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1.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220692, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been emerging in neonatal medicine. It may help for the early diagnosis of pathology and estimation of autonomous maturation. There is a lack of standardization and automation in the selection of the sequences to analyze and some features have not been explored in this specific population. The main objective of this study was to analyze the impact of the time length of the sequences on the estimation of linear and non-linear HRV features, including horizontal visibility graphs (HVG). METHODS: HRV features were repeatedly measured with linear and non-linear methods on 2-, 5-, 10-minute sequences selected from the longest 15-min sequence and recorded on a weekly basis in 39 infants less than 31 weeks at birth. The associations between HRV measurements were analyzed through principal component analysis and k-means clustering. The effects of the time lengths on HRV measurements and post-menstrual age (PMA) were analyzed by linear mixed effect model for repeated measures. RESULTS: The domains of analysis were concordant for their descriptive parameters of short (rMSSD, SD1 and HF) and long-term (SD, SD2 and LF) variability. α1 was correlated with the LF/HF and SD2/SD1. DC and AC were correlated with short-term variability estimates and significantly increased with GA and PMA. Shortening the windows of analysis increased the random measurement error for all the features and increased the bias for all but short term features and HVGs. CONCLUSION: The linear and non-linear measurements of HRV are correlated each other. Shortening the windows of analysis increased the random error for all the features and increased the bias for all but short term features and HVGs. Short-term HRV can be an index for evaluating the maturation in whatever sequence length.

2.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 29(1): 29, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346177

RESUMO

Childhood asthma and allergies are particularly prevalent diseases. Our objective is to identify respiratory and allergic phenotypes from birth to 6 years of age, and to explore their environmental determinants, especially those related to the home environment. Data on respiratory and allergic health outcomes and domestic environmental exposure were collected for 935 mother-infant pairs from a longitudinal mother-child cohort based on mothers, included before 19 weeks of gestation in Brittany between 2002 and 2006. Information was obtained by self-administered questionnaires completed by parents at inclusion, delivery, and when the child was 2 and 6 years old. Kml3D clustering was used to describe profiles of children who shared similar trajectories of symptoms as phenotypes. Association with environmental determinants was estimated by polytomous logistic regression. Five phenotypes were identified: a reference group characterized by low symptom levels (31.1%), a transient cough phenotype (36.5%), an eczema/cough phenotype (12.3%), a wheeze/cough phenotype (11.8%), and finally a mixed phenotype (8.0%). The wheeze/cough profile was associated with postnatal exposure to glues used in renovation activities (aOR 2.3 [1.2-4.7]), and the mixed phenotype with postnatal exposure to paint (aOR 2.1 [1-4.5]). The phenotypes observed showed some consistencies with those seen in previous studies. Some exposures associated with respiratory/allergic phenotypes observed in this study are avoidable. If confirmed by further research including interventional trials, home-based environmental counseling could be a possible prevention target for primary care professionals.

3.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
4.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. METHODS: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

5.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 71, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180859

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the author asked to replace Table 2 with the correct version.

6.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 63, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous industries use organic solvents, and many workers from various occupational sectors are exposed to these known neurotoxicants, including pregnant women. Our objective is to explore whether occupational exposure of pregnant women to solvents may impair the neurodevelopment of their babies and consequently affect their behavior in childhood. METHODS: Within the French birth cohort PELAGIE, parents assessed their children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors using items from the Child Behavior Checklist and the Preschool Social Behavior Questionnaire at age 2, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at age 6. The occupational exposure to solvents of the pregnant women was self-reported prospectively at the beginning of their pregnancy (N = 715). We applied structural equation modeling to capture the longitudinal association of prenatal exposure to solvents with children's behavioral traits at 2 and 6 years. RESULTS: Increased externalizing behavior score at age 2 was associated with prenatal exposure to solvents (standardized score: 0.34 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.57) for occasional exposure and 0.26 (0.05, 0.48) for regular exposure). This association was attenuated at age 6 (0.22 (- 0.02, 0.47) for occasional exposure and 0.07 (- 0.14, 0.28) for regular exposure). No association was observed for internalizing behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women's occupational exposure to solvents may affect their children's behavior in early childhood. This effect may be attenuated with aging or diluted by the effects of other postnatal predictors.

7.
Epilepsia ; 59(7): e109-e113, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901235

RESUMO

Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is one of the most frequent epilepsies in infancy. The first-line recommended therapy for CAE is based on the prescription of the narrow-spectrum ethosuximide and the broad-spectrum valproic acid, which have similar efficacy in the first 12 months. Nevertheless, some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may worsen seizure duration and type in this syndrome. In line with this, we have encountered a case of identical twins with CAE and early exposure to different antiseizure drugs leading to divergent outcomes. From this, we hypothesized that the first AED to treat CAE may determine the long-term prognosis, especially in the developing brain, and that some situations leading to drug resistance may be explained by use of an inappropriate first AED. Therefore, we investigated this hypothesis by using a genetic mouse model of absence epilepsy (BS/Orl). Mice received a first appropriate or inappropriate AED followed by the same appropriate AED. Our data demonstrate that an inappropriate first AED has a negative impact on the long-term efficacy of a second appropriate AED. This work supports the necessity to effectively diagnose epileptic syndromes prior to medication use, particularly in children, in order to prevent the deleterious effects of an inappropriate initial AED.

8.
Environ Res ; 165: 286-293, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758401

RESUMO

Bronchial respiratory diseases are more common in dairy farmers than in the general population, perhaps because the repeated inhalation of organic dust contributes to the development of these disorders. However, the factors determining the exposure of farmers to particles that can enter the lower bronchial tract and interact with it, i.e. the thoracic fraction of the inhalable dust, remain to be identified. We therefore measured the exposure of dairy farmers to thoracic organic dust and identified the farm features and tasks that increased exposure. We measured thoracic particles (n = 110) and farm characteristics and occupational tasks in 29 Brittany dairy farms. The mean (GM) (geometric standard deviation, GSD) concentration of thoracic dust in air inhaled by farmers was 0.24 mg/m3 (2.8) and the concentrations of endotoxins, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi in the thoracic fraction were 128 EU/m3 (4.0), 960 CFU/m3 (6.3) and 690 CFU/m3 (5.4), respectively. Model-based estimates of the association between exposure, farm features and tasks indicated that manual grain and feed handling and mechanical bedding spreading significantly increased exposure to thoracic dust, endotoxins, bacteria and fungi. Exposure to bacteria and fungi was reduced by cowsheds divided into cubicles, whereas using automatic muck scrappers in alleyway and automatic milking tended to increase exposure to bacteria and endotoxins. Finally, exposure to endotoxin and fungi were reduced by warmer farm buildings and well-ventilated buildings having walls with large openings. In conclusions, major occupational tasks and specific farm features determine the exposure of Breton dairy farmers to thoracic organic dust.

9.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 52(2): 293-296, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29678565

RESUMO

Acute appendicitis in children requires early surgery and short-course antibiotics active against Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobes. Although an aminoglycoside-containing three-drug regimen has been used successfully for decades, simpler regimens with similar efficacy are increasingly used. This study evaluated the impact of a switch from the combination of cefotaxime, metronidazole and gentamicin (regimen 1) to piperacillin/tazobactam (regimen 2) as first-line regimen for complicated acute appendicitis in children. In total, 171 children were enrolled [median (IQR) age, 10 (6-13) years], treated with regimen 1 (n = 80) or regimen 2 (n = 91) following surgery for complicated acute appendicitis. The two groups were comparable except for surgical approach (through laparoscopy in 46% vs. 88% for regimens 1 and 2, respectively; P < 0.001). Post-operative complications and duration of hospital stay were similar. Deviations from antibacterial treatment protocol decreased from 36% (29/80) to 14% (13/91) (P < 0.001), with a dramatic reduction in antibacterial treatment duration from median (IQR) of 15 (12-16) days to 5 (5-8) days (P < 0.001). Post-operative intra-abdominal abscess developed in 32 children (18.7%). Female sex (OR = 2.76, 95% CI 1.18-6.48; P = 0.02) and sepsis/septic shock on admission (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 1.12-19.97; P = 0.035) were independently associated with post-operative intra-abdominal abscess, but not antibacterial regimen. This study shows that simplification of first-line antibacterial regimen for complicated appendicitis in children was associated with reduced protocol deviation, reduced duration of antibiotics, and similar outcomes (post-operative complications and duration of hospital stay).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Apendicite/complicações , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácido Penicilânico/análogos & derivados , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Adolescente , Apendicite/tratamento farmacológico , Apendicite/microbiologia , Apendicite/cirurgia , Cefotaxima/uso terapêutico , Criança , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Ácido Penicilânico/uso terapêutico , Peritonite/etiologia , Peritonite/microbiologia , Peritonite/patologia , Piperacilina/uso terapêutico , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(2): 206-213, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605398

RESUMO

Shoulder pain is common in the working population and causes loss of productivity, high economic costs, and long absences. Simultaneous evaluation of the complex relationships between work organization (e.g., work pace, application of quality standards), psychosocial and physical risk factors, stress, and shoulder pain is rare. The aim of this study was to explore the direct and indirect relationships between workplace risk factors, perceived stress, and occurrence of shoulder pain in workers of the Cohorte des Salariés Ligériens study. A total of 3,710 workers in a French region were randomly selected for inclusion between 2002 and 2005. They completed a self-administered questionnaire about musculoskeletal symptoms, individual factors, and exposure to work constraints. In 2007, they responded to a follow-up questionnaire. The study sample comprised 1,400 workers free of shoulder pain at baseline. Structural equation models were used. For both sexes, exposure to factors related to work organization had an effect on physical and psychosocial risk factors. Psychological demand was the only psychosocial constraint that increased perceived stress. Shoulder pain was influenced directly by physical risk factors for both sexes and by perceived stress for men. In view of their distal action, work organization is an important target for strategies to prevent shoulder pain in the working population.

11.
Radiother Oncol ; 126(2): 263-269, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29203291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the benefit of independent component analysis (ICA)-based models for predicting rectal bleeding (RB) following prostate cancer radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 593 irradiated prostate cancer patients were prospectively analyzed for Grade ≥2 RB. ICA was used to extract two informative subspaces (presenting RB or not) from the rectal DVHs, enabling a set of new pICA parameters to be estimated. These DVH-based parameters, along with others from the principal component analysis (PCA) and functional PCA, were compared to "standard" features (patient/treatment characteristics and DVH bins) using the Cox proportional hazards model for RB prediction. The whole cohort was divided into: (i) training (N = 339) for ICA-based subspace identification and Cox regression model identification and (ii) validation (N = 254) for RB prediction capability evaluation using the C-index and the area under the receiving operating curve (AUC), by comparing predicted and observed toxicity probabilities. RESULTS: In the training cohort, multivariate Cox analysis retained pICA and PC as significant parameters of RB with 0.65 C-index. For the validation cohort, the C-index increased from 0.64 when pICA was not included in the Cox model to 0.78 when including pICA parameters. When pICA was not included, the AUC for 3-, 5-, and 8-year RB prediction were 0.68, 0.66, and 0.64, respectively. When included, the AUC increased to 0.83, 0.80, and 0.78, respectively. CONCLUSION: Among the many various extracted or calculated features, ICA parameters improved RB prediction following prostate cancer radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Doenças Retais/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Probabilidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Doenças Retais/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173102, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253323

RESUMO

The seasonal patterns of conceptions and births differ between geographic areas. Several potential determinants of this variation have been identified, including biological, environmental and behavioral elements, but festive events are rarely mentioned. We investigated the possible association between the carnival and seasonal fertility variations in the French West Indies. We ran a retrospective registry-based study. The data were extracted from the registry of all births on Guadeloupe between 2000 and 2011 (n = 74,412), and from the Maternity Birth Register of the University Hospital, for all pregnancies of at least 14 completed weeks of gestation (observable conceptions) with an outcome recorded between 2007 and 2010 (n = 8,425). We compared data during and outside the carnival period for each year, including 2009, when there was no carnival due to a 44-day general strike. In all years other than 2009, the weekly number of births was higher for pregnancies initiated during the carnival period than for pregnancies initiated at other times, and the weekly number of observable conceptions was higher during the carnival period than at other times. Our findings support the hypothesis that carnivals in the French West Indies are associated with an increase in the number of conceptions and subsequent births.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Fertilização , Feminino , Guadalupe/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Appl Ergon ; 59(Pt A): 1-10, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890116

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify forms of work organization in a French region and to study associations with the occurrence of symptomatic and clinically diagnosed shoulder disorders in workers. Workers were randomly included in this cross-sectional study from 2002 to 2005. Sixteen organizational variables were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire: i.e. shift work, job rotation, repetitiveness of tasks, paced work/automatic rate, work pace dependent on quantified targets, permanent controls or surveillance, colleagues' work and customer demand, and eight variables measuring decision latitude. Five forms of work organization were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of variables and HCA of workers: low decision latitude with pace constraints, medium decision latitude with pace constraints, low decision latitude with low pace constraints, high decision latitude with pace constraints and high decision latitude with low pace constraints. There were significant associations between forms of work organization and symptomatic and clinically-diagnosed shoulder disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Autonomia Profissional , Dor de Ombro/epidemiologia , Carga de Trabalho , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
14.
Inhal Toxicol ; 29(12-14): 611-619, 2017 Oct - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Galaxolide (HHCB) is used for fragrance in many consumer products. The aim of the current study was to use objective assessments of HHCB to build a predictive model in order to estimate indoor-measured HHCB concentrations from questionnaire-based data on dwelling characteristics and occupants' habits and activities. METHODS: Environmental assessments of indoor HHCB, dwelling characteristics were carried out in 150 dwellings in Brittany (France). Among the various models that were tested, the best predictive model for the reduced set of characteristics was identified on the basis of the coefficient of determination (R2) criterion. RESULTS: Linear regression model showed among the best performances (R2 = 0.48), together with some more complex models. According to the estimated results, the main variables that significantly increased HHCB concentrations were: living in rural area, drying clothes inside dwellings, painted walls, chipboard furniture, double glazing, damaged floors and duration of bathroom door being kept open. Laminated floors and presence of indoor plants were found to significantly decrease HHCB concentrations. DISCUSSION: The linear model based on objective assessments and questionnaire-derived data about dwelling characteristics and occupants' activities constituted an easy method for predicting indoor air HHCB concentrations. For studies including a large number of dwellings, modeling of HHCB concentrations is cheaper than measuring it in every location. Our methodological procedure can be applied to other indoor air pollutants.

15.
Environ Res ; 151: 436-444, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27560981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine insecticide with well-defined estrogenic properties. It was intensively used in the French West Indies until 1993 to control the banana root borer. Because of the long-term contamination of soils and water, the population is currently exposed to chlordecone through food consumption. Chlordecone has been found in the blood of pregnant women and in cord blood. It has been shown to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical and exposure during pregnancy may affect fetal growth. OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to chlordecone and fetal growth based on the TIMOUN birth cohort conducted in Guadeloupe, with a focus on the potential modification of this relationship by maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). METHODS: Chlordecone was determined in cord plasma at birth in 593 babies. Birth weight was the indicator of fetal growth. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were determined. Adherence to GWG recommendations of the US Institute of Medicine based on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was assessed. Birth weight was analyzed relative to cord blood chlordecone levels using linear and non-linear regression models. RESULTS: Overall chlordecone in cord blood was not associated with birth weight, but we found an interaction between chlordecone exposure with GWG and adherence to GWG recommendations. After stratification by GWG, we found a significant U-shaped association between birth weight and chlordecone exposure, within the upper quartiles of GWG or excessive GWG. CONCLUSION: Chlordecone exposure may affect fetal growth, particularly when excessive GWG is present.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Clordecona/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Clordecona/sangue , Feminino , Guadalupe , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Epidemiology ; 27(6): 903-11, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27468006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes, the most common water disinfection by-products, and birth outcomes in a European cohort study (Health Impacts of Long-Term Exposure to Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water). We took into account exposure through different water uses, measures of water toxicity, and genetic susceptibility. METHODS: We enrolled 14,005 mothers (2002-2010) and their children from France, Greece, Lithuania, Spain, and the UK. Information on lifestyle- and water-related activities was recorded. We ascertained residential concentrations of trihalomethanes through regulatory records and ad hoc sampling campaigns and estimated route-specific trihalomethane uptake by trimester and for whole pregnancy. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variants in disinfection by-product metabolizing genes in nested case-control studies. RESULTS: Average levels of trihalomethanes ranged from around 10 µg/L to above the regulatory limits in the EU of 100 µg/L between centers. There was no association between birth weight and total trihalomethane exposure during pregnancy (ß = 2.2 g in birth weight per 10 µg/L of trihalomethane, 95% confidence interval = 3.3, 7.6). Birth weight was not associated with exposure through different routes or with specific trihalomethane species. Exposure to trihalomethanes was not associated with low birth weight (odds ratio [OR] per 10 µg/L = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 0.95, 1.10), small-for-gestational age (OR = 0.99, 0.94, 1.03) and preterm births (OR = 0.98, 0.9, 1.05). We found no gene-environment interactions for mother or child polymorphisms in relation to preterm birth or small-for-gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: In this large European study, we found no association between birth outcomes and trihalomethane exposures during pregnancy in the total population or in potentially genetically susceptible subgroups. (See video abstract at http://links.lww.com/EDE/B104.).


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Água Potável , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Resultado da Gravidez , Trialometanos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção/métodos , Água Potável/análise , Água Potável/química , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 124(11): 1785-1793, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27152464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women of reproductive age can be exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) at work, and exposure to EDCs in pregnancy may affect fetal growth. OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether maternal occupational exposure to EDCs during pregnancy as classified by application of a job exposure matrix was associated with birth weight, term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery. METHODS: Using individual participant data from 133,957 mother-child pairs in 13 European cohorts spanning births from 1994 through 2011, we linked maternal job titles with exposure to 10 EDC groups as assessed through a job exposure matrix. For each group, we combined the two levels of exposure categories (possible and probable) and compared birth outcomes with the unexposed group (exposure unlikely). We performed meta-analyses of cohort-specific estimates. RESULTS: Eleven percent of pregnant women were classified as exposed to EDCs at work during pregnancy, based on job title. Classification of exposure to one or more EDC group was associated with an increased risk of term LBW [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49], as were most specific EDC groups; this association was consistent across cohorts. Further, the risk increased with increasing number of EDC groups (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.06 for exposure to four or more EDC groups). There were few associations (p < 0.05) with the other outcomes; women holding job titles classified as exposed to bisphenol A or brominated flame retardants were at higher risk for longer length of gestation. CONCLUSION: Results from our large population-based birth cohort design indicate that employment during pregnancy in occupations classified as possibly or probably exposed to EDCs was associated with an increased risk of term LBW. Citation: Birks L, Casas M, Garcia AM, Alexander J, Barros H, Bergström A, Bonde JP, Burdorf A, Costet N, Danileviciute A, Eggesbø M, Fernández MF, González-Galarzo MC, Grazuleviciene R, Hanke W, Jaddoe V, Kogevinas M, Kull I, Lertxundi A, Melaki V, Andersen AM, Olea N, Polanska K, Rusconi F, Santa-Marina L, Santos AC, Vrijkotte T, Zugna D, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Cordier S, Vrijheid M. 2016. Occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and birth weight and length of gestation: a European meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 124:1785-1793; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP208.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Exposição Materna , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
18.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2016: 3602-3605, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28269075

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as an excessive accumulation of fat in the liver in the absence of excessive drinking of alcohol. Initially considered as benign and self-limited, NAFLD may progress to the malignant stage of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) characterized by degenerate hepatocellular ballooning and lobular inflammation. NASH can lead to hepatic fibrosis and ultimately to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Unfortunately, the transition from NAFLD to NASH is difficult to detect so far. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the characterization of NASH using mid infrared fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy on blood serum. We used an heuristic variable selection method and a generalized linear model to classify NAFLD and NASH spectra. The obtained results proved that this technique is a promising non-invasive and simple diagnosis tool for NASH.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Adulto , Diagnóstico Precoce , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/instrumentação
19.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 17(2): 144-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26669641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal saline volume bladder instillation to measure intravesical pressure in critically ill newborns weighing less than 4.5 kg, and to establish a reference of intra-abdominal pressure value in this population. DESIGN: Prospective monocentric study. SETTING: Neonatal ICU and PICU. PATIENTS: Newborns, premature or not, weighing less than 4.5 kg who required a urethral catheter. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were classified into two groups according to whether they presented a risk factor for intra-abdominal hypertension. Nine intravesical pressure measures per patient were performed after different volume saline instillation. The first one was done without saline instillation and then by increments of 0.5 mL/kg to a maximum of 4 mL/kg. Linear models for repeated measurements of intravesical pressure with unstructured covariance were used to analyze the variation of intravesical pressure measures according to the conditions of measurement (volume instilled). Pairwise comparisons of intravesical pressure adjusted mean values between instillation volumes were done using Tukey tests, corrected for multiple testing to determine an optimal instillation volume. Forty-seven patients with completed measures (nine instillations volumes) were included in the analysis. Mean intravesical pressure values were not significantly different when measured after instillation of 0.5, 1, or 1.5 mL/kg, whereas measures after instillation of 2 mL/kg or more were significantly higher. The median intravesical pressure value in the group without intra-abdominal hypertension risk factor after instillation of 1 mL/kg was 5 mm Hg (2-6 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: The optimal saline volume bladder instillation to measure intra-abdominal pressure in newborns weighing less than 4.5 kg was 1 mL/kg. Reference intra-abdominal pressure in this population was found to be 5 mm Hg (2-6 mm Hg).


Assuntos
Abdome/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Administração Intravesical , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Pressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência
20.
Environ Res ; 142: 123-34, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26133809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intensive use of chlordecone (an organochlorine insecticide) in the French West Indies until 1993 resulted in a long-term soil and water contamination. Chlordecone has known hormonal properties and exposure through contaminated food during critical periods of development (gestation and early infancy) may affect growth. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to chlordecone on the growth of children from the TIMOUN mother-child cohort. METHODS: Chlordecone was determined in cord plasma at birth (N=222) and in breast milk samples (at 3 months). Dietary chlordecone intake was estimated at 7 and 18 months, with food-frequency questionnaires and food-specific contamination data. Anthropometric measurements were taken at the 3-, 7- and 18-month visits and measurements reported in the infants' health records were noted. Structured Jenss-Bayley growth models were fitted to individual height and weight growth trajectories. The impact of exposure on growth curve parameters was estimated directly with adjusted mixed non-linear models. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI), and instantaneous height and weight growth velocities at specific ages were also analyzed relative to exposure. RESULTS: Chlordecone in cord blood was associated with a higher BMI in boys at 3 months, due to greater weight and lower height, and in girls at 8 and 18 months, mostly due to lower height. Postnatal exposure was associated with lower height, weight and BMI at 3, 8 and 18 months, particularly in girls. CONCLUSION: Chlordecone exposure may affect growth trajectories in children aged 0 to 18 months.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Clordecona/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Estatura/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Clordecona/efeitos adversos , Clordecona/sangue , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Guadalupe , Humanos , Lactente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Leite Humano/química , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
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