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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238763, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180734

RESUMO

Abstract We report the discovery that the earwig predator Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) feed on Puccinia polysora Underw uredospore, the causal agent of Southern Rust of Corn (SRC), which is a primary disease affecting the maize crop in Brazil. We performed experiments in laboratory and greenhouse to test the effect of D. luteipes (1st/2nd and 3rd/4th instars, and adults) fungivory on the P. polysora uredospore concentration. All trials showed a significant reduction of the initial concentration of uredospore. There was a reduction in uredospore concentration with increase in number of D. luteipes feeding on them. We also tested the uredospore consumption by quantifying its percentage in the feces of D. luteipes. Nymphs of the 2nd, 4th instar and adults fed 88%, 85%, and 83.8% of the uredospore, respectively. For nymphs of the 3rd instar, the percentage of uredospore consumption (75.6%) was statistically significant compared with the other groups. In greenhouse experiment, at twenty-eight days after plant inoculation with 9.9 x 104 uredospores, the percentage of uredospore consumption was 81.7%. Our results confirmed the fungivory of D. luteipes on P. polysora uredospore. This is the first report of D. luteipes fungivory, which may play an important role in the biological control of P. polysora in corn.


Resumo Relatamos a descoberta de que o predador Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) se alimenta de uredosporos de Puccinia polysora Underw, o agente causal da ferrugem polisora que é uma doença primária que afeta a cultura do milho no Brasil. Realizamos experimentos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação para testar o efeito da fungivoria de D. luteipes (1º/2º e 3º/4º iìstares e adultos) sobre a concentração de uredosporos de P. polysora. Todos os ensaios mostraram uma redução significativa da concentração inicial de uredosporos. Houve uma redução na concentração de uredosporos com o aumento do número de D. luteipes alimentando-se deles. Também testamos o consumo de uredosporos quantificando sua porcentagem nas fezes de D. luteipes. Ninfas do 2º e 4º ínstar, assim como adultos, alimentaram-se de 88%, 85% e 83,8% dos uredosporos, respectivamente. Para ninfas do 3º ínstar, a porcentagem de consumo de uredosporos (75,6%) foi estatisticamente significativo em comparação com os outros grupos. No experimento em casa de vegetação, aos 28 dias após a inoculação das plantas com 9,9 x 104 uredosporos, a porcentagem de consumo de uredosporos foi de 81,7%. Nossos resultados confirmaram a fungivoria de D. luteipes em uredosporos de P. polysora. Este é o primeiro relato de fungivoria de D. luteipes, que pode ter papel importante no controle biológico de P. polysora em milho.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238763, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825760

RESUMO

We report the discovery that the earwig predator Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) feed on Puccinia polysora Underw uredospore, the causal agent of Southern Rust of Corn (SRC), which is a primary disease affecting the maize crop in Brazil. We performed experiments in laboratory and greenhouse to test the effect of D. luteipes (1st/2nd and 3rd/4th instars, and adults) fungivory on the P. polysora uredospore concentration. All trials showed a significant reduction of the initial concentration of uredospore. There was a reduction in uredospore concentration with increase in number of D. luteipes feeding on them. We also tested the uredospore consumption by quantifying its percentage in the feces of D. luteipes. Nymphs of the 2nd, 4th instar and adults fed 88%, 85%, and 83.8% of the uredospore, respectively. For nymphs of the 3rd instar, the percentage of uredospore consumption (75.6%) was statistically significant compared with the other groups. In greenhouse experiment, at twenty-eight days after plant inoculation with 9.9 x 104 uredospores, the percentage of uredospore consumption was 81.7%. Our results confirmed the fungivory of D. luteipes on P. polysora uredospore. This is the first report of D. luteipes fungivory, which may play an important role in the biological control of P. polysora in corn.


Assuntos
Zea mays , Animais , Brasil , Ninfa
3.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 46(3): 312-7, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18179592

RESUMO

AIMS: In a research programme for managing diseases caused by Botryis cinerea, four isolates of the antagonistic fungus Clonostachys rosea (Cr) were obtained from different ecosystems in Brazil. We studied ecological requirements for the colonization of strawberry leaves by these isolates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Temperature effects on both mycelial growth in vitro and leaf colonization by Cr were studied. At 10 degrees C, growth on potato dextrose agar and colonization of leaf discs were poor. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth and leaf colonization was around 25 degrees C. The isolates were applied to leaves which were exposed to 0-48 h intervals of moisture. They were also applied to leaves which remained from 0 to 36 h without wetness. All isolates efficiently colonized leaves, regardless of moisture interval or the delay to begin wetness. Although all isolates survived in green leaves of whole plants, colonization decreased throughout a 49-day period. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian isolates of Cr can establish and colonize strawberry leaves under a wide range of temperature and moisture conditions. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: It is expected that the Brazilian isolates of Cr will establish efficiently in strawberry leaves where they can compete with B. cinerea.


Assuntos
Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/microbiologia , Hypocreales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Brasil , Umidade , Hypocreales/isolamento & purificação , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Temperatura
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