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2.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 16(1): 20, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness trial "Stress echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE in and beyond coronary artery disease. The core protocol also includes 4-site simplified scan of B-lines by lung ultrasound, useful to assess pulmonary congestion. PURPOSE: To provide web-based upstream quality control and harmonization of B-lines reading criteria. METHODS: 60 readers (all previously accredited for regional wall motion, 53 B-lines naive) from 52 centers of 16 countries of SE 2020 network read a set of 20 lung ultrasound video-clips selected by the Pisa lab serving as reference standard, after taking an obligatory web-based learning 2-h module ( http://se2020.altervista.org ). Each test clip was scored for B-lines from 0 (black lung, A-lines, no B-lines) to 10 (white lung, coalescing B-lines). The diagnostic gold standard was the concordant assessment of two experienced readers of the Pisa lab. The answer of the reader was considered correct if concordant with reference standard reading ±1 (for instance, reference standard reading of 5 B-lines; correct answer 4, 5, or 6). The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥ 90%) with R value (intra-class correlation coefficient) between reference standard and recruiting center) > 0.90. Inter-observer agreement was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficient statistics. RESULTS: All 60 readers were successfully accredited: 26 (43%) on first, 24 (40%) on second, and 10 (17%) on third attempt. The average diagnostic accuracy of the 60 accredited readers was 95%, with R value of 0.95 compared to reference standard reading. The 53 B-lines naive scored similarly to the 7 B-lines expert on first attempt (90 versus 95%, p = NS). Compared to the step-1 of quality control for regional wall motion abnormalities, the mean reading time per attempt was shorter (17 ± 3 vs 29 ± 12 min, p < .01), the first attempt success rate was higher (43 vs 28%, p < 0.01), and the drop-out of readers smaller (0 vs 28%, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Web-based learning is highly effective for teaching and harmonizing B-lines reading. Echocardiographers without previous experience with B-lines learn quickly.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Controle de Qualidade , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Int J Cardiol ; 249: 479-485, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trial "Stress Echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE beyond coronary artery disease. The aim of the study was control quality and harmonize reading criteria. METHODS: One reader from 78 centers of the SE 2020 network asked for credentials to read a set of 20 SE video-clips selected by the core lab. All aspiring centers met the pre-requisite of high-volume and the years of experience in SE ranged from 5 to 31years (mean value 18years). The diagnostic gold standard was a reading by the core lab. The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥90%). RESULTS: Of the initial 78 who started, 57 completed the first attempt: individual readers' score on first attempt ranged from 07/20 to 20/20 (accuracy from 35% to 100%, mean 78.7±13%) and 44 readers passed it. There was a very poor correlation between years of experience and the reader's score on first attempt (r=-0.161, p=0.231). Of the 13 readers who failed the first attempt, 12 took it again after the web-based session and their accuracy improved (74% vs. 96%, p<0.001). The kappa inter-observer agreement before and after web-based training was 0.59 on first attempt and rose to 0.91 on the last attempt. CONCLUSIONS: In SE reading, the volume of activity or years of experience is not synonymous with diagnostic quality. Qualitative analysis and operator-dependence can become a limiting weakness in clinical practice, in the absence of strict pathways of learning, credentialing and audit.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 70(2): 96-104, feb. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-160132

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: La variación en la relación presión/volumen telesistólica entre el reposo y el estrés máximo es un índice de contractilidad del ventrículo izquierdo independiente de la poscarga. Aún no está claro si depende del volumen telediastólico y hasta qué punto. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la dependencia de la variación de la relación presión/volumen telesistólica entre el reposo y estrés (Δ) y el volumen telediastólico en pacientes con ecocardiografía de estrés negativa y con todos los intervalos de función ventricular izquierda en reposo. Métodos: Analizamos los datos interpretables obtenidos de 891 pacientes (593 varones; 63 ± 12 años) con fracción de eyección del 47 ± 12%: 338 pacientes estaban sanos, prácticamente sanos o hipertensos; 229 tenían arteriopatía coronaria y 324, miocardiopatía dilatada isquémica o no isquémica. Se los estudió con ecocardiografía de estrés en ejercicio (n =172), dipiridamol (n = 482) o dobutamina (n = 237). La relación presión/volumen telesistólica se evaluó en reposo y en estrés máximo a partir de una medición bruta de la presión arterial sistólica mediante esfigmógrafo con manguito y el volumen telesistólico, por ecocardiografía bidimensional mediante el método de Simpson biplanar. Resultados: Los valores absolutos de la variación reposo-estrés en la relación presión/volumen telesistólica fueron más altos con ejercicio y dobutamina que con dipiridamol. En la población general, se observó relación inversa entre la relación presión/volumen telesistólica y el volumen telediastólico en reposo (r2 = 0,69; p < 0,001) y en estrés máximo (r2 = 0,56; p < 0,001), pero no se observó esta relación al considerar la variación reposo-estrés de la relación presión/volumen telesistólica (r2 = 0,13). Conclusiones: El volumen telediastólico ventricular izquierdo no afecta a la variación reposo-estrés de la relación presión/volumen telesistólica en ventrículos izquierdos normales o anómalos durante el estrés físico o farmacológico (AU)


Introduction and objectives: The variation between rest and peak stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation is an afterload-independent index of left ventricular contractility. Whether and to what extent it depends on end-diastolic volume remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the dependence of the delta rest-stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation on end-diastolic volume in patients with negative stress echo and all ranges of resting left ventricular function. Methods: We analyzed interpretable data obtained in 891 patients (593 men, age 63 ± 12 years) with ejection fraction 47% ± 12%: 338 were normal or near-normal or hypertensive; 229 patients had coronary artery disease; and 324 patients had ischemic or nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. They were studied with exercise (n = 172), dipyridamole (n = 482) or dobutamine (n = 237) stress echocardiography. The end-systolic pressure-volume relation was evaluated at rest and peak stress from raw measurement of systolic arterial pressure by cuff sphygmomanometer and end-systolic volume by biplane Simpson rule dimensional echocardiography. Results: Absolute values of delta rest-stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation were higher for exercise and dobutamine than for dipyridamole. In the overall population, an inverse relationship between end-systolic pressure-volume relation and end-diastolic volume was present at rest (r2 = 0.69, P < .001) and peak stress (r2 = 0.56, P < .001), but was absent if the delta rest-stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation was considered (r2 = 0.13). Conclusions: Left ventricular end-diastolic volume does not affect the rest-stress changes in end-systolic pressure-volume relation in either normal or abnormal left ventricles during physical or pharmacological stress (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Doença das Coronárias , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Diástole/fisiologia , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia
5.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 15(1): 3, 2017 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress echocardiography (SE) has an established role in evidence-based guidelines, but recently its breadth and variety of applications have extended well beyond coronary artery disease (CAD). We lack a prospective research study of SE applications, in and beyond CAD, also considering a variety of signs in addition to regional wall motion abnormalities. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter, international, observational study design, > 100 certified high-volume SE labs (initially from Italy, Brazil, Hungary, and Serbia) will be networked with an organized system of clinical, laboratory and imaging data collection at the time of physical or pharmacological SE, with structured follow-up information. The study is endorsed by the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Echography and organized in 10 subprojects focusing on: contractile reserve for prediction of cardiac resynchronization or medical therapy response; stress B-lines in heart failure; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; mitral regurgitation after either transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement; outdoor SE in extreme physiology; right ventricular contractile reserve in repaired Tetralogy of Fallot; suspected or initial pulmonary arterial hypertension; coronary flow velocity, left ventricular elastance reserve and B-lines in known or suspected CAD; identification of subclinical familial disease in genotype-positive, phenotype- negative healthy relatives of inherited disease (such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). RESULTS: We expect to recruit about 10,000 patients over a 5-year period (2016-2020), with sample sizes ranging from 5,000 for coronary flow velocity/ left ventricular elastance/ B-lines in CAD to around 250 for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. This data-base will allow to investigate technical questions such as feasibility and reproducibility of various SE parameters and to assess their prognostic value in different clinical scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: The study will create the cultural, informatic and scientific infrastructure connecting high-volume, accredited SE labs, sharing common criteria of indication, execution, reporting and image storage of SE to obtain original safety, feasibility, and outcome data in evidence-poor diagnostic fields, also outside the established core application of SE in CAD based on regional wall motion abnormalities. The study will standardize procedures, validate emerging signs, and integrate the new information with established knowledge, helping to build a next-generation SE lab without inner walls.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 70(2): 96-104, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27475497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The variation between rest and peak stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation is an afterload-independent index of left ventricular contractility. Whether and to what extent it depends on end-diastolic volume remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the dependence of the delta rest-stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation on end-diastolic volume in patients with negative stress echo and all ranges of resting left ventricular function. METHODS: We analyzed interpretable data obtained in 891 patients (593 men, age 63 ± 12 years) with ejection fraction 47% ± 12%: 338 were normal or near-normal or hypertensive; 229 patients had coronary artery disease; and 324 patients had ischemic or nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. They were studied with exercise (n = 172), dipyridamole (n = 482) or dobutamine (n = 237) stress echocardiography. The end-systolic pressure-volume relation was evaluated at rest and peak stress from raw measurement of systolic arterial pressure by cuff sphygmomanometer and end-systolic volume by biplane Simpson rule 2-dimensional echocardiography. RESULTS: Absolute values of delta rest-stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation were higher for exercise and dobutamine than for dipyridamole. In the overall population, an inverse relationship between end-systolic pressure-volume relation and end-diastolic volume was present at rest (r2 = 0.69, P < .001) and peak stress (r2 = 0.56, P < .001), but was absent if the delta rest-stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation was considered (r2 = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular end-diastolic volume does not affect the rest-stress changes in end-systolic pressure-volume relation in either normal or abnormal left ventricles during physical or pharmacological stress.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Pressão Ventricular/fisiologia , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Diástole , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
7.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 13: 49, 2015 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26714887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that concomitant mitral regurgitation (MR) is a risk factor for acute transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) failure, but may improve afterwards. Aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, clinical meaning and modifications of MR in patients undergoing TAVI. METHODS: In a retrospective, two-center (Potenza-San Carlo and Roma- San Camillo) study, from January 2010 to June 2014 we enrolled 165 consecutive patients (age =80 ± 5 years, 74 males, Ejection Fraction 51 ± 9 %) referred for TAVI with either Medtronic Core-ReValving System (in 114 patients, 69%) or balloon-expandable Edwards SAPIEN/SAPIEN XT (in 51 patients, 31%). All patients underwent TTE and TEE assessment of MR (from 1, mild to 4 = severe according to ESC latest guidelines) with core lab reading by a single observer blinded to patient identity and status. Assessment was performed at baseline (24 h prior to intervention) and at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. RESULTS: Mild-to-Moderate MR (grade 1-2) was present in 137 patients and Moderate-to-Severe MR (grade 3-4) was present in 28 patients. No significant differences were seen comparing perioperative mortality and morbidity between the two groups. In the group of preoperative MR grade 3-4 the mean decrease from MR pre-TAVI to MR at 1 month post-TAVI was 0.464 (p < 0.0001) and this improvement was persistent at 6 months (p < 0.0001) and at 12 months (p < 0.0001), with partial benefit loss at 1 and 2 years. The mean difference from Left Atrial volume post-TAVI at 1 month was 16.5 ml (p < 0.0001) and this improvement was persistent at 12 months 12.12 ml (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: TAVI effectively treats the aortic valve but as a beneficial by product also ameliorates concomitant MR. The presence of moderate-to-severe MR does not increase the acute risk of failure of TAVI. In successful procedures, the MR improves immediately and persistently.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2013: 235194, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24024185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A maximal negative stress echo identifies a low-risk subset for coronary events. However, the potentially prognostically relevant information on cardiovascular hemodynamics for heart-failure-related events is unsettled. Aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of stress-induced variation in cardiovascular hemodynamics in patients with negative stress echocardiography. METHODS: We enrolled 891 patients (593 males mean age 63 ± 12, ejection fraction 48 ± 17%), with negative (exercise 172, dipyridamole 482, and dobutamine 237) stress echocardiography result. During stress we assessed left ventricular end-systolic elastance index (E(LV)I), ventricular arterial coupling (VAC) indexed by the ratio of the E(LV)I to arterial elastance index (E aI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and pressure-volume area (PVA). Changes from rest to peak stress (reserve) were tested as predictors of main outcome measures: combined death and heart failure hospitalization. RESULTS: During a median followup of 19 months (interquartile range 8-36), 50 deaths and 84 hospitalization occurred. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves identified as best predictors E(LV)I reserve for exercise (AUC = 0.871) and dobutamine (AUC = 0.848) and VAC reserve (AUC = 0.696) for dipyridamole. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with negative stress echocardiography may experience an adverse outcome, which can be identified by assessment of E(LV)I reserve and VAC reserve during stress echo.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Ecocardiografia , Prognóstico , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dipiridamol/administração & dosagem , Dobutamina/administração & dosagem , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 11: 18, 2013 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23731705

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effect of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) on left ventricular (LV) geometry and function was compared to traditional aortic replacement (AVR) by major surgery. METHODS: 45 patients with aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing TAVI and 33 AVR were assessed by standard echo Doppler the day before and 2 months after the implantation. 2D echocardiograms were performed to measure left ventricular (LV) mass index (LVMi), relative wall thickness (RWT), ejection fraction (EF) and the ratio between transmitral E velocity and early diastolic velocity of mitral annulus (E/e' ratio). Valvular-arterial impedance (Zva) was also calculated. RESULTS: At baseline, the 2 groups were comparable for blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index mean transvalvular gradient and aortic valve area. TAVI patients were older (p<0.0001) and had greater LVMi (p<0.005) than AVR group. After 2 months, both the procedures induced a significant reduction of transvalvular gradient and Zva but the decrease of LVMi and RWT was significant greater after TAVI (both p<0.0001). E/e' ratio and EF were significantly improved after both the procedure but E/e' reduction was greater after TAVI (p<0.0001). TAVI exhibited greater percent reduction in mean transvalvular gradient (p<0.05), Zva (p<0.02), LVMi (p<0.0001), RWT (p<0.0001) and E/e' ratio (p<0.0001) than AVR patients. Reduction of E/e' ratio was positively related with reduction of RWT (r = 0.46, p<0.002) only in TAVI group, even after adjusting for age and percent reduction of Zva (r =0.43, p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: TAVI induces a greater improvement of estimated LV filling pressure in comparison with major prosthetic surgery, due to more pronounced recovery of LV geometry, independent on age and changes of hemodynamic load.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecocardiografia Doppler/estatística & dados numéricos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia
13.
Am Heart J ; 165(2): 200-7, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23351823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) are at risk for developing pulmonary hypertension, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Exercise Doppler echocardiography enables the identification of exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and may provide a thorough noninvasive hemodynamic evaluation. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and echocardiographic determinants of exercise-induced increase in PASP in a large population of patients with SSc. METHODS: We selected 164 patients with SSc (age 58 ± 13 years, 91% female) with normal resting PASP (<40 mm Hg) who underwent a comprehensive 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography and graded bicycle semisupine exercise Doppler echocardiography. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure, cardiac output, and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were estimated noninvasively. Cutoff values of PASP ≥50 mm Hg and PVR ≥3.0 Wood Units at peak exercise were considered a significant exercise-induced increase in PASP and PVR, respectively. RESULTS: Sixty-nine (42%) patients showed a significant exercise-induced increase in PASP. Among them, peak PVR ≥3 Wood Units was present only in 11% of patients, about 5% of the total population. Univariate analysis showed that age, presence of interstitial lung disease, and both right and left diastolic dysfunction are predictors of peak PASP ≥50 mm Hg, but none of these parameters predict elevated peak PVR. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise-induced increase in PASP occurs in almost one-half of patients with SSc with normal resting PASP. Peak exercise PASP is affected by age, interstitial lung disease, and right and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and, only in 5% of the patients, is associated with an increase in PVR during exercise, suggesting heterogeneity of the mechanisms underlying exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension in SSc.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Teste de Esforço/efeitos adversos , Exercício/fisiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Resistência Vascular
14.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 11(2): 138-41, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20408477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between carotid and aortic atherosclerosis in asymptomatic subjects. METHODS: Eighty-three consecutive patients without history of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease, referred for transesophageal echocardiography, were enrolled into the study. RESULTS: Aortic plaques were found in 40 out of 83 patients, whereas carotid atherosclerosis was present in 43% of the entire study population and in 75% of patients with aortic atherosclerosis (30 out of 40 patients). At multivariate logistic analysis, the presence of carotid atherosclerosis was a predictor of aortic atheroma, independently of traditional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In asymptomatic patients, aortic plaque occurrence may reflect the presence of carotid plaques and an ultrasound assessment should be advised.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Túnica Média/diagnóstico por imagem
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