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1.
Europace ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702000

RESUMO

Pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices are potentially life-saving treatments for a number of cardiac conditions, but are not without risk. Most concerning is the risk of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection, which is associated with significant morbidity, increased hospitalizations, reduced survival, and increased healthcare costs. Recommended preventive strategies such as administration of intravenous antibiotics before implantation are well recognized. Uncertainties have remained about the role of various preventive, diagnostic, and treatment measures such as skin antiseptics, pocket antibiotic solutions, anti-bacterial envelopes, prolonged antibiotics post-implantation, and others. Guidance on whether to use novel device alternatives expected to be less prone to infections and novel oral anticoagulants is also limited, as are definitions on minimum quality requirements for centres and operators and volumes. Moreover, an international consensus document on management of CIED infections is lacking. The recognition of these issues, the dissemination of results from important randomized trials focusing on prevention of CIED infections, and observed divergences in managing device-related infections as found in an European Heart Rhythm Association worldwide survey, provided a strong incentive for a 2019 International State-of-the-art Consensus document on risk assessment, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of CIED infections.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724720

RESUMO

Pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices are potentially life-saving treatments for a number of cardiac conditions, but are not without risk. Most concerning is the risk of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection, which is associated with significant morbidity, increased hospitalizations, reduced survival, and increased healthcare costs. Recommended preventive strategies such as administration of intravenous antibiotics before implantation are well recognized. Uncertainties have remained about the role of various preventive, diagnostic, and treatment measures such as skin antiseptics, pocket antibiotic solutions, anti-bacterial envelopes, prolonged antibiotics post-implantation, and others. Guidance on whether to use novel device alternatives expected to be less prone to infections and novel oral anticoagulants is also limited, as are definitions on minimum quality requirements for centres and operators and volumes. Moreover, an international consensus document on management of CIED infections is lacking. The recognition of these issues, the dissemination of results from important randomized trials focusing on prevention of CIED infections, and observed divergences in managing device-related infections as found in an European Heart Rhythm Association worldwide survey, provided a strong incentive for a 2019 International State-of-the-art Consensus document on risk assessment, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of CIED infections.

3.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(11): 1599-1607, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study whether ICU staffing features are associated with improved hospital mortality, ICU length of stay (LOS) and duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) using cluster analysis directed by machine learning. METHODS: The following variables were included in the analysis: average bed to nurse, physiotherapist and physician ratios, presence of 24/7 board-certified intensivists and dedicated pharmacists in the ICU, and nurse and physiotherapist autonomy scores. Clusters were defined using the partition around medoids method. We assessed the association between clusters and hospital mortality using logistic regression and with ICU LOS and MV duration using competing risk regression. RESULTS: Analysis included data from 129,680 patients admitted to 93 ICUs (2014-2015). Three clusters were identified. The features distinguishing between the clusters were: the presence of board-certified intensivists in the ICU 24/7 (present in Cluster 3), dedicated pharmacists (present in Clusters 2 and 3) and the extent of nurse autonomy (which increased from Clusters 1 to 3). The patients in Cluster 3 exhibited the best outcomes, with lower adjusted hospital mortality [odds ratio 0.92 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-0.98)], shorter ICU LOS [subhazard ratio (SHR) for patients surviving to ICU discharge 1.24 (95% CI 1.22-1.26)] and shorter durations of MV [SHR for undergoing extubation 1.61(95% CI 1.54-1.69)]. Cluster 1 had the worst outcomes. CONCLUSION: Patients treated in ICUs combining 24/7 expert intensivist coverage, a dedicated pharmacist and nurses with greater autonomy had the best outcomes. All of these features represent achievable targets that should be considered by policy makers with an interest in promoting equal and optimal ICU care.

4.
Cell Rep ; 28(8): 1949-1960.e6, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433973

RESUMO

Wnt signaling affects fundamental development pathways and, if aberrantly activated, promotes the development of cancers. Wnt signaling is modulated by different factors, but whether the mitochondrial energetic state affects Wnt signaling is unknown. Here, we show that sublethal concentrations of different compounds that decrease mitochondrial ATP production specifically downregulate Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in vitro in colon cancer cells and in vivo in zebrafish reporter lines. Accordingly, fibroblasts from a GRACILE syndrome patient and a generated zebrafish model lead to reduced Wnt signaling. We identify a mitochondria-Wnt signaling axis whereby a decrease in mitochondrial ATP reduces calcium uptake into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress and to impaired Wnt signaling. In turn, the recovery of the ATP level or the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress restores Wnt activity. These findings reveal a mechanism that links mitochondrial energetic metabolism to the control of the Wnt pathway that may be beneficial against several pathologies.

5.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426337

RESUMO

Vitamin D (Vit.D) is involved in cellular proliferation and differentiation and regulation of the renin gene, which are important aspects of nephrogenesis and quiescence of renal health in adulthood. This study evaluated the angiogenic mechanisms involved in long term renal disturbances induced by Vit.D deficiency persistent in adulthood in rats. First-generation male Hannover offspring from mothers fed either a control diet (control group, CG) or Vit.D-deficient diet (Vit.D- group) were evaluated. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured monthly during the first 6 months after birth, and blood and urine samples were collected to evaluate renal function. Nitric oxide (NO), angiotensin II (ANGII), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and Vit.D were measured. The kidneys were then removed for morphometric, NO, immunohistochemical, and Western blot studies. We evaluated the expression of vascular growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietins 1 and 2 and their receptors since this intrinsic renal axis is responsible for endothelial quiescence. Compared to CG, the Vit.D- group presented higher SBP, ANG II plasma levels, renin expression, and AT1 receptor expression levels. Capillary rarefaction was observed, as well as an imbalance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. Collectively, the present findings support the role of Vit.D for maintaining the integrity of renal microcirculation.

6.
Europace ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209483

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection rates are increasing. Worldwide compliance and disparities to published guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and management of these conditions are not well elucidated. The purpose of this survey, therefore, was to clarify these issues through an inquiry to arrhythmia-related associations and societies worldwide. METHODS AND RESULTS: A questionnaire comprising 15 questions related to CIED infections was distributed among members of seven arrhythmia societies worldwide. A total of 234 centres in 62 countries reported implantation rates of which 159 (68.0%) performed more than 200 device implantations per year and 14 (6.0%) performed fewer than 50 implantations per year. The reported rates of CIED infections for 2017 were ≤2% in 78.7% of the centres, while the infection rates exceeded 5% in 7.8% of the centres. Preventive measures for CIED infection differed from published recommendations and varied among different regions mainly in terms of pocket irrigation and administering post-operative antimicrobial therapy the use of which was reported by 39.9% and 44% of the respondents, respectively. Antibacterial envelopes were used by 37.7% of the respondents in selected circumstances. In terms of pocket infection management, 62% of the respondents applied complete system removal as an initial step. Diagnostic pocket needle aspiration and pocket surgical debridement were reported by 15.8% and 11.8% of centres, respectively. CONCLUSION: Clinical practices for prevention and management of CIED do not fully comply with current recommendations and demonstrate considerable regional disparities. Further education and programmes for improved implementation of guidelines are mandatory.

7.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 22(253): 2979-2989, jun.2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1025723

RESUMO

Objetivou-se analisar produções científicas sobre a prática clínica do enfermeiro diante do eletrocardiograma em situações de urgência e emergência no Brasil. Revisão integrativa, utilizando método PICO, realizada em junho de 2018 nas bases de dados LILACS, BDENF, MEDLINE e SciELO, com os DeCS e operadores booleanos "Eletrocard" AND "Enfermagem" AND "Urgência" OR "Emergência". Selecionados sete artigos agrupados em cinco categorias. Conclui-se que o infarto agudo do miocárdio foi a condição clínica mais prevalente nas situações de urgência e emergência, sendo que o eletrocardiograma demanda várias ações do enfermeiro, como solicitação do exame diante do infarto agudo do miocárdio, execução ágil e interpretação básica diante das demais condições clínicas. A realização ágil e o cumprimento das recomendações atuais para o tempo porta-eletrocardiograma ideal são um desafio para o enfermeiro, e a interpretação do eletrocardiograma é de extrema importância, em que há influência positiva de treinamentos para a prática do enfermeiro diante do eletrocardiograma.(AU)


The objective was to analyze scientific productions about the clinical practice of the nurse before the electrocardiogram in situations of urgency and emergency in Brazil. Integrative review, using the PICO method, performed in June 2018 in the LILACS, BDENF, MEDLINE and SciELO databases, with the DeCS and Boolean operators "Eletrocard" AND "Nursing" AND "Urgency" OR "Emergency". Selected seven articles grouped into five categories. It was concluded that acute myocardial infarction was the most prevalent clinical condition in emergency and emergency situations, and the electrocardiogram requires several actions of the nurse, such as the request for the examination in the event of acute myocardial infarction, agile execution and basic interpretation before the other clinical conditions. Agile performance and compliance with the current recommendations for the ideal electrocardiogram time are a challenge for the nurse, and the interpretation of the electrocardiogram is extremely important, in that there is a positive influence of training for the nurse's practice on the electrocardiogram.(AU)


Se objetivó analizar producciones científicas sobre la práctica clínica del enfermero ante el electrocardiograma en situaciones de urgencia y emergencia en Brasil. Revisión integrativa utilizando método PICO, realizada en junio de 2018 en las bases de datos LILACS, BDENF, MEDLINE y SciELO, con los DeCS y operadores booleanos "Electrocard" AND "Enfermería" AND "Urgencia" OR "Emergencia". Se seleccionaron siete artículos agrupados en cinco categorías. Se concluye que el infarto agudo de miocardio fue la condición clínica más prevalente en las situaciones de urgencia y emergencia, siendo que el electrocardiograma demanda varias acciones del enfermero, como solicitud del examen ante el infarto agudo del miocardio, ejecución ágil e interpretación básica ante las enfermedades otras condiciones clínicas. La realización ágil y el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones actuales para el tiempo porta-electrocardiograma ideal son un desafío para el enfermero, y la interpretación del electrocardiograma es de extrema importancia, en que hay influencia positiva de entrenamientos para la práctica del enfermero ante el electrocardiograma.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Enfermagem em Emergência , Eletrocardiografia , Emergências , Assistência Ambulatorial
8.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 112(5): 499-500, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188956
9.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; : 165478, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152867

RESUMO

Mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), as assessed using the normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and detection of an altered glycemic profile, is associated with adverse perinatal outcome. This study described the results of 40 years of research conducted at the Perinatal Diabetes Research Centre at São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil, on the maternal MGH environment and placental markers. This study also described the unidirectional relationship between MGH and excessive fetal growth, also supplying moderator analysis. In addition to hyperglycemia, MGH is associated with an increased incidence of hypertension, metabolic syndrome, persistent insulin resistance after pregnancy, and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after pregnancy. Structural changes and functional abnormalities resulting from MGH were observed in placenta. The fully adjusted model concluded that the predictor variable (MGH), which creates a complex environment for the fetus, has a direct effect on excessive birth weight and produces a z-score for ratios of birth weight to gestational age of ≥2. Maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, number of previous pregnancies, numbers of prenatal visits, and 1 h OGTT are moderator variables that impact MGH and excessive fetal growth. These results show that maternal MGH has some characteristics associated with similar long-term T2DM development and similar adverse perinatal results to those of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) mothers, making it an intermediate maternal and placental marker between normoglycemic and GDM mothers.

10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6241-6247, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of spineless cactus in finishing diets for lambs improves the carcass quality. However, data about its influence on meat traits is very scarce. The effects of spineless cactus inclusion in the finishing diet of lambs at four levels (0, 150, 300 and 450 g kg-1 of dry matter, DM) in replacement of Tifton hay on the physicochemical and sensory properties of meat were studied. RESULTS: The spineless cactus modified the chemical composition increasing the protein (P < 0.001) and the fat (P < 0.01) contents of meat, presenting the greatest values in lambs fed diets with 150 and 300 g kg-1 (DM) replacing levels, respectively. However, the spineless cactus did not influence the growth performance from 23.7 to 37.3 kg of body weight (on average). In addition, colour parameters of the meat were not affected by the inclusion of spineless cactus in the finishing diet of lambs, resulting in mean values of 37.55, 14.96 and 8.49 for lightness, redness and yellowness, respectively. There were no statistical differences among treatments for cooking loss and shear force, with mean values of 34.8% and 14.8 N, respectively. Finally, the sensorial properties were not affected by the inclusion of spineless cactus in the finishing diet of lambs. CONCLUSION: Spineless cactus could be included up to the level of 300 g kg-1 DM in the finishing diets of lambs to increase the fat content of meat without compromising its sensorial properties. However, further studies about the fatty acid composition of meat from lambs fed diets containing spineless cactus are necessary. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Ovinos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paladar
11.
Immunol Res ; 67(2-3): 194-201, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240481

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by a systemic inflammatory response that polarizes peripheral blood monocytes to the M1 phenotype. The classically activated M1 monocytes comprise immune effector cells with an acute inflammatory phenotype. CD163 is a scavenger receptor expressed by monocytes/macrophages that may be shed from their cell membrane after proteolytic cleavage, producing the soluble CD163 molecule (sCD163). This study evaluated CD163 expression by monocytes and sCD163 as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentration in the plasma of pregnant women with PE. Fifty-six women with PE and 28 normotensive pregnant women were included. Plasma levels of sCD163, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined by ELISA, and CD163 expression by monocytes was assessed by flow cytometry. The expression of CD163 by monocytes was significantly lower in severe and mild PE than in normotensive pregnant. Plasma concentrations of IL-1ß, TGF-ß1, and TNF-α were higher in severe PE than in mild PE and normotensive pregnant women. Both groups of preeclamptic women showed decreased plasma levels of sCD163 and IL-10. Negative correlations between sCD163 and IL-1ß (r = - 0.45; P = 0.014) and between sCD163 and TNF-α concentrations (r = - 0.54; P = 0.001) were observed in the severe PE group. The association between the pro-inflammatory cytokine profile and lower concentrations of sCD163 and IL-10 in plasma from women with severe PE suggests an impairment in the modulation of the systemic inflammatory response in this group of pregnant women with preeclampsia.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7090, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068635

RESUMO

Glycerol injection in rats can lead to rhabdomyolysis, with the release of the intracellular muscle content to the extracellular compartment and acute kidney injury (AKI). Oxidative stress and the inflammatory processes contribute to the disturbances in renal function and structure observed in this model. This study evaluated the effect of calcitriol administration in AKI induced by rhabdomyolysis and its relationship with oxidative damage and inflammatory process. Male Wistar Hannover rats were treated with calcitriol (6 ng/day) or vehicle (0.9% NaCl) for 7 days and were injected with 50% glycerol or saline 3 days after the beginning of calcitriol or saline administration. Four days after glycerol or saline injection, urine, plasma and renal tissue samples were collected for renal function and structural analysis. The oxidative stress and the inflammatory processes were also evaluated. Glycerol-injected rats presented increased sodium fractional excretion and decreased glomerular filtration rates. These alterations were associated with tubular injury in the renal cortex. These animals also presented increased oxidative damage, apoptosis, inflammation, higher urinary excretion of vitamin D-binding protein and decreased cubilin expression in renal tissue. All these alterations were less intense in calcitriol-treated animals. This effect was associated with decreases in oxidative damage and inflammation.

14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 410-421, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001291

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Considering the potential deleterious effects of right ventricular (RV) pacing, the hypothesis of this study is that isolated left ventricular (LV) pacing through the coronary sinus is safe and may provide better clinical and echocardiographic benefits to patients with bradyarrhythmias and normal ventricular function requiring heart rate correction alone. Objective: To assess the safety, efficacy, and effects of LV pacing using an active-fixation coronary sinus lead in comparison with RV pacing, in patients eligible for conventional pacemaker (PM) implantation. Methods: Randomized, controlled, and single-blinded clinical trial in adult patients submitted to PM implantation due to bradyarrhythmias and systolic ventricular function ≥ 0.40. Randomization (RV vs. LV) occurred before PM implantation. The main results of the study were procedural success, safety, and efficacy. Secondary results were clinical and echocardiographic changes. Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and Student's t-test were used, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: From June 2012 to January 2014, 91 patients were included, 36 in the RV Group and 55 in the LV Group. Baseline characteristics of patients in both groups were similar. PM implantation was performed successfully and without any complications in all patients in the RV group. Of the 55 patients initially allocated into the LV group, active-fixation coronary sinus lead implantation was not possible in 20 (36.4%) patients. The most frequent complication was phrenic nerve stimulation, detected in 9 (25.7%) patients in the LV group. During the follow-up period, there were no hospitalizations due to heart failure. Reductions of more than 10% in left ventricular ejection fraction were observed in 23.5% of patients in the RV group and 20.6% of those in the LV group (p = 0.767). Tissue Doppler analysis showed that 91.2% of subjects in the RV group and 68.8% of those in the LV group had interventricular dyssynchrony (p = 0.022). Conclusion: The procedural success rate of LV implant was low, and the safety of the procedure was influenced mainly by the high rate of phrenic nerve stimulation in the postoperative period.


Resumo Fundamento: Considerando-se os potenciais efeitos deletérios da estimulação do ventrículo direito (VD), a hipótese desse estudo é que a estimulação unifocal ventricular esquerda pelo seio coronário é segura e pode proporcionar melhores benefícios clínicos e ecocardiográficos aos pacientes com bradiarritmias que apresentam função ventricular normal, necessitando apenas da correção da frequência cardíaca. Objetivos: Avaliar a segurança, a eficácia e os efeitos da estimulação do ventrículo esquerdo (VE), utilizando um cabo-eletrodo com fixação ativa, em comparação à estimulação do VD. Métodos: Estudo clínico, randomizado, simples-cego em pacientes adultos com indicação de marca-passo (MP) devido a bradiarritmias e função ventricular sistólica ≥ 0,40. A randomização aleatória (VD vs VE) ocorreu antes do procedimento. Os desfechos primários do estudo foram: o sucesso, a segurança e a eficácia do procedimento proposto. Os desfechos secundários foram: a evolução clínica e alterações ecocardiográficas. Empregou-se os testes Qui-quadrado, Exato de Fisher e t de Student, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: De junho de 2012 a janeiro de 2014 foram incluídos 91 pacientes, sendo 36 no grupo VD e 55 no grupo VE. As características basais dos pacientes dos dois grupos foram similares. O implante de MP foi realizado com sucesso e sem nenhuma intercorrência em todos os pacientes do grupo VD. Dos 55 pacientes inicialmente alocados para o grupo VE, o implante do cabo-eletrodo em veias coronárias não foi possível em 20 (36,4%) pacientes. Dentre os 35 pacientes que permaneceram com o cabo-eletrodo no VE, a estimulação frênica foi a complicação mais frequente e foi detectada em 9 (25,7%) pacientes. Na fase de seguimento clínico, não houve hospitalizações por insuficiência cardíaca. Reduções superiores a 10% na fração de ejeção do VE foram observadas em 23,5% dos pacientes do grupo VD e em 20,6% dos pacientes do grupo VE (p = 0,767). A análise feita pelo Doppler tecidual mostrou que 91,2% dos indivíduos do grupo VD e 68,8% dos do grupo VE apresentaram dissincronia interventricular (p = 0,022). Conclusões: A taxa de sucesso do implante no VE foi baixa e a segurança do procedimento foi influenciada, principalmente, pela alta taxa de estimulação frênica no pós-operatório.

15.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 112(4): 410-421, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the potential deleterious effects of right ventricular (RV) pacing, the hypothesis of this study is that isolated left ventricular (LV) pacing through the coronary sinus is safe and may provide better clinical and echocardiographic benefits to patients with bradyarrhythmias and normal ventricular function requiring heart rate correction alone. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety, efficacy, and effects of LV pacing using an active-fixation coronary sinus lead in comparison with RV pacing, in patients eligible for conventional pacemaker (PM) implantation. METHODS: Randomized, controlled, and single-blinded clinical trial in adult patients submitted to PM implantation due to bradyarrhythmias and systolic ventricular function ≥ 0.40. Randomization (RV vs. LV) occurred before PM implantation. The main results of the study were procedural success, safety, and efficacy. Secondary results were clinical and echocardiographic changes. Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and Student's t-test were used, considering a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: From June 2012 to January 2014, 91 patients were included, 36 in the RV Group and 55 in the LV Group. Baseline characteristics of patients in both groups were similar. PM implantation was performed successfully and without any complications in all patients in the RV group. Of the 55 patients initially allocated into the LV group, active-fixation coronary sinus lead implantation was not possible in 20 (36.4%) patients. The most frequent complication was phrenic nerve stimulation, detected in 9 (25.7%) patients in the LV group. During the follow-up period, there were no hospitalizations due to heart failure. Reductions of more than 10% in left ventricular ejection fraction were observed in 23.5% of patients in the RV group and 20.6% of those in the LV group (p = 0.767). Tissue Doppler analysis showed that 91.2% of subjects in the RV group and 68.8% of those in the LV group had interventricular dyssynchrony (p = 0.022). CONCLUSION: The procedural success rate of LV implant was low, and the safety of the procedure was influenced mainly by the high rate of phrenic nerve stimulation in the postoperative period.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213006, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials have examined on the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to evaluate whether oral vitamin D supplements, when given to pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), would improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, compared with no treatment or placebo. METHOD: We performed a systematic review following Cochrane methodology, and randomized trials were included where pregnant women with GDM received vitamin D supplementation versus placebo/no treatment or vitamin D and calcium versus placebo/no treatment. Primary outcomes were preeclampsia, preterm birth, cesarean delivery, gestational hypertension, and adverse events related to vitamin D supplementation. The search strategies were applied to the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and CENTRAL. Similar outcomes in at least two trials were plotted using Review Manager 5.3 software. The quality of evidence was generated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS: The total of 1224 references were identified, eleven trials were potentially eligible, and six were included in this review (totaling 456 women). The meta-analysis of frequency of cesarean deliveries did not show significant differences between groups, none of the trials evaluated the remaining primary outcomes. For secondary outcomes, our results suggest that vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women with GDM may reduce newborn complications such as hyperbilirubinemia, polyhydramnios (RR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.68; RR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.89; respectively), and the need for maternal or infant hospitalization (RR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.98; RR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.69). However, the evidence was of low or very low quality. CONCLUSION: We did not find moderate or high quality evidence indicating that vitamin D supplementation, when compared with placebo, improves glucose metabolism, adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes related to GDM in pregnant women.

17.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30440086

RESUMO

The field of mitochondrial ion channels has undergone a rapid development during the last three decades, due to the molecular identification of some of the channels residing in the outer and inner membranes. Relevant information about the function of these channels in physiological and pathological settings was gained thanks to genetic models for a few, mitochondria-specific channels. However, many ion channels have multiple localization within the cell hampering a clear-cut determination of their function by pharmacological means. The present review summarizes our current knowledge about the ins and outs of mitochondrial ion channels with special focus on the channels that have received much attention in recent years, namely the voltage-dependent anion channels, the permeability transition pore (also called mitochondrial megachannel), the mitochondrial calcium uniporter and some of the inner membrane-located potassium channels. In addition, possible strategies to overcome difficulties of specifically targeting mitochondrial channels versus their counterparts active in other membranes are discussed, as well as the possibilities of modulating channel function by small peptides that compete for binding with protein interaction partners. Altogether, these promising tools along with large-scale chemical screenings set up to identify new, specific channel modulators will hopefully allow to pinpoint the actual function of most mitochondrial ion channels in the near future and to pharmacologically affect important pathologies in which they are involved, such as neurodegeneration, ischemic damage and cancer.

18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(5): 686-696, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-973794

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Venous obstructions are common in patients with transvenous cardiac implantable electronic devices, but they rarely cause immediate clinical problems. The main consequence of these lesions is the difficulty in obtaining venous access for additional leads implantation. Objectives: We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictor factors of venous lesions in patients referred to lead reoperations, and to define the role of preoperative venography in the planning of these procedures. Methods: From April 2013 to July 2016, contrast venography was performed in 100 patients referred to device upgrade, revision and lead extraction. Venous lesions were classified as non-significant (< 50%), moderate stenosis (51-70%), severe stenosis (71-99%) or occlusion (100%). Collateral circulation was classified as absent, discrete, moderate or accentuated. The surgical strategy was defined according to the result of the preoperative venography. Univariate analysis was used to investigate predictor factors related to the occurrence of these lesions, with 5% of significance level. Results: Moderate venous stenosis was observed in 23%, severe in 13% and occlusions in 11%. There were no significant differences in relation to the device side or the venous segment. The usefulness of the preoperative venography to define the operative tactic was proven, and in 99% of the cases, the established surgical strategy could be performed according to plan. Conclusions: The prevalence of venous obstruction is high in CIED recipients referred to reoperations. Venography is highly indicated as a preoperative examination for allowing the adequate surgical planning of procedures involving previous transvenous leads.


Resumo Fundamento: Obstruções venosas são frequentes em portadores de dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis (DCEI) endocárdicos, mas raramente causam problemas clínicos imediatos. A principal consequência destas lesões é a dificuldade para obtenção de via de acesso para o implante de novos cabos-eletrodos. Objetivos: Determinar a prevalência de lesões venosas em candidatos a reoperações envolvendo o manuseio de cabos-eletrodos, e definir o papel da venografia pré-operatória no planejamento desses procedimentos. Métodos: De abril de 2013 a julho de 2016, 100 pacientes com indicação de troca de cabos-eletrodos, ou mudança no modo de estimulação, realizaram venografia com subtração digital no período pré-operatório. As lesões venosas foram classificadas em: não significativas (< 50%), moderadas (51-70%), graves (71-99%) ou oclusivas (100%), e a circulação colateral, em ausente, discreta, moderada ou acentuada. A estratégia cirúrgica foi definida a partir do resultado deste exame. Empregou-se análise univariada para a pesquisa de fatores de risco relacionados à ocorrência dessas lesões, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Obstruções venosas moderadas foram observadas em 23%, graves em 13% e oclusões em 11% dos pacientes estudados, não sendo identificadas diferenças significativas em sua distribuição em relação ao lado do implante, ou do segmento venoso. A utilidade do exame para definição da tática operatória foi comprovada, sendo que em 99% dos casos, a estratégia cirúrgica estabelecida pode ser executada. Conclusões: A prevalência de obstruções venosas é elevada em portadores de DCEI que serão submetidos a reoperações. A venografia é altamente indicada como exame pré-operatório para o adequado planejamento cirúrgico de procedimentos envolvendo cabos-eletrodos transvenosos previamente implantados.

19.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 111(5): 686-696, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous obstructions are common in patients with transvenous cardiac implantable electronic devices, but they rarely cause immediate clinical problems. The main consequence of these lesions is the difficulty in obtaining venous access for additional leads implantation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictor factors of venous lesions in patients referred to lead reoperations, and to define the role of preoperative venography in the planning of these procedures. METHODS: From April 2013 to July 2016, contrast venography was performed in 100 patients referred to device upgrade, revision and lead extraction. Venous lesions were classified as non-significant (< 50%), moderate stenosis (51-70%), severe stenosis (71-99%) or occlusion (100%). Collateral circulation was classified as absent, discrete, moderate or accentuated. The surgical strategy was defined according to the result of the preoperative venography. Univariate analysis was used to investigate predictor factors related to the occurrence of these lesions, with 5% of significance level. RESULTS: Moderate venous stenosis was observed in 23%, severe in 13% and occlusions in 11%. There were no significant differences in relation to the device side or the venous segment. The usefulness of the preoperative venography to define the operative tactic was proven, and in 99% of the cases, the established surgical strategy could be performed according to plan. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of venous obstruction is high in CIED recipients referred to reoperations. Venography is highly indicated as a preoperative examination for allowing the adequate surgical planning of procedures involving previous transvenous leads.

20.
BMC Nephrol ; 19(1): 265, 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ingestion of vitamin C is generally regarded as harmless. Oxalate nephropathy is an infrequent condition and is characterized by oxalate deposition in the renal tubules, in some cases resulting in acute kidney injury. It can be caused by overproduction of oxalate in genetic disorders and, more frequently, as a secondary phenomenon provoked by ingestion of oxalate or substances that can be transformed into oxalate in the patient. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of acute oxalate nephropathy in a 59-year-old black male with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who received a kidney transplant 11 years prior. He ingested a large amount of cashew pseudofruit ("cashew apple") during 1 month and developed acute kidney injury. His previous blood creatinine was 2.0 mg/dL, which increased to 7.2 mg/d; he required hemodialysis. He was subsequently discharged without need for dialysis; 3 months later his blood creatinine stabilized at 3.6 mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: This pseudofruit is rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and poor in oxalate. Urinary oxalate excretion begins to increase when amounts of ascorbic acid above bodily requirements are ingested, and may provoke acute oxalate nephropathy. The patient's oxalate acute nephropathy, in this case, was attributed to excessive vitamin C ingestion from the cashew pseudofruit associated with decreased renal function.

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