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1.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(4): 394-401, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-984334

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The functioning of attention is complex, a primordial function in several cognitive processes and of great interest to neuropsychology. The Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A) is a continuous computerized performance test that evaluates some attention components such as response time to a stimulus and errors due to inattention and impulsivity. Objective: 1) To evaluate the applicability of T.O.V.A in Brazilian adults; 2) To analyze the differences in performance between genders, age ranges, and levels of education; 3) To examine the association between T.O.V.A variables and other attention and cognitive screening tests. Methods: The T.O.V.A was applied to 63 healthy adults (24 to 78 years of age) who also underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Digit Span and Digit Symbol (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults ­ WAIS-III) and the Trail Making Test. Results: The T.O.V.A was little influenced by age or education, but was influenced by gender. The correlations between some T.O.V.A variables and the Digit Symbol and Trail Making test were weak (r-values between 0.2 and 0.4), but significant (p<0.05). There was no correlation with the Digit Span test. Conclusion: The T.O.V.A showed good applicability and proved adequate for evaluating attentional processes in adults.


RESUMO: O funcionamento da atenção é complexo, função primordial em diversos processos cognitivos e de grande interesse para a neuropsicologia. O Teste de Variáveis de Atenção (T.O.V.A) é um teste computadorizado de desempenho contínuo que avalia alguns componentes de atenção, como tempo de resposta a um estímulo e erros por desatenção e impulsividade. Objetivo: 1) Avaliar a aplicabilidade do T.O.V.A em adultos brasileiros; 2) Analisar as diferenças de desempenho entre os gêneros, faixas etárias e níveis de escolaridade; 3) Examinar a associação entre as variáveis T.O.V.A e outros testes de atenção e triagem cognitiva. Métodos: O TOVA foi aplicado a 63 adultos saudáveis (24 a 78 anos) submetidos ao Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Digit Span e Digit Symbol (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults ­ WAIS-III) e o Trail Making Test. Resultados: T.O.V.A teve pouca influência da idade e escolaridade, mas foi influenciado pelo gênero. As correlações entre algumas variáveis T.O.V.A e o símbolo Digit e o teste Trail Making foram fracas (valores de r entre 0,2 e 0,4), mas significativas (p <0,05). Não houve correlação com o teste Digit Span. Conclusão: T.O.V.A apresentou boa aplicabilidade e foi adequado para avaliar os processos de atenção em adultos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Atenção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cognição
3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 18(1): 123, 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidences suggest that central hemodynamics indexes are independent predictors of future cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Multiple factors have been pointed to have potential influence on central aortic function: height, heart rate, left ventricular ejection duration and blood pressure level. Data related to the influence of gender and postmenopausal status on aortic waveform reflection is scarce. We aim to evaluate the impact of gender and menopause on central blood pressure of hypertensive patients. METHODS: In a cross sectional study 122 hypertensive patients (52 men and 70 women) were studied. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure (BP) levels ≥140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive drugs. Central arterial pressure, augmentation index (AIx) and augmentation index normalized to 75 bpm (AIx75) were obtained using applanation tonometry. Menopause and postmenopause history were accessed by a direct series of questions. Postmenopause was defined as at least one year since last menstruation. Patients were paired by age, gender and menopausal status, and the data were compared considering gender and menopausal status. RESULTS: Height and weight were significantly lower in women than in men at the same age. Conversely, AIx (32.7 ± 9.8% vs. 20.1 ± 11.7%, p < 0.01), AIx75 (29.6 ± 6.7% vs. 18.3 ± 9.4%, p < 0.01) and central systolic blood pressure (136 ± 30 vs. 125 ± 23 mmHg, p = 0.03) were higher in women than men. The menopausal women (mean age of menopause = 48 years) had the worst indexes of aortic wave reflection, compared to men at the same age and younger women. CONCLUSION: Hypertensive women had both higher reflected aortic pressure waveform and central blood pressure indexes than hypertensive men, and these findings were worsened by the menopausal status.

4.
Hypertension ; 72(2): 399-407, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941513

RESUMO

Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in patients with hypertension and may impair blood pressure (BP) and target-organ damage responses to antihypertensive therapy. In this study, we recruited hypertensive patients who underwent treatment with a 30-day regimen of hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg plus enalapril (20 mg BID) or losartan (50 mg BID) and were assessed with a baseline clinical evaluation, polysomnography, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. All the examinations except for polysomnography were repeated at 6 and 18 months of follow-up. We studied 94 hypertensive patients (mean age, 55±9 years). The frequency of OSA was 55%. Compared with baseline, we did not observe significant differences between groups in 24-hour BP, daytime systolic and diastolic BPs, or night-time systolic BP at 6 and 18 months. The BP control rate at 24 hours (<130/80 mm Hg) was similar between the groups (baseline, 42.3% versus 45.2%; 6 months, 46.9% versus 57.5%; 18 months, 66.7% versus 61.5%). However, patients with OSA had higher night-time diastolic BP decrease than did the non-OSA group (6 months, -4.9±11.8 versus -0.3±10.3 mm Hg; 18 months, -6.7±11.1 versus -1.2±10.6 mm Hg; P=0.027). There were no differences in the number and class of antihypertensive medications prescribed during follow-up. In terms of arterial stiffness, patients with OSA had higher pulse wave velocity than did patients without OSA at baseline (10.3±1.9 versus 9.2±1.7 m/s; P=0.024), but both groups had similar decreases in pulse wave velocity during follow-up. In conclusion, with combined antihypertensive treatment aimed at controlling BP, hypertensive patients with OSA had similar 24-hour BP and arterial stiffness to those without OSA.

5.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73: e226, 2018 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids in athletes is a strategy used to enhance strength and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, its abuse leads to an imbalance in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, increased vascular resistance, and increased blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. Therefore, we tested whether anabolic androgenic steroids could impair resting baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac sympathovagal control. In addition, we evaluate pulse wave velocity to ascertain the arterial stiffness of large vessels. METHODS: Fourteen male anabolic androgenic steroid users and 12 nonusers were studied. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were recorded. Baroreflex sensitivity was estimated by the sequence method, and cardiac autonomic control by analysis of the R-R interval. Pulse wave velocity was measured using a noninvasive automatic device. RESULTS: Mean spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, baroreflex sensitivity to activation of the baroreceptors, and baroreflex sensitivity to deactivation of the baroreceptors were significantly lower in users than in nonusers. In the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, high frequency activity was lower, while low frequency activity was higher in users than in nonusers. Moreover, the sympathovagal balance was higher in users. Users showed higher pulse wave velocity than nonusers showing arterial stiffness of large vessels. Single linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between mean blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity and pulse wave velocity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for lower baroreflex sensitivity and sympathovagal imbalance in anabolic androgenic steroid users. Moreover, anabolic androgenic steroid users showed arterial stiffness. Together, these alterations might be the mechanisms triggering the increased blood pressure in this population.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Vago/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Sleep Breath ; 22(3): 721-728, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The reasons for the high prevalence and whether OSA is associated with vascular impairment, end-organ damage, and prognosis are not completely clear. METHODS: We evaluated patients with low cardiovascular risk on HD, not treated by CPAP. Laboratory tests, sleep questionnaires (Berlin and Epworth) and polysonography studies, echocardiography, and markers of arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis were performed. After the initial evaluation, patients were followed up until cardiovascular events, renal transplantation, or death. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients (49% male, 50 ± 9 years, body mass index 24.7 ± 4.5 kg/m2) were included. OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 events/h) occurred in 73% of the patients. The proportion of patients with interdialytic weight gain > 2 kg was higher in patients with OSA than those without OSA (96 vs. 55%; p = 0.002). Left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness (10.0 ± 1.9 vs. 11.3 ± 1.8 mm; p = 0.04) and LV diastolic diameter (48 ± 5 vs. 53 ± 5 mm; p = 0.003) were higher in patients with OSA than in patients without OSA, respectively. Sleep questionnaires did not predict OSA. No significant differences were found in pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness, and ankle-brachial index between the groups. Multivariate analysis showed that interdialytic weight gain > 2 kg and LV diastolic diameter were independently associated with OSA. On follow-up (median 45 months), OSA was found to be associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events (28 vs. 7%, log-rank = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: OSA was associated with increased risk of CV events. Significant (> 2 kg) interdialytic weight gain was independently associated with OSA.

7.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 20(1): 22-30, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106057

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment and elevated arterial stiffness have been described in patients with arterial hypertension, but their association has not been well studied. We evaluated the correlation of arterial stiffness and different cognitive domains in patients with hypertension compared with those with normotension. We evaluated 211 patients (69 with normotension and 142 with hypertension). Patients were age matched and distributed according to their blood pressure: normotension, hypertension stage 1, and hypertension stage 2. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and a battery of neuropsychological evaluations that assessed six main cognitive domains. Pulse wave velocity was measured using a Complior device, and carotid properties were assessed by radiofrequency ultrasound. Central arterial pressure and augmentation index were obtained using applanation tonometry. The hypertension stage 2 group had higher arterial stiffness and worse performance either by Mini-Mental State Examination (26.8±2.1 vs 27.3±2.1 vs 28.0±2.0, P=.003) or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (23.4±3.5 vs 24.9±2.9 vs 25.6±3.0, P<.001). On multivariable regression analysis, augmentation index, intima-media thickness, and pulse wave velocity were the variables mainly associated with lower cognitive performance at different cognitive domains. Cognitive impairment in different domains was associated with higher arterial stiffness.

8.
J Diabetes Res ; 2018: 7926473, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596103

RESUMO

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased risk of endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Several studies have separately analyzed endothelial function in these populations. However, data of patients with both CKD and DM are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of DM has any additional effect on the endothelial dysfunction of CKD patients. Methods: We measured endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), stromal-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α), serum and urinary nitric oxide (NO), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 37 CKD patients with DM (CKD-DM group) and in 37 without DM (CKD group). Results: CKD-DM group had a higher prevalence of obesity (P < 0.01), previous myocardial infarction (P = 0.02), myocardial revascularization (P = 0.04), and a trend for more peripheral artery disease (P = 0.07). Additionally, CKD-DM group had higher EPC (P = 0.001) and PWV (P < 0.001) values. On the other hand, no difference in SDF-1α and serum or urinary NO and FMD was observed between the groups. Conclusions: Endothelial dysfunction is frequent in CKD patients, and an additive effect of diabetes cannot be implicated, suggesting the predominant role of uremia in this condition.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL12/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
9.
Clinics ; 73: e226, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids in athletes is a strategy used to enhance strength and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, its abuse leads to an imbalance in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, increased vascular resistance, and increased blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. Therefore, we tested whether anabolic androgenic steroids could impair resting baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac sympathovagal control. In addition, we evaluate pulse wave velocity to ascertain the arterial stiffness of large vessels. METHODS: Fourteen male anabolic androgenic steroid users and 12 nonusers were studied. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were recorded. Baroreflex sensitivity was estimated by the sequence method, and cardiac autonomic control by analysis of the R-R interval. Pulse wave velocity was measured using a noninvasive automatic device. RESULTS: Mean spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, baroreflex sensitivity to activation of the baroreceptors, and baroreflex sensitivity to deactivation of the baroreceptors were significantly lower in users than in nonusers. In the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, high frequency activity was lower, while low frequency activity was higher in users than in nonusers. Moreover, the sympathovagal balance was higher in users. Users showed higher pulse wave velocity than nonusers showing arterial stiffness of large vessels. Single linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between mean blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity and pulse wave velocity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for lower baroreflex sensitivity and sympathovagal imbalance in anabolic androgenic steroid users. Moreover, anabolic androgenic steroid users showed arterial stiffness. Together, these alterations might be the mechanisms triggering the increased blood pressure in this population.

10.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 11(4): 389-397, Oct,-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-891043

RESUMO

ABSTRACT. Aging, hypertension (HTN), and other cardiovascular risk factors contribute to structural and functional changes of the arterial wall. Objective: To evaluate whether arterial stiffness (AS) is related to cerebral blood flow changes and its association with cognitive function in patients with hypertension. Methods: 211 patients (69 normotensive and 142 hypertensive) were included. Patients with hypertension were divided into 2 stages: HTN stage-1 and HTN stage-2. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and a battery of neuropsychological (NPE) tests were used to determine cognitive function. Pulse wave velocity was measured using the Complior®. Carotid properties were assessed by radiofrequency ultrasound. Central arterial pressure and augmentation index were obtained using applanation tonometry. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity was measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Results: Both arterial stiffness parameters and cerebral vasoreactivity worsened in line with HTN severity. There was a negative correlation between breath holding index (BHI) and arterial stiffness parameters. Cognitive performance worsened in line with HTN severity, with statistical difference occurring mainly between the HTN-2 and normotension groups on both the MMSE and MoCA. The same tendency was observed on the NPE tests. Conclusion: Hypertension severity was associated with higher AS, worse BHI, and lower cognitive performance.


RESUMO. A idade, hipertensão arterial (HA), e outros fatores de risco cardiovascular contribuem para as alterações estruturais e funcionais da parede arterial. Objetivo: Avaliar o quanto a rigidez arterial está relacionada com as alterações do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral e sua associação com a função cognitiva em pacientes com hipertensão. Métodos: Foram incluídos 211 pacientes (69 normotensos e 142 hipertensos). Os pacientes com hipertensão foram divididos em dois estágios: HA-1 e HA-2. O mini exame do estado mental (MEEM), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) e uma bateria de testes neuropsicológicos foram usados para avaliar a função cognitiva. A velocidade da onda de pulso foi medida usando o Complior®. As propriedades da artéria carótida foram avaliadas usando o ultrassom de radiofrequência. A pressão arterial central e o índice de incremento foram obtidos usando a tonometria de aplanação. A velocidade de fluxo sanguíneo da arterial cerebral média foi medida pelo ultrassom com Doppler Transcraniano. Resultados: Tanto os parâmetros da rigidez arterial quanto a vasorreatividade cerebral foram piores com a gravidade da hipertensão. Houve uma correlação negativa entre o índice de apnéia e os parâmetros da rigidez arterial. O desempenho cognitivo foi pior com a gravidade de hipertensão arterial com diferença estatística ocorrendo principalmente entre os grupos HA-2 e normotensão tanto no MEEM quanto no MoCA. A mesma tendência foi observada em relação aos testes neuropsicológicos. Conclusão: A gravidade de hipertensão arterial foi associada com maior rigidez arterial, pior índice de apneia, e menor desempenho cognitivo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Cognição , Rigidez Vascular , Hipertensão
11.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 9: 87, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29090024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with structural and functional vascular abnormalities, which may lead to increased arterial stiffness, more frequent cardiovascular events and higher mortality. However, the role played by clustering of risk factors and the combining pattern of MetS risk factors and their association with the arterial stiffness have yet to be fully understood. Age, hypertension and diabetes mellitus seem to be strongly associated with increased pulse wave velocity (PWV). This study aimed at determining the clustering and combining pattern of MetS risk factors and their association with the arterial stiffness in non-diabetic and non-hypertensive patients. METHODS: Recently diagnosed and untreated patients with MetS (n = 64, 49 ± 8 year, 32 ± 4 kg/m2) were selected, according to ATP III criteria and compared to a control group (Control, n = 17, 49 ± 6 year, 27 ± 2 kg/m2). Arterial stiffness was evaluated by PWV in the carotid-femoral segment. Patients were categorized and analyzed according MetS risk factors clustering (3, 4 and 5 factors) and its combinations. RESULTS: Patients with MetS had increased PWV when compared to Control (7.8 ± 1.1 vs. 7.0 ± 0.5 m/s, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the variables that remained as predictors of PWV were age (ß = 0.450, p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (ß = 0.211, p = 0.023) and triglycerides (ß = 0.212, p = 0.037). The increased number of risk factors reflected in a progressive increase in PWV. When adjusted to systolic blood pressure, PWV was greater in the group with 5 risk factors when compared to the group with 3 risk factors and Control (8.5 ± 0.4 vs. 7.5 ± 0.2, p = 0.011 and 7.2 ± 0.3 m/s, p = 0.012). Similarly, the 4 risk factors group had higher PWV than the Control (7.9 ± 0.2 vs. 7.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: The number of risk factors seems to increase arterial stiffness. Notably, besides age and increased systolic blood pressure, alterations in the triglycerides worsened the stiffness of large vessels, emphasizing the importance in addressing this risk factor in MetS patients.

12.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 19(9): 840-847, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28868764

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) causes autonomic alteration and vascular dysfunction. The authors investigated whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is the main cause of vascular dysfunction via elevated sympathetic tone in nondiabetic patients with MetS. Pulse wave velocity, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and forearm vascular resistance was measured in patients with MetS divided according to fasting glucose levels: (1) MetS+IFG (blood glucose ≥100 mg/dL) and (2) MetS-IFG (<100 mg/dL) compared with healthy controls. Patients with MetS+IFG had higher pulse wave velocity than patients with MetS-IFG and controls (median 8.0 [interquartile range, 7.2-8.6], 7.3 [interquartile range, 6.9-7.9], and 6.9 [interquartile range, 6.6-7.2] m/s, P=.001). Patients with MetS+IFG had higher MSNA than patients with MetS-IFG and controls, and patients with MetS-IFG had higher MSNA than controls (31±1, 26±1, and 19±1 bursts per minute; P<.001). Patients with MetS+IFG were similar to patients with MetS-IFG but had higher forearm vascular resistance than controls (P=.008). IFG was the only predictor variable of MSNA. MSNA was associated with pulse wave velocity (R=.39, P=.002) and forearm vascular resistance (R=.30, P=.034). In patients with MetS, increased plasma glucose levels leads to an adrenergic burden that can explain vascular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Intolerância à Glucose/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
13.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 72(7): 411-414, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793000

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of clinical symptoms of peripheral artery disease and severe renal artery stenosis in patients referred for renal angiography. METHOD:: We included 82 patients with clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension and performed an imaging investigation (renal Doppler ultrasound and/or renal scintigraphy) for possible renal artery stenosis. All patients underwent renal arteriography and were examined for peripheral artery disease based on the presence of intermittent claudication and ankle-brachial index test results. Severe renal artery stenosis was defined as a lesion causing 70% obstruction. RESULTS:: Severe renal artery stenosis was present in 32 of 82 (39%) patients. Patients with severe renal artery stenosis were older (63±12 vs 56±12 years, p=0.006), had more intermittent claudication (55 vs 45%, p=0.027), and had a greater prevalence of an ankle-brachial index <0.9 (44% vs 20%, p=0.021) than patients without severe renal artery stenosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of intermittent claudication was independently associated with renal artery stenosis ≥70% (OR: 3.33; 95% CI 1.03-10.82, p=0.04), unlike the ankle-brachial index, which showed no association (OR: 1.44; 95% CI 0.37-5.66, p=0.60). CONCLUSION:: Intermittent claudication is independently associated with severe renal artery stenosis (≥70%) in patients clinically suspected of having renovascular hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Renovascular/complicações , Claudicação Intermitente/complicações , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/complicações , Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Renovascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cintilografia , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ultrassonografia Doppler
14.
Clinics ; 72(7): 411-414, July 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-890712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of clinical symptoms of peripheral artery disease and severe renal artery stenosis in patients referred for renal angiography. METHOD: We included 82 patients with clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension and performed an imaging investigation (renal Doppler ultrasound and/or renal scintigraphy) for possible renal artery stenosis. All patients underwent renal arteriography and were examined for peripheral artery disease based on the presence of intermittent claudication and ankle-brachial index test results. Severe renal artery stenosis was defined as a lesion causing 70% obstruction. RESULTS: Severe renal artery stenosis was present in 32 of 82 (39%) patients. Patients with severe renal artery stenosis were older (63±12 vs 56±12 years, p=0.006), had more intermittent claudication (55 vs 45%, p=0.027), and had a greater prevalence of an ankle-brachial index <0.9 (44% vs 20%, p=0.021) than patients without severe renal artery stenosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of intermittent claudication was independently associated with renal artery stenosis ≥70% (OR: 3.33; 95% CI 1.03-10.82, p=0.04), unlike the ankle-brachial index, which showed no association (OR: 1.44; 95% CI 0.37-5.66, p=0.60). CONCLUSION: Intermittent claudication is independently associated with severe renal artery stenosis (≥70%) in patients clinically suspected of having renovascular hypertension.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertensão Renovascular/complicações , Claudicação Intermitente/complicações , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/complicações , Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia , Hipertensão Renovascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico por imagem , Cintilografia , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ultrassonografia Doppler
15.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 19(9): 910-918, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28429850

RESUMO

Whether sex influences the association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension is unknown. In this study, 95 hypertensive participants underwent carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiogram, and polysomnography after a 30-day standardized treatment with hydrochlorothiazide plus enalapril or losartan. OSA was present in 52 patients. Compared with non-OSA patients, pulse wave velocity values were higher in the OSA group (men: 11.1±2.2 vs 12.7±2.4 m/s, P=.04; women: 11.8±2.4 vs 13.2±2.2 m/s, P=.03). The proportion of diastolic dysfunction was significant in men and women with OSA. Compared with non-OSA patients, nondipping systolic blood pressure in OSA was higher in men (14.3% vs 46.4%) and in women (41.4% vs 65.2%). OSA was independently associated with pulse wave velocity (ß=1.050; P=.025) and nondipping systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-8.55; P=.035) in the regression analysis. In conclusion, OSA is independently associated with arterial stiffness and nondipping blood pressure in patients with hypertension regardless of sex.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diuréticos/normas , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Enalapril/administração & dosagem , Enalapril/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroclorotiazida/administração & dosagem , Hidroclorotiazida/normas , Hidroclorotiazida/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Losartan/administração & dosagem , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia/métodos , Análise de Onda de Pulso/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(1)2017 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28077386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most evidence of target-organ damage in hypertension (HTN) is related to the kidneys and heart. Cerebrovascular and cognitive impairment are less well studied. Therefore, this study analyzed changes in cognitive function in patients with different stages of hypertension compared to nonhypertensive controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a cross-sectional study, 221 (71 normotensive and 150 hypertensive) patients were compared. Patients with hypertension were divided into 2 stages according to blood pressure (BP) levels or medication use (HTN-1: BP, 140-159/90-99 or use of 1 or 2 antihypertensive drugs; HTN-2: BP, ≥160/100 or use of ≥3 drugs). Three groups were comparatively analyzed: normotension, HTN stage 1, and HTN stage 2. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and a validated comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests that assessed 6 main cognitive domains were used to determine cognitive function. Compared to the normotension and HTN stage-1, the severe HTN group had worse cognitive performance based on Mini-Mental State Examination (26.8±2.1 vs 27.4±2.1 vs 28.0±2.0; P=0.004) or Montreal Cognitive Assessment (23.4±3.7 vs 24.9±2.8 vs 25.5±3.2; P<0.001). On the neuropsychological tests, patients with hypertension had worse performance in language, processing speed, visuospatial abilities, and memory. Age, hypertension stage, and educational level were the best predictors of cognitive impairment in patients with hypertension in different cognitive domains. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment was more frequent in patients with hypertension, and this was related to hypertension severity.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 69(6): 892-902, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27564917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of acute and chronic exercise in female patients with remissive Takayasu arteritis (TAK). METHODS: This was a 2-part prospective study. In study 1, cytokines and soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors were assessed at rest and every 60 minutes during a 3-hour recovery period following an acute exercise session in TAK (n = 11) and heathy control (n = 10) groups. In study 2, a subsample from the TAK group (n = 6) underwent a 12-week exercise training program. Before and after training, the acute session of aerobic exercise was performed and cytokines and soluble TNF receptors were assessed at the same time points described above. Muscle function, strength, aerobic capacity, endothelial function, quality of life, and walking impairment scores were evaluated. RESULTS: In study 1, the acute session of aerobic exercise led to overall similar responses on cytokine kinetics in the TAK and heathy control groups. In study 2, the exercise training program did not exacerbate inflammatory cytokines in TAK patients, while the proinflammatory cytokine TNF was diminished both at rest and following the acute session of aerobic exercise. In addition, the exercise training program increased the pro-angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (at rest) and platelet-derived growth factor AA (at rest and in response to the acute session of aerobic exercise). The exercise training program improved muscle strength and function, whereas aerobic capacity, quality of life, and endothelial function parameters remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Exercise could be a well-tolerated, safe, and effective intervention able to induce immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic effects and to increase strength and function in patients with TAK.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Arterite de Takayasu/sangue , Arterite de Takayasu/terapia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Neovascularização Patológica/sangue , Neovascularização Patológica/fisiopatologia , Neovascularização Patológica/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Arterite de Takayasu/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 11(4): 389-397, 2017 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354219

RESUMO

Aging, hypertension (HTN), and other cardiovascular risk factors contribute to structural and functional changes of the arterial wall. Objective: To evaluate whether arterial stiffness (AS) is related to cerebral blood flow changes and its association with cognitive function in patients with hypertension. Methods: 211 patients (69 normotensive and 142 hypertensive) were included. Patients with hypertension were divided into 2 stages: HTN stage-1 and HTN stage-2. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and a battery of neuropsychological (NPE) tests were used to determine cognitive function. Pulse wave velocity was measured using the Complior®. Carotid properties were assessed by radiofrequency ultrasound. Central arterial pressure and augmentation index were obtained using applanation tonometry. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity was measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Results: Both arterial stiffness parameters and cerebral vasoreactivity worsened in line with HTN severity. There was a negative correlation between breath holding index (BHI) and arterial stiffness parameters. Cognitive performance worsened in line with HTN severity, with statistical difference occurring mainly between the HTN-2 and normotension groups on both the MMSE and MoCA. The same tendency was observed on the NPE tests. Conclusion: Hypertension severity was associated with higher AS, worse BHI, and lower cognitive performance.

19.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 41(6): 978-985, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27978518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute activation of sympathetic activation during hemodialysis is essential to maintain blood pressure (BP), albeit long-term overactivity contributes to higher mortality. Low heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic nervous system activity, and abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) are associated with higher mortality in patients on hemodialysis. In this study, we assessed HRV and ABI pre and post dialysis in incident patients on hemodialysis using high (1.75mmol/l) and low (1.25mmol/l) dialysate calcium concentration (DCa). METHODS: HRV was measured as the ratio between low frequency and high frequency power (LF/HF). Thirty patients (age 47±16 years, 67% men) were studied in two consecutive mid-week hemodialysis sessions. RESULTS: Mean BP variation was positive with DCa 1.75 and negative with DCa 1.25 [4.0 (-6.0, 12.2 mmHg) vs. -3.2 (-9.8, 1.3 mmHg); p=0.050]. Reduction of ABI from pre to post HD was related to higher sympathetic activity (p=0.031). The increase in LF/HF ratio was higher with DCa 1.75 (58.3% vs. 41.7% in DCa 1.75 and 1.25, respectively, RR 2.8; p=0.026). CONCLUSION: Although higher DCa is associated with better hemodynamic tolerability during hemodialysis, this occurs at the expense of increased sympathetic activity. Higher sympathetic activity was associated with a decrease of ABI during hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Cálcio/farmacologia , Soluções para Diálise/química , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo
20.
J Bras Nefrol ; 38(3): 320-326, 2016 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737390

RESUMO

Introduction: Bone metabolism disorder (BMD) and vascular dysfunction contribute to excess cardiovascular mortality observed in hemodialysis patients. Vascular dysfunction, a new marker of atherosclerosis, can play a role in this risk. Even though associated with higher mortality in the general population, such vascular evaluation in patients on hemodialysis has not been extensively studied. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, hemodialysis patients were submitted to flow-mediated dilation, subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) and ejection duration index assessment, in order to estimate the impact of BMD markers on vascular dysfunction. Results: A matched cohort of patients with (n = 16) and without (n = 11) severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) was studied. Additionally, time spent under severe SHPT was also evaluated. Patients with severe SHPT had lower SEVR and higher ejection duration index, indicating higher cardiovascular risk. Lower SEVR was also associated to diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.435, p = 0.049), serum 25-Vitamin-D levels (r = 0.479, p = 0.028) and to more time spent under severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), defined as time from PTH > 500pg/ml until parathyroidectomy surgery or end of the study (r = -0.642, p = 0.027). In stepwise multiple regression analysis between SEVR and independent variables, lower SEVR was independently associated to lower serum 25-Vitamin-D levels (p = 0.005), female sex (p = 0.012) and more time spent under severe SHPT (p = 0.001) in a model adjusted for age, serum cholesterol, and blood pressure (adjusted r² = 0.545, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Subendocardial perfusion was lower in patients with BMD, reflecting higher cardiovascular risk in this population. Whether early parathyroidectomy in the course of kidney disease could modify such results still deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Endocárdio , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
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