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1.
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 101123, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513597

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is an obstetric disorder that affects 3-8% of pregnant women and remains a leading cause of short- and long-term neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Professional societies recommend the use of low dose aspirin to prevent preeclampsia in high-risk women. However, interest in prevention of this disease and better understanding of its pathophysiology have led to growing research on other agents. This review focuses on the main therapeutic agents evaluated or in use for preeclampsia prevention.

3.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(8): 792-799, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women have been historically excluded from clinical trials for nonobstetric conditions, even during prior epidemics. The objective of this review is to describe the current state of research for pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a search of international trial registries for trials relating to the novel coronavirus. The eligibility criteria for each trial were reviewed for inclusion/exclusion of pregnant women. Relevant data were extracted and descriptive statistics were calculated for individual and combined data. The total number of trials from each registry were compared, as well as the proportions of pregnancy-related trials within each. RESULTS: Among 621,370 trials in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry, 927 (0.15%) were COVID-19 related. Of those, the majority (52%) explicitly excluded pregnancy or failed to address pregnancy at all (46%) and only 16 (1.7%) were pregnancy specific. When categorized by region, 688 (74.2%) of COVID-19 trials were in Asia, followed by 128 (13.8%) in Europe, and 66 (7.2%) in North America. Of the COVID-19 trials which included pregnant women, only three were randomized-controlled drug trials. CONCLUSION: Approximately 1.7% of current COVID-19 research is pregnancy related and the majority of trials either explicitly exclude or fail to address pregnancy. Only three interventional trials worldwide involved pregnant women. The knowledge gap concerning the safety and efficacy of interventions for COVID-19 created by the exclusion of pregnant women may ultimately harm them. While "ethical" concerns about fetal exposure are often cited, it is in fact unethical to habitually exclude pregnant women from research. KEY POINTS: · Pregnancy was excluded from past pandemic research.. · Pregnancy is being excluded from COVID-19 research.. · Exclusion of pregnant women is potentially harmful..

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306165

RESUMO

Maternal mortality and morbidity continue to rise in the United States. Despite these trends there are limited novel interventions to investigate and improve these metrics, partly due to research protocol limitations which restrict participation of pregnant women. Inclusion of pregnant women in research studies is integral to the process of obtaining important information regarding the safety and efficacy of therapeutics or interventions to improve maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. While significant changes in research practices have resulted in an increase of female participants, there remains a paucity of research trials directly targeting pregnant and lactating women. This article provides an overview of issues surrounding inclusion of pregnant or breastfeeding women in research studies, and includes historical perspectives, navigating concerns over safety profile, considerations for appropriate development, and future perspectives.

5.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(1): 26-28, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349053

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease that started in Wuhan, China, and has rapidly spread all across the world. With limited ability to contain the virus and relatively high transmissibility and case fatality rates, governmental institutions and pharmaceutical companies are racing to find therapeutics and vaccines that target this novel coronavirus. However, once again, pregnant and breastfeeding women are excluded from participating in clinical trials during this pandemic. This "protection by exclusion" of pregnant women from drug development and clinical therapeutic trials, even during epidemics and pandemics, is not unprecedented. Moreover, it is both misguided and not justifiable and may have excluded them from potentially beneficial interventions. This is another missed opportunity to obtain pregnancy-specific safety and efficacy data, because therapeutics developed for men and nonpregnant women may not be generalizable to pregnant women. Therefore, we recommend and urge the scientific community and professional societies that, without clear justification for exclusion, pregnant women should be given the opportunity to be included in clinical trials for COVID-19 based on the concepts of justice, equity, autonomy, and informed consent.

6.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(8): 825-828, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274771

RESUMO

We sought to provide a clinical practice protocol for our labor and delivery (L&D) unit, to care for confirmed or suspected COVID-19 patients requiring cesarean delivery. A multidisciplinary team approach guidance was designed to simplify and streamline the flow and care of patient with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 requiring cesarean delivery. A protocol was designed to improve staff readiness, minimize risks, and streamline care processes. This is a suggested protocol which may not be applicable to all health care settings but can be adapted to local resources and limitations of individual L&D units. Guidance and information are changing rapidly; therefore, we recommend continuing to update the protocol as needed. KEY POINTS: · Cesarean delivery for confirmed or suspected novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. · Team-based approach for streamline care. · Labor and delivery protocols for COVID-19 positive patients.

7.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(4): 812-820, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of antenatal treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism on maternal depressive symptoms. METHODS: We conducted an ancillary study to a multicenter trial in women with singleton pregnancies diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism randomized to antenatal thyroxine therapy or placebo. Treatment was discontinued at the end of pregnancy. Women with overt thyroid disease, diabetes, autoimmune disease, and those diagnosed with depression were excluded. Participants were assessed for depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) before starting the study drug (between 11 and 20 weeks of gestation), between 32 and 38 weeks of gestation, and at 1 year postpartum. The primary outcome was maternal depressive symptoms score as assessed using the CES-D. Secondary outcome was the percentage of women who scored 16 or higher on the CES-D, as such a score is considered screen-positive for depression. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-five (36.2% of parent trial) women with subclinical hypothyroidism were allocated to thyroxine (n=124) or placebo (n=121). Median CES-D scores and the proportion of participants with positive scores were similar at baseline between the two groups. Treatment with thyroxine was not associated with differences in CES-D scores (10 [5-15] vs 10 [5-17]; P=.46) or in odds of screening positive in the third trimester compared with placebo, even after adjusting for baseline scores (24.3% vs 30.1%, adjusted odds ratio 0.63, 95% CI 0.31-1.28, P=.20). At 1 year postpartum, CES-D scores were not different (6 [3-11] vs 6 [3-12]; P=.79), nor was the frequency of screen-positive CES-D scores in the treated compared with the placebo group (9.7% vs 15.8%; P=.19). Treatment with thyroxine during pregnancy was also not associated with differences in odds of screening positive at the postpartum visit compared with placebo even after adjusting for baseline scores. Sensitivity analysis including women who were diagnosed with depression by the postpartum visit did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not achieve its planned sample size, thus our conclusions may be limited, but in this cohort of pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, antenatal thyroxine replacement did not improve maternal depressive symptoms.

9.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 22(2): 17, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052203

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the rationale and biological plausibility and discuss the current research on novel interventions for the prevention of preeclampsia. RECENT FINDINGS: Preeclampsia affects up to 8% of pregnancies worldwide and remains a major cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Multiple medications have been investigated or repurposed as potential effective interventions for preeclampsia prevention. Aspirin is currently the only drug for which there is some evidence of benefit for preeclampsia prevention, and its use is recommended by professional societies for pregnancies at risk. Statins have shown promise for prevention of preeclampsia in animal models and human pilot studies, without any trend or concerns for safety signals or teratogenicity. The use of metformin has also gained popularity in experimental studies, but observations from randomized clinical trials were not consistent on its utility as a possible intervention for preeclampsia prevention. While initial studies evaluating esomeprazole were promising, randomized trials failed to show benefit. Contemporary research shows exciting new opportunities for prophylactic treatment for preeclampsia, to prevent this debilitating and life-threatening disease.

10.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(3): 281-290, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sex-specific genetic susceptibility to adverse neurodevelopmental outcome (ANO, defined as cerebral palsy [CP], mental, or psychomotor delay) at risk for early preterm birth (EPTB, < 32 weeks). STUDY DESIGN: Secondary case-control analysis of a trial of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) before anticipated EPTB for CP prevention. Cases are infants who died by the age of 1 year or developed ANO. Controls, matched by maternal race and infant sex, were neurodevelopmentally normal survivors. Neonatal DNA was evaluated for 80 polymorphisms in inflammation, coagulation, vasoregulation, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress pathways using Taqman assays. The primary outcome for this analysis was sex-specific ANO susceptibility. Conditional logistic regression estimated each polymorphism's odds ratio (OR) by sex stratum, adjusting for gestational age, maternal education, and MgSO4-corticosteroid exposures. Holm-Bonferroni corrections, adjusting for multiple comparisons (p < 7.3 × 10-4), accounted for linkage disequilibrium between markers. RESULTS: Analysis included 211 cases (134 males; 77 females) and 213 controls (130 males; 83 females). An interleukin-6 (IL6) polymorphism (rs2069840) was associated with ANO in females (OR: 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-4.7; p = 0.001), but not in males (OR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.5-1.2; p = 0.33). The sex-specific effect difference was significant (p = 7.0 × 10-4) and was unaffected by MgSO4 exposure. No other gene-sex associations were significant. CONCLUSION: An IL6 gene locus may confer susceptibility to ANO in females, but not males, after EPTB.

11.
Am J Perinatol ; 36(11): 1097-1105, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of perioperative multimodal pain management in reducing opioid use after elective cesarean delivery (CD). STUDY DESIGN: A single-center, double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial of women undergoing elective CD. Participants were allocated 1:1 to receive the multimodal protocol or matching placebos. The multimodal protocol consisted of a preoperative dose of intravenous acetaminophen, preincision injection of subcutaneous bupivacaine, and intraoperative injection of intramuscular ketorolac. Primary outcome was total opioid intake at 48 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were pain scores, time to first opioid intake, neonatal outcomes, and total outpatient opioid intake on postoperative day (POD) 7. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests and quantile regression as appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 242 women were screened with 120 randomized, 60 to the multimodal group and 60 to control group. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome of opioid use nor in the secondary outcomes. Smokers and patients with a history of drug use had higher median postoperative opiate use and earlier administration. On POD 7, only 40% of prescribed opioids had been used, and there was no difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: This perioperative multimodal pain regimen did not reduce opioid use in 48 hours after CD. Patients who smoke or with a history of drug use required more opioids in the postoperative period. Providers significantly overprescribed opioids after CD.

12.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(5): 361-368, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between medications intake in early pregnancy and variation in the fetal fraction (FF) in pregnant women undergoing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of women (n = 1051) undergoing cfDNA testing at an academic center. The exposed group included women taking medications (n = 400; 38.1%), while the nonexposed group consisted of women taking no medications (n = 651; 61.9%). Our primary outcome was FF. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses as appropriate. RESULTS: The FFs were 8.8% (6.6-12.1), 8.7% (6.3-11.6), and 7.7% (5.1-9.3) among women taking 0, 1, and two or more medications, respectively (P < 0.01). Using multivariable linear mixed effects model, the mean FF was significantly lower among those taking two or more medications compared with the nonexposed group. FF was directly correlated with gestational age at the time of cfDNA testing and inversely correlated with maternal obesity. Exposure to metformin was associated with 1.8% (0.2-3.4) lower mean FF when compared with the nonexposed group (P = 0.02). Obesity and intake of two or more medications were associated with higher hazard ratio of having a low FF less than 4%. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to metformin or two or more medications was associated with decreased FF, and obesity is associated with delay in achieving adequate FF percentage. These findings should be considered while counseling patients on test limitations.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Teste Pré-Natal não Invasivo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Am J Perinatol ; 36(13): 1351-1356, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether distraction using music and/or video games influences timing of analgesia request and improves pain outcomes in women undergoing labor induction. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 219 pregnant women with singleton gestation undergoing labor induction with a Foley bulb (FB) at term were randomized to distraction with music and video games via iPod (n = 109) or no iPod (n = 110). The primary outcome was the time from FB placement to request for pain medication. Secondary outcomes included number of patients requesting pain medication within 6 and 12 hours, type of pain medication received, pain visual analog scale scores, and patient satisfaction. Mann-Whitney's, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier's curves, and Pearson's product moment correlation were used for statistical analysis (significance: p < 0.05). RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. There was no difference in the time from FB placement until pain medication request between the groups. There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes. Increased per cent time of iPod use correlated with a longer time until pain medication request (R 2 = 0.22, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: We were not able to show that distraction using music and video games delays timing of analgesia request or improve pain outcomes in pregnant women undergoing mechanical labor induction at term.

15.
Am J Perinatol ; 36(1): 62-66, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Wearing a white coat (WC) has been associated with risk of colonization and transmission of resistant pathogens. Also, studies have shown that physicians' attire in general affects patients' confidence in their physician and the patient-physician relationship. Our objective is to evaluate the hypothesis that not wearing a WC during physician postpartum rounds does not affect patient-physician communication scores. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an unblinded, randomized, parallel arms, controlled trial of postpartum women at a single university hospital. Women were randomly assigned to having their postpartum physicians' team wear a WC or not (no-WC) during rounds. Our primary outcome was "patient-physician communication" score. Univariable and multivariable analysis were used where appropriate. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-eight patients were enrolled (87 in WC and 91 in no-WC groups). Note that 40.4% of patients did not remember whether the physicians wore a WC or not. There was no difference in the primary outcome (p = 0.64) even after adjusting for possible confounders. CONCLUSION: Not wearing a WC during postpartum rounds did not affect the patient-physician communication or patient satisfaction scores. In the setting of prior reports showing a risk of WC pathogen transmission between patients, our findings cannot support the routine wearing of WCs during postpartum rounds.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Preferência do Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Visitas com Preceptor , Adulto , Vestuário/psicologia , Vestuário/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/psicologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 32(2): 271-278, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between maternal obesity and delivery due to chorioamnionitis prior to labor onset, among expectantly managed women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized trial of magnesium sulfate versus placebo to prevent cerebral palsy or death among offspring of women with anticipated delivery at 24-31-week gestation. After univariable analysis, Cox proportional hazard evaluated the association between maternal obesity and chorioamnionitis, while Laplace regression investigated how obesity affects the gestational age at delivery of the first 20% of women developing the outcome of interest. RESULTS: A total of 164 of the 1942 women with pPROM developed chorioamnionitis prior to labor onset. Obese women had a 60% increased hazard of developing such complication (adjusted HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.1, p = .008), prompting delivery 1.5 weeks earlier, as the 20th survival percentile was 27.2-week gestation (95%CI 26-28.6) among obese as opposed to 28.8 weeks (95%CI 27.4-30.1) (p = .002) among nonobese women. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity is a risk factor for chorioamnionitis prior to labor onset. Future studies will determine if obesity is important enough to change the management of latency after pPROM according to maternal BMI.


Assuntos
Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/terapia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Corioamnionite/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 32(17): 2897-2904, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534635

RESUMO

Objective: As anemia in pregnancy is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, we sought to define the mean and the fifth percentile of Hb and Ht using a contemporary multiethnic large cohort of low-risk pregnancies, and assess potential racial differences. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on women who delivered between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2013 in Reggio Emilia County, Italy. Linear mixed effects models were used to describe changes in mean Hb and Ht, while quantile regression with matrix-design bootstrap defined changes in the fifth percentile of Hb and Ht, controlling for race, maternal age, smoking, and pregnancy number. Results: We analyzed 23,657 hemograms from 7318 pregnancies and 6870 women. Multivariate analysis showed that when compared to Caucasians', African women's mean Hb and Ht were respectively 0.24 (95%CI 0.3-0.17) g/dl and 0.7 (95%CI 0.8-0.5) % lower, while Asian mothers' were 0.11 (95%CI 0.19-0.03) g/dl and 0.3 (95%CI 0.5-0.1) % inferior. Similarly, both African and Asian women had lower fifth Ht percentiles (-1, 95%CI -1.3 to -0.6, and -0.4, 95%CI -0.7 to -0.04) than Caucasians, while African mothers also had lower fifth Hb percentile (0.3, 95%CI 0.5-0.1). The fifth percentile for Hb and Ht were, respectively, 11.3 (95%CI 11-11.5) g/dl and 32.8 (95%CI 32.3-33.4) % in the first trimester, 10.4 (95%CI 10.1-10.6) g/dl and 30.2 (95%CI 29.6-30.8) % in the second trimester, 10.1 (95%CI 9.8-10.3) g/dl and 30.6 (95%CI 30-31.1) % in the third trimester. Conclusions: We provided contemporary references to define anemia in pregnancy, and we confirmed that even in pregnancy, African and Asian women have lower Hb and Ht than Caucasian. Racial and population-specific references may have significant clinical and public health implication for more accurate disease diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Anemia/etnologia , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/etnologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Anemia/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Paridade , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/sangue , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 44(1): 83-89, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 catalyzes the biotransformation of indomethacin to its inactive metabolite O-desmethylindomethacin (DMI). The aim of this work was to determine the effect of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on indomethacin metabolism in pregnant women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of indomethacin and DMI at steady state were analyzed with a validated LC-MS/MS method. DNA was isolated from subject blood and buccal smear samples. Subjects were grouped by genotype for comparisons of pharmacokinetic parameters. RESULTS: For subjects with the *1/*2 genotype, the mean steady-state apparent oral clearance (CL/Fss) of indomethacin was 13.5 ± 7.7 L/h (n = 4) and the mean metabolic ratio (AUCDMI/AUCindomethacin) was 0.291 ± 0.133. For subjects with the *1/*1 genotype, these values were 12.4 ± 2.7 L/h and 0.221 ± 0.078, respectively (n = 14). Of note, we identified one subject who was a carrier of both the *3 and *4 alleles, resulting in an amino acid change (I359P) which has not been reported previously. This subject had a metabolic ratio of 0.390 and a CL/Fss of indomethacin (24.3 L/h) that was nearly double the wild-type clearance. CONCLUSION: Although our results are limited by sample size and are not statistically significant, these data suggest that certain genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 may lead to an increased metabolic ratio and an increase in the clearance of indomethacin. More data are needed to assess the impact of CYP2C9 genotype on the effectiveness of indomethacin as a tocolytic agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/sangue , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Indometacina/sangue , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Gravidez/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Indometacina/farmacocinética , Gravidez/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 156: 467-478, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217571

RESUMO

The expression and activity of human placental transporters during pregnancy could be altered by several factors including pathological changes associated with preeclampsia. The aims of this study were to identify the placental efflux transporters involved in the bio-disposition of pravastatin, determine the protein expression of these transporters and their encoding genes as well as the activity of pravastatin uptake in placentas obtained from patients with preeclampsia. ATP-dependent uptake of [3H]-pravastatin by trophoblast tissue apical and basal membrane vesicles exhibited sigmoidal kinetics. The curved shapes of Eadie-Hofstee plots indicate that more than one placental transporter are involved in the uptake of pravastatin. ATP-dependent uptake of [3H]-pravastatin into vesicles expressing MRP1-5, BCRP, and P-gp, as well as the results of inhibition studies suggest that BCRP and MRP1 are the major placental efflux transporters responsible for the in vitro uptake of pravastatin. Compared to placentas from healthy pregnancies, preeclamptic placentas had increased number of syncytial knots with increased expression of BCRP in their apical membrane and increased expression of MRP1 in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast and in cytoplasm of syncytial knots. There was a concomitant increase in ABCC1 but not in ABCG2 gene expressions in preeclamptic placentas. ATP-dependent uptake of [3H]-pravastatin by vesicles prepared from apical membranes of preeclamptic placentas was similar to the uptake by vesicles prepared from placentas obtained after uncomplicated pregnancies (13.9 ±â€¯6.5 vs 14.1 ±â€¯5.8 pmol·mg protein-1 min-1). The transporter-specific changes in the expression of BCRP and MRP1 in preeclamptic placentas did not affect the efflux activity of transporters localized on the apical membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Pravastatina/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Gravidez
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