of the self-regulation model to explain these women's menopause experience was confirmed and the representations did not vary among participants with different characteristics. This research might help professionals and researchers in developing comprehensive interventions, based on this theoretical model.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134257, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Air pollution is a well-known burden for population health and health systems worldwide. Reduction in air pollution is associated with improvements in mortality and rates of respiratory, cardiovascular and other diseases. Though air quality is a problem globally, efforts to lower air pollutant concentrations are usually regional or local. In industrialized countries, most urban air pollution is caused by vehicles, suggesting reductions in traffic would result in reductions of pollution. However, detailed data on how such reductions can be achieved and impact public health is just beginning to emerge, and other influencing factors, including vehicle flow or urban landscape are largely unaccounted for. METHODS: We utilized a unique combination of vehicle emission measurements combined with simulations of traffic and vehicle variations, as well as urban topographies, to quantify health impacts of PM10 reduction in a single district of Paris, France, for various methods of traffic improvement. Here we rank and evaluate improvements in non-accidental mortality for thirteen possible scenarios to reduce traffic related PM10 emissions. RESULTS: The maximum impact scenario requires all passenger vehicles to meet Euro 5 standards and excludes diesel vehicles, resulting in long-term decreases in non-accidental mortality of 148.79 people per year, or 104.40 per 100,000 people. Similar reductions hold for the scenario requiring a completely electric passenger fleet, with long-term annual reductions of 137.14 premature mortalities. Removing all diesel vehicles is the third most impactful scenario, preventing 135.55 deaths yearly. DISCUSSION: PARTLESS provides comparisons between thirteen different traffic-related air quality reduction mechanisms in terms of improvements in mortality rates. Improving emissions standards, increasing electric vehicle use and removing diesel vehicles can prevent more than 148 deaths per year in this district alone. Further improvements in mortality reduction may require changes to the composition of vehicle components, asphalt or to the management of resuspended particulate matter.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/tendências , Material Particulado/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Emissões de Veículos
11.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(21)2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671810

RESUMO

Polymer-based composites reinforced with nanocarbonaceous materials can be tailored for functional applications. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) or graphene with different filler contents have been developed as potential piezoresistive materials. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites depend on the PVDF matrix, filler type, and filler content. PVDF 6010 is a relatively more ductile material, whereas PVDF-HFP (hexafluropropylene) shows larger maximum strain near 300% strain for composites with CNT, 10 times higher than the pristine polymer. This behavior is similar for all composites reinforced with CNT. On the other hand, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/PVDF composites decrease the maximum strain compared to neat PVDF. It is shown that the use of different PVDF copolymers does not influence the electrical properties of the composites. On the other hand, CNT as filler leads to composites with percolation threshold around 0.5 wt.%, whereas rGO nanocomposites show percolation threshold at ≈ 2 wt.%. Both nanocomposites present excellent linearity between applied pressure and resistance variation, with pressure sensibility (PS) decreasing with applied pressure, from PS ≈ 1.1 to 0.2 MPa-1. A proof of concept demonstration is presented, showing the suitability of the materials for industrial pressure sensing applications.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(49): 46286-46295, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725262

RESUMO

Nanocarbonaceous materials with specific geometries and physicochemical properties allow the development of high-performance polymer-based smart composite materials. Among them, chemical treatments of graphene allow tailoring its electrical conductivity and, therefore, tuning functional response of materials for sensing applications. Polymer-based nanocomposites have been developed from styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS), a high deformation thermoplastic elastomer, and different graphene-based fillers, including graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene nanoplatelets (G-NPLs). It is shown that the electrical conductivity shows a percolation threshold around 2 wt % for GO and rGO, remaining nearly independent of the filler content for G-NPL filler contents up to 6 wt %. Furthermore, GO/SEBS and rGO/SEBS composites show high piezoresistive sensibility with gauge factors ranging from 15 up to 120 for strains up to 10%. Thus, GO/SEBS and rGO/SEBS composites can represent a new generation of materials for strain sensor applications, as demonstrated in their implementation in a hand glove prototype with finger movement monitoring.

13.
Eur J Neurol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs) encompass a group of syndromes of mainly genetic causes, characterized by the involvement of both hemispheres. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with a critical role in the regulation of neuronal biological processes through gene expression modulation. Dysregulated miRNA expression has been shown in epilepsy. Due to their stability in biological fluids like serum, miRNAs have assumed a prominent role in biomarker research. Our aim was to evaluate circulating levels of three miRNAs in GGE patients and assess their putative diagnostic value. METHODS: MiR-146a, miR-155 and miR-132 were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the serum of 79 GGE patients (47 women, 32 men, 35.1 ± 12.4 years) and 67 healthy individuals (41 women, 26 men, 42.4 ± 10.1 years). Relative expression values were calculated using the 2-ΔΔCt method. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess diagnostic value. MiRNA expression was correlated with clinicopathological features. RESULTS: Serum levels of miR-146a and miR-155 were significantly upregulated in GGE patients relative to controls (3.13 and 6.05, respectively). Combined miR-146a, miR-155 and miR-132 serum levels performed well as a diagnostic biomarker, discriminating GGE patients from controls with an area under the curve of 0.85, 80% specificity and 73% sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that miR-146a, miR-155 and miR-132 may partake in GGE epileptogenesis. A panel of three circulating miRNAs with potential value as a GGE biomarker is reported for the first time. Novel biomarkers may help to identify new treatment targets and contribute to improved patients' quality of life through earlier diagnosis and a more precise prognosis.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12930, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506557

RESUMO

True green pigments in the animal kingdom are scarce and are almost invariably porphyrinoids. Endogenous porphyrins resulting from the breakdown of haem are usually known as "bile pigments". The pigmentation of intertidal Polychaeta has long gained attention due to its variety and vivid patterning that often seems incompatible with camouflage, as it occurs with Eulalia viridis, one of the few truly green Polychaeta. The present study combined UV and bright-field microscopy with HPLC to address the presence and distribution of pigments in several organs. The results showed two major types of porphyrin-like pigments, yellowish and greenish in colour, that are chiefly stored as intraplasmatic granules. Whereas the proboscis holds yellow pigments, the skin harbours both types in highly specialised cells. In their turn, oocytes and intestine have mostly green pigments. Despite some inter-individual variation, the pigments tend to be stable after prolonged storage at -20 °C, which has important implications for future studies. The results show that, in a foraging predator of the intertidal where melanins are circumscribed to lining the nervous system, porphyrinoid pigments have a key role in protection against UV light, in sensing and even as chemical defence against foulants and predators, which represents a remarkable adaptive feature.

15.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 41(6): 585-593, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The organic ultraviolet UVB filter 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) was encapsulated in microparticles (MPs) of sodium alginate and co-loaded with vitamin E (Vit.E) by an extrusion process using an aerodynamically assisted jetting (AAJ) methodology. The aim was to assess the effect of encapsulation concerning UVB filter release from the MPs and its photochemical stability. METHODS: The EHMC photostability was analysed by exposing the samples (both MPs in aqueous dispersion and incorporated in a cream preparation) during 1 h to simulated solar light. For the MPs (empty-MP, EHMC-MP and EHMC + Vit.E-MP), the morphology and size were characterized; while in the case of the encapsulated samples, the amount of EHMC-loading was determined. The release of EHMC was evaluated by adding EHMC-MP or EHMC + Vit.E-MP to 65% ethanol in water under mechanical stirring at 32°C. RESULTS: All MPs showed a homogeneous size distribution with a median of 90.5 ± 2.5 µm for EHMC-MP and 70.4 ± 1.14 µm for EHMC + Vit.E-MP. The encapsulation efficiency was 92.9% and 99.4% for EHMC-MP and EHMC + Vit.E-MP, respectively. The observed release from the MPs was lower than the dissolution of the pure UV filter. EHMC-MP and EHMC + Vit.E-MP were successfully incorporated into a cream formulation, with no evidence of phase separation or colour modification. Upon simulated light exposure, the photoisomerization/phototransformation of EHMC encapsulated in MPs and Vit.E-MP decreased as compared to free EHMC, both in aqueous dispersion and as a cream. The conformational ratio of the isomers (Z-/E-EHMC) was found to be the lowest in the presence of Vit.E. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates that use of these alginate microparticulate carriers could enhance the effectiveness of sunscreen preparations containing this UVB filter.

16.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(22): 2058-2068, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Envenomation caused by Bothrops alternatus is common in Southern Brazil. Acute Kidney Injury occurs after Bothrops snakebite and more information is necessaryrequired to understand its mechanism. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of Bothrops alternatus venom (BaV) on renal cells and rat isolated kidney function. METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 6, weighing 260-320 g) were perfused with a Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6 g 100 mL-1 of bovine serum albumin. After 30 minutes, the kidneys were perfused with BaV to a final concentration of 1 and 3 µgmL-1; and subsequently were evaluated for Perfusion Pressure (PP), Renal Vascular Resistance (RVR), Urinary Flow (UF), Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), and percentage of electrolyte tubular transport. Renal histological analysis, cytokine release, oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in renal proximal tubular cells were assessed. RESULTS: BaV reduced PP, RVR, GFR, UF, total and proximal sodium transport (%TNa+), and chloride (%TCl-) in the isolated kidney perfusion model. Histological analysis of perfused kidneys disclosed the presence of proteinaceous material in the glomeruli and renal tubules, vacuolar tubular epithelial cell degeneration, Bowman's capsule degeneration, swelling of glomerular epithelial cells, glomerular atrophy and degeneration, and the presence of intratubular protein. Cytokine release (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-10) and oxidative stress were increased in the kidneys. The viability of LLC-MK2 cells (IC50: 221.3 µg/mL) was decreased by BaV and necrosis was involved in cell death. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that BaV modifies functional parameters in an isolated perfused kidney model and has cytotoxic effects on renal lineage cells.


Assuntos
Citocinas/biossíntese , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Venenos de Serpentes/farmacologia , Animais , Bothrops , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Malays Orthop J ; 13(2): 38-41, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467650

RESUMO

Meniscectomy is the most common surgery in orthopaedics. The absence of meniscal tissue might be related to irreversible damage to the articular cartilage. Meniscal replacement is a tissue-engineering technique for post-meniscectomy syndrome. Its success depends on the implant integration which was vastly proven in animal model studies. Histological evidence is hard to obtain in humans due to ethical issues. We report a clinical case in which a collagen scaffold meniscal implant was harvested six months after implantation due to mechanical failure. Histological analysis was performed revealing vascularisation not only of the peripheral attachment of the implant but also on the anterior horn. These morphologic findings demonstrate that this implant allows the colonisation by precursor cells and vessels, leading to the formation of a fully functional tissue. This present report is one of the few independent reports of scaffold biological integration in the literature.

18.
Sex Health ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287968

RESUMO

Background:Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is characterised by significant changes in the male life cycle, and may increase the likelihood of experiencing sexual difficulties. Further, it is assumed that traditional gender roles (masculinity) can affect the experience of sexual difficulties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of masculinity on sexual symptoms of LOH, as well as on sexual and relational satisfaction. Methods: A community sample of 460 Portuguese men aged between 40 and 91 years (mean (± s.d.) 51.64 ± 8.03 years) was collected. Correlation and moderation analyses were conducted to investigate relationships among the variables being studied. Results: There was an association between the sexual symptoms of LOH, masculinity and sexual and relationship satisfaction. Moderation analysis revealed direct relationships between masculinity and sexual and relationship satisfaction, as well as direct relationships between sexual symptoms of LOH and sexual and relationship satisfaction. However, sexual symptoms of LOH did not significantly moderate the relationships between masculinity and sexual and relationship satisfaction. Conclusions: These findings indicate the existence of a direct effect of both masculinity and sexual symptoms of LOH on sexual and relational satisfaction, although masculinity did not have an effect on sexual symptoms of LOH. The implications of these findings are discussed. Instrumentality as an indicator of masculinity was associated with relational and sexual satisfaction, suggesting the importance of involving a man's partner in sexual dysfunction interventions.

19.
Transl Med UniSa ; 19: 90-94, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360672

RESUMO

The project Cognitive Stimulation in Older Adults: Intervention on Cognitive Frailty and Promotion of Self-Care (in brief the ECOG project) arises in a context of worldwide demographic aging, and is fostered by the need to provide a sustainable solution to the progressive increase in the prevalence of age-related cognitive impairment. The main goal of the ECOG project is to promote active citizenship in old age through the empowerment for autonomy and self-care. Namely, the ECOG team is working on the development of evidence-based programs and tools that promote gains in health in cognitively frail and cognitively impaired older adults from the community. It is also working on the transfer of ECOG products to the practice of health and social care, promoting active involvement of geriatric care institutions in the implementation of the ECOG programs and tools, and ensuring appropriate training of professionals. Finally, the ECOG team is deploying a digital platform to reach out to the broadest audience possible and support the remote access and scaling up of the ECOG products. The impacts expected at an individual level include improvements in cognition, functionality, and autonomy of older adults, with simultaneous reduction of depressive symptomatology, and increase in quality of life of both person cared and his/her caregiver. Regarding societal gains, we anticipate an increase in life expectancy and significant postponement of institutionalization associated with geriatric problems. We also believe that the wide implementation of the ECOG products will reduce the costs of interventions for cognitively impaired citizens, contributing to sustainability and efficiency of health systems.

20.
Aquat Toxicol ; 214: 105260, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336222

RESUMO

Due to the role of Cytochrome P450, Family 1, Subfamily A (CYP1A) in the detoxification of many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), there has been an effort to characterise the gene and the products from its expression in organisms that are relevant for biomonitoring and toxicity testing procedures. Nonetheless, the existence of functional homologues in aquatic invertebrates is not entirely consensual, especially in bivalve molluscs, which pose as one of the most important models for aquatic toxicologists, especially mytilids. After isolation and sequencing of CYP1A-like mRNA from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, phylogenetics incorporating homologues from molluscs and other eumetazoans, vertebrates included, yielded notorious similarity to sequences belonging to the CYP2 Family. Altogether, the findings further indicate that CYP1A-like CYPs may be absent in bivalves, in lieu of Families CYP2, 3 and 4, suggesting caution when interpreting data from common biomarkers of exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons that have been developed for CYP1A activity and expression in higher deuterostomes.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Mytilus/enzimologia , Mytilus/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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