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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470982

RESUMO

The results of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) have been improving over time. Unfortunately, developing countries do not experience the same results. This first report of Brazilian experience of HSCT for PID describes the development and results in the field. We included data from transplants in 221 patients, performed at 11 centers which participated in the Brazilian collaborative group, from July 1990 to December 2015. The majority of transplants were concentrated in one center (n = 123). The median age at HSCT was 22 months, and the most common diseases were severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) (n = 67) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) (n = 67). Only 15 patients received unconditioned transplants. Cumulative incidence of GVHD grades II to IV was 23%, and GVHD grades III to IV was 10%. The 5-year overall survival was 71.6%. WAS patients had better survival compared to other diseases. Most deaths (n = 53) occurred in the first year after transplantation mainly due to infection (55%) and GVHD (13%). Although transplant for PID patients in Brazil has evolved since its beginning, we still face some challenges like delayed diagnosis and referral, severe infections before transplant, a limited number of transplant centers with expertise, and resources for more advanced techniques. Measures like newborn screening for SCID may hasten the diagnosis and ameliorate patients' conditions at the moment of transplant.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006913

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Poliovirus has been nearly eliminated as part of a world-wide effort to immunize and contain circulating wild-type polio. Nevertheless, poliovirus has been detected in water supplies and represents a threat to patients with humoral immunodeficiencies where infection can be fatal. To define the risk, we analyzed antibodies to poliovirus 1, 2, and 3 in serum samples collected over a year from patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) on regular intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) replacement. METHODS: Twenty-one patients on regular IVIG replacement therapy were evaluated: Twelve patients with common variable immune deficiency (CVID), six with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and three with hyper IgM syndrome (HIGM). Over 1 year, four blood samples were collected from each of these patients immediately before immunoglobulin infusion. One sample of IVIG administered to each patient in the month before blood collection was also evaluated. Poliovirus antibodies were quantified by seroneutralization assay. RESULTS: All IVIG samples had detectable antibodies to the three poliovirus serotypes. Despite that, only 52.4, 61.9, and 19.0% of patients showed protective antibody titers for poliovirus 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Only two patients (9.5%) had protective antibodies for the three poliovirus serotypes on all samples. Most patients were therefore susceptible to all three poliovirus serotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the need for ongoing vigilance regarding exposure of patients with PID to poliovirus in the community.

4.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 35(1): 25-32, 2017 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate the quantification of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for newborn screening of primary immunodeficiencies with defects in T and/or B cells in Brazil. METHODS: Blood samples from newborns and controls were collected on filter paper. DNA was extracted and TRECs, and KRECs were quantified by a duplex real-time PCR. The cutoff values were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis using SPSS software (IBM®, Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS: Around 6,881 samples from newborns were collected and TRECs and KRECs were quantified. The TRECs values ranged between 1 and 1,006 TRECs/µL, with mean and median of 160 and 139 TRECs/µL, respectively. Three samples from patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) showed TRECs below 4/µL and a patient with DiGeorge syndrome showed undetectable TRECs. KRECs values ranged from 10 to 1,097 KRECs/µL, with mean and median of 130 and 108 KRECs/µL. Four patients with agammaglobulinemia had results below 4 KRECs/µL. The cutoff values were 15 TRECs/µL and 14 KRECs/µL and were established according to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, with 100% sensitivity for SCID and agammaglobulinemia detection, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of TRECs and KRECs was able to diagnose children with T- and/or B-cell lymphopenia in our study, which validated the technique in Brazil and enabled us to implement the newborn screening program for SCID and agammaglobulinemia.


Assuntos
Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/sangue , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , DNA/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Projetos Piloto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética
5.
APMIS ; 125(10): 902-909, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28929596

RESUMO

This study investigated phenotypic and functional characteristics of lymphocytes in children with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and unclassified hypogammaglobulinemia (UH), as well as B-cell subsets in non-consanguineous parents. Blood samples of 30 children, CVID (n = 9), UH (n = 9), healthy donors HD (n = 12), and 19 adults (parents and controls) were labeled by a combination of surface markers to identify CD4, CD8 T-cell and B-cell subpopulations. T-cell cytokine production in children was analyzed in vitro after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and tetanus toxoid. We observed low percentages of switched memory B cells in children with CVID, increase in total CD4+ T-cell counts, and high percentages of transitional B cells only in UH group. Analysis of T-cell immunity showed that CVID children had decreased percentages of CD8+ IFN-γ-producing cells after stimulation with PHA and tetanus toxoid. Parent of children with CVID had low percentages of naive B cell and increased percentages of memory B cells in comparison with controls. These results suggest that (i) early combined immune defect in children with CVID and (ii) a possible familial B-cell disturbance in pediatric CVID.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fito-Hemaglutininas/imunologia , Toxoide Tetânico/imunologia
6.
Front Immunol ; 8: 685, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28952612

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) have been isolated from primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients exposed to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Patients may excrete poliovirus strains for months or years; the excreted viruses are frequently highly divergent from the parental OPV and have been shown to be as neurovirulent as wild virus. Thus, these patients represent a potential reservoir for transmission of neurovirulent polioviruses in the post-eradication era. In support of WHO recommendations to better estimate the prevalence of poliovirus excreters among PIDs and characterize genetic evolution of these strains, 635 patients including 570 with primary antibody deficiencies and 65 combined immunodeficiencies were studied from 13 OPV-using countries. Two stool samples were collected over 4 days, tested for enterovirus, and the poliovirus positive samples were sequenced. Thirteen patients (2%) excreted polioviruses, most for less than 2 months following identification of infection. Five (0.8%) were classified as iVDPVs (only in combined immunodeficiencies and mostly poliovirus serotype 2). Non-polio enteroviruses were detected in 30 patients (4.7%). Patients with combined immunodeficiencies had increased risk of delayed poliovirus clearance compared to primary antibody deficiencies. Usually, iVDPV was detected in subjects with combined immunodeficiencies in a short period of time after OPV exposure, most for less than 6 months. Surveillance for poliovirus excretion among PID patients should be reinforced until polio eradication is certified and the use of OPV is stopped. Survival rates among PID patients are improving in lower and middle income countries, and iVDPV excreters are identified more frequently. Antivirals or enhanced immunotherapies presently in development represent the only potential means to manage the treatment of prolonged excreters and the risk they present to the polio endgame.

8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 12(1): 136, 2017 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28778179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes and the risk for development of cardiovascular disease was recently associated as an extended phenotype of the disease. We aimed to assess IR; liver involvement; carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and metabolic alterations associated to cardiovascular risk in A-T patients, and relate them with age. RESULTS: Glucose metabolism alterations were found in 54.6% of the patients. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed in 11/17 (64.7%) A-T patients. AST/ALT ratio > 1 was observed in 10/17 (58.8%). A strong positive correlation was observed between insulin sum concentrations with ALT (r = 0.782, p < 0.004) and age (r = 0.818, p = 0.002). Dyslipidemia was observed in 55.5% of the patients. The apolipoprotein (Apo-B)/ApoA-I ratio (r = 0.619; p < 0.01), LDL/HDL-c (r = 0.490; p < 0.05) and the Apo-B levels (r = 0.545; p < 0.05) were positively correlated to cIMT. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic disorders implicated in cardiovascular and liver diseases are frequently observed in adolescent A-T patients and those tend to get worse as they become older. Therefore, nutritional intervention and the use of drugs may be necessary.


Assuntos
Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ataxia Telangiectasia/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(7): 650-692, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786026

RESUMO

In today's global economy and affordable vacation travel, it is increasingly important that visitors to another country and their physician be familiar with emerging infections, infections unique to a specific geographic region, and risks related to the process of travel. This is never more important than for patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDD). A recent review addressing common causes of fever in travelers provides important information for the general population Thwaites and Day (N Engl J Med 376:548-560, 2017). This review covers critical infectious and management concerns specifically related to travel for patients with PIDD. This review will discuss the context of the changing landscape of infections, highlight specific infections of concern, and profile distinct infection phenotypes in patients who are immune compromised. The organization of this review will address the environment driving emerging infections and several concerns unique to patients with PIDD. The first section addresses general considerations, the second section profiles specific infections organized according to mechanism of transmission, and the third section focuses on unique phenotypes and unique susceptibilities in patients with PIDDs. This review does not address most parasitic diseases. Reference tables provide easily accessible information on a broader range of infections than is described in the text.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/epidemiologia , Infecção/epidemiologia , Viagem , Animais , Humanos
10.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 35(1): 25-32, jan.-mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-845724

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Validar a quantificação de T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) e kappa-deleting recombination circles (KRECs) por reação em cadeia de polimerase (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) em tempo real (qRT-PCR), para triagem neonatal de imunodeficiências primárias que cursam com defeitos nas células T e/ou B no Brasil. Métodos: Amostras de sangue de recém-nascidos (RN) e controles foram coletadas em papel-filtro. O DNA foi extraído e os TRECs e KRECs foram quantificados por reação duplex de qRT-PCR. O valor de corte foi determinado pela análise de Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve, utilizando-se o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SSPS) (IBM®, Armonk, NY, EUA). Resultados: 6.881 amostras de RN foram analisadas quanto à concentração de TRECs e KRECs. Os valores de TRECs variaram entre 1 e 1.006 TRECs/µL, com média e mediana de 160 e 139 TRECs/µL, respectivamente. Três amostras de pacientes diagnosticados com imunodeficiência grave combinada (severe combined immunodeficiency, SCID) apresentaram valores de TRECs abaixo de 4/µL e um paciente com Síndrome de DiGeorge apresentou TRECs indetectáveis. Os valores de KRECs encontraram-se entre 10 e 1.097 KRECs/µL, com média e mediana de 130 e 108 KRECs/µL, e quatro pacientes com diagnóstico de agamaglobulinemia tiveram resultados abaixo de 4 KRECs/µL. Os valores de corte encontrados foram 15 TRECs/µL e 14 KRECs/µL, e foram estabelecidos de acordo com a análise da Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve, com sensibilidade de 100% para detecção de SCID e agamaglobulinemia, respectivamente. Conclusões: A quantificação de TRECs e KRECs foi capaz de diagnosticar crianças com linfopenias T e/ou B em nosso estudo, validando a técnica e dando o primeiro passo para a implementação da triagem neonatal em grande escala no Brasil.


ABSTRACT Objective: To validate the quantification of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for newborn screening of primary immunodeficiencies with defects in T and/or B cells in Brazil. Methods: Blood samples from newborns and controls were collected on filter paper. DNA was extracted and TRECs, and KRECs were quantified by a duplex real-time PCR. The cutoff values were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis using SPSS software (IBM®, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: Around 6,881 samples from newborns were collected and TRECs and KRECs were quantified. The TRECs values ranged between 1 and 1,006 TRECs/µL, with mean and median of 160 and 139 TRECs/µL, respectively. Three samples from patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) showed TRECs below 4/µL and a patient with DiGeorge syndrome showed undetectable TRECs. KRECs values ranged from 10 to 1,097 KRECs/µL, with mean and median of 130 and 108 KRECs/µL. Four patients with agammaglobulinemia had results below 4 KRECs/µL. The cutoff values were 15 TRECs/µL and 14 KRECs/µL and were established according to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, with 100% sensitivity for SCID and agammaglobulinemia detection, respectively. Conclusions: Quantification of TRECs and KRECs was able to diagnose children with T- and/or B-cell lymphopenia in our study, which validated the technique in Brazil and enabled us to implement the newborn screening program for SCID and agammaglobulinemia.

13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 4(6): 1059-1065, 2016 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26883540

RESUMO

X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) has been associated with a broad range of infections, but enteroviral disease represents one of the most damaging infections. The risk of enteroviral infection in XLA is lower now than in the setting of intramuscular immunoglobulin or in patients without immunoglobulin replacement, but the rate of infection has not declined significantly in the era of intravenous immunoglobulin replacement. Enteroviruses can cause inflammation of nearly every organ, but in XLA, infections often manifest as dermatomyositis or chronic meningoencephalitis. Difficulty and delay in recognizing symptoms and lack of specific therapy contribute to the poor outcomes. Furthermore, cerebrospinal fluid detection of enteroviruses is not very sensitive. Reluctance to perform brain biopsies can lead to significant delays. The other feature compromising outcomes is the lack of specific therapy. High-dose peripheral and intraventricular immunoglobulin have been used, but failure is still common. New antienteroviral drugs are in development and show promise for immunodeficient patients with life-threatening infections with enterovirus.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia , Infecções por Enterovirus , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X , Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Agamaglobulinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Agamaglobulinemia/epidemiologia , Agamaglobulinemia/virologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enterovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/epidemiologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/virologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Éteres Fenílicos/uso terapêutico
15.
J Clin Invest ; 125(11): 4135-48, 2015 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26457731

RESUMO

Patients with mutations of the recombination-activating genes (RAG) present with diverse clinical phenotypes, including severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), autoimmunity, and inflammation. However, the incidence and extent of immune dysregulation in RAG-dependent immunodeficiency have not been studied in detail. Here, we have demonstrated that patients with hypomorphic RAG mutations, especially those with delayed-onset combined immune deficiency and granulomatous/autoimmune manifestations (CID-G/AI), produce a broad spectrum of autoantibodies. Neutralizing anti-IFN-α or anti-IFN-ω antibodies were present at detectable levels in patients with CID-G/AI who had a history of severe viral infections. As this autoantibody profile is not observed in a wide range of other primary immunodeficiencies, we hypothesized that recurrent or chronic viral infections may precipitate or aggravate immune dysregulation in RAG-deficient hosts. We repeatedly challenged Rag1S723C/S723C mice, which serve as a model of leaky SCID, with agonists of the virus-recognizing receptors TLR3/MDA5, TLR7/-8, and TLR9 and found that this treatment elicits autoantibody production. Altogether, our data demonstrate that immune dysregulation is an integral aspect of RAG-associated immunodeficiency and indicate that environmental triggers may modulate the phenotypic expression of autoimmune manifestations.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/imunologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/imunologia , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/genética , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/terapia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Receptores Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 23(2): 442-6, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25257732

RESUMO

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is increasingly recommended for many diseases apart from primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Although effective and safe, adverse reactions may occur. We conducted a 2-year prospective observational study in 117 patients with PID who received regular IVIG replacement therapy at a median dose of 600 mg/kg every 3 to 4 weeks to examine IVIG's adverse effects; 1765 infusions were performed (mean=15/patient) in 75 males and 42 females (aged 3 months to 77 years) in 3 groups: ≤ 9 years (34.2%), 10-19 years (26.5%), and ≥ 20 years (39.3%). Fifty patients had common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), 11 had X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and 55 had other immune system disorders. The drugs administered were Octagam® (49.1%), Tegeline® (17.3%), Imunoglobulin® (18.6%), Flebogama® (12.9%), Vigam® (1.2%), and Kiovig® (0.4%). Immediate infusion-related adverse reactions occurred in the cases of 38 out 1765 infusions (2.15%, IC95% 1.53%-2.94%), which were classified as mild (81.6%), moderate (10.5%), or severe (7.9%). Time until reaction ranged from 10 to 240 min (mean = 85.7, median = 60). Reaction rates were similar across age groups. The most common reactions were malaise, headache, and abdominal pain. Reported severe events were tightness of the throat and seizure. All symptoms improved with temporary or complete IVIG interruption and symptomatic medications. Sixteen of 38 reactions to infusions occurred in the presence of an acute infection (p=0.09). Tegeline® represented a greater reaction risk factor than Octagam® (p < 0.001). These results indicate that IVIG infusion can be considered a safe procedure. Low reaction incidence and few severe immediate infusion-related adverse reactions were observed.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
ISRN Pediatr ; 2013: 470286, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24198970

RESUMO

Introduction. The presence of eczema and gastrointestinal manifestations are often observed in cow's milk allergy (CMA) and also in some primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Objective. To describe 7 patients referred to a tertiary allergy/immunology Center with a proposed diagnosis of CMA, who were ultimately diagnosed with PID. Methods. This was a retrospective study based on clinical and laboratory data from medical records. Results. Seven patients (6 males) aged between 3 mo and 6 y were referred to our clinic with a proposed diagnosis of CMA. They presented with eczema and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. Five were receiving replacement formula. All patients presented with other clinical features, including severe/recurrent infections unrelated to CMA, and two of them had a positive family history of PID. Laboratory tests showed immune system dysfunctions in all patients. Hyper-IgE and Wiskott-Aldrich syndromes, CD40L deficiency, severe combined immunodeficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy, and chronic granulomatous disease were diagnosed in these children. In conclusion, allergic diseases and immunodeficiency are a result of a different spectrum of abnormalities in the immune system and may be misdiagnosed. Educational programs on PID among clinical physicians and pediatricians can reduce the occurrence of this misdiagnosis.

18.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 39(3): 128-132, mayo-jun. 2011. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-90099

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary complications in patients with primary antibody deficiency (X-linked a gammaglobulinaemia [XLA] and common variable immunodeficiency [CVID]). Methods: Thirty patients over six years of age regularly followed in a reference out-patient clinic on primary immunodeficiency were studied. All of them have been treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) replacement therapy. Pulmonary complications were evaluated analysing clinical data (medical records review), lung function test (spirometry) and pulmonary imaging (chest computed tomography [CCT]). Results: Patients with normal CCT (N=14) and those with abnormal CCT (N=16) have shown no differences regarding the age at onset of symptoms, age of diagnosis, and duration of IVIG treatment. The mean number of pneumonia episodes before IVIG replacement was significantly higher among patients with abnormal CCT (4 vs 7 episodes, p=0.008). CCT abnormalities observed in 16 patients were: bronchiectasis (12/16); peribronchial thickening (3/16); airtrapping (5/16); lung volume reduction (4/16); atelectasis (2/16), follicular bronchiolitis and ground-glass abnormality (2/16) and parenchyma nodule (1/16). Lung function tests showed ventilatory disturbance in 18/30: obstructive pattern in 38.8%, restrictive pattern in 44.4%,and mix pattern in 16.7%. There were no significant differences in lung function between those with and without CCT abnormalities. Negative significant correlations were observed between lung function and number of episodes of pneumonia. Chronic persistent cough was associated with a reduction in lung function. Conclusions: Pulmonary complications are not rare in patients with antibody deficiencies and they must be monitored (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/complicações , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/microbiologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/terapia , Agamaglobulinemia/complicações , Agamaglobulinemia/microbiologia , Agamaglobulinemia/terapia , Pulmão , Bronquiectasia , Pneumonia , Sinusite , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/instrumentação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/tendências , Espirometria/instrumentação
19.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 39(3): 128-32, 2011 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21339034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary complications in patients with primary antibody deficiency (X-linked agammaglobulinaemia [XLA] and common variable immunodeficiency [CVID]). METHODS: Thirty patients over six years of age regularly followed in a reference out-patient clinic on primary immunodeficiency were studied. All of them have been treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) replacement therapy. Pulmonary complications were evaluated analysing clinical data (medical records review), lung function test (spirometry) and pulmonary imaging (chest computed tomography [CCT]). RESULTS: Patients with normal CCT (N = 14) and those with abnormal CCT (N = 16) have shown no differences regarding the age at onset of symptoms, age of diagnosis, and duration of IVIG treatment. The mean number of pneumonia episodes before IVIG replacement was significantly higher among patients with abnormal CCT (4 vs 7 episodes, p = 0.008). CCT abnormalities observed in 16 patients were: bronchiectasis (12/16); peribronchial thickening (3/16); air trapping (5/16); lung volume reduction (4/16); atelectasis (2/16), follicular bronchiolitis and ground-glass abnormality (2/16) and parenchyma nodule (1/16). Lung function tests showed ventilatory disturbance in 18/30: obstructive pattern in 38.8%, restrictive pattern in 44.4%, and mix pattern in 16.7%. There were no significant differences in lung function between those with and without CCT abnormalities. Negative significant correlations were observed between lung function and number of episodes of pneumonia. Chronic persistent cough was associated with a reduction in lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary complications are not rare in patients with antibody deficiencies and they must be monitored.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/complicações , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/complicações , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/complicações , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agamaglobulinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 5(9)2010 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20844745

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) is the commonest cause of primary antibody failure in adults and children, and characterized clinically by recurrent bacterial infections and autoimmune manifestations. Several innate immune defects have been described in CVID, but no study has yet investigated the frequency, phenotype or function of the key regulatory cell population, natural killer T (NKT) cells. We measured the frequencies and subsets of NKT cells in patients with CVID and compared these to healthy controls. Our results show a skewing of NKT cell subsets, with CD4+ NKT cells at higher frequencies, and CD8+ NKT cells at lower frequencies. However, these cells were highly activated and expression CD161. The NKT cells had a higher expression of CCR5 and concomitantly expression of CCR5+CD69+CXCR6 suggesting a compensation of the remaining population of NKT cells for rapid effector action.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Subfamília B de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Subfamília B de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Receptores CCR5/genética , Receptores CCR5/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
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