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1.
Cancer ; 126(13): 3013-3020, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initiating screening at an earlier age based on cancer family history is one of the primary recommended strategies for the prevention and detection of early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC), but data supporting the effectiveness of this approach are limited. The authors assessed the performance of family history-based guidelines for identifying individuals with EOCRC. METHODS: The authors conducted a population-based, case-control study of individuals aged 40 to 49 years with (2473 individuals) and without (772 individuals) incident CRC in the Colon Cancer Family Registry from 1998 through 2007. They estimated the sensitivity and specificity of family history-based criteria jointly recommended by the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on CRC, and the American College of Radiology in 2008 for early screening, and the age at which each participant could have been recommended screening initiation if these criteria had been applied. RESULTS: Family history-based early screening criteria were met by approximately 25% of cases (614 of 2473 cases) and 10% of controls (74 of 772 controls), with a sensitivity of 25% and a specificity of 90% for identifying EOCRC cases aged 40 to 49 years. Among 614 individuals meeting early screening criteria, 98.4% could have been recommended screening initiation at an age younger than the observed age of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Of CRC cases aged 40 to 49 years, 1 in 4 met family history-based early screening criteria, and nearly all cases who met these criteria could have had CRC diagnosed earlier (or possibly even prevented) if earlier screening had been implemented as per family history-based guidelines. Additional strategies are needed to improve the detection and prevention of EOCRC for individuals not meeting family history criteria for early screening.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1354-1373, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022258

RESUMO

Iron has been suggested to contribute to breast cancer development through oxidative stress generation. Our study investigated associations between iron intake and breast cancer risk, overall and by menopausal and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, and modification by oxidative stress-related genetic polymorphisms (MnSOD, GSTM1 and GSTT1). A population-based case-control study (3,030 cases and 3,402 controls) was conducted in Ontario, Canada. Iron intake (total, dietary, supplemental, heme, nonheme) was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression models. Interactions between iron intake and genotypes were assessed among 1,696 cases and 1,761 controls providing DNA. Overall, no associations were observed between iron intake and breast cancer risk. Among premenopausal women, total, dietary and dietary nonheme iron were positively associated with ER-/PR- breast cancer risk (all ptrend < 0.05). Among postmenopausal women, supplemental iron was associated with reduced breast cancer risk (OR>18 vs. 0 mg/day = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.91), and dietary heme iron was associated with an increased risk, particularly the ER-/PR- subtype (ORhighest vs. lowest quintile = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16-2.47; ptrend = 0.02). Furthermore, GSTT1 and combined GSTM1/GSTT1 polymorphisms modified some of the associations. For example, higher dietary iron was most strongly associated with increased breast cancer risk among women with GSTT1 deletion or GSTM1/GSTT1 double deletions (pinteraction < 0.05). Findings suggest that iron intake may have different effects on breast cancer risk according to menopausal and hormone receptor status, as well as genotypes affecting antioxidant capacity.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 860-870, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined. RESULTS: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [ORLA = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; P = 5.2 × 10-4] and α-linolenic acid (ORALA = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; P = 5.4 × 10-5), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (ORAA = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; P = 3.3 × 10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; P = 2.5 × 10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; P = 1.2 × 10-2). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.

4.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 139, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is inconsistent evidence on the association between physical activity and pancreatic cancer risk and few studies have investigated early life or life-course physical activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between trajectories of physical activity across the life-course and pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted (2011-2013) using cases (n = 315) from the Ontario Pancreas Cancer Study and controls (n = 1254) from the Ontario Cancer Risk Factor Study. Self-reported recall of moderate and vigorous physical activity was measured at three time points: young adulthood (20s-30s), mid-adulthood (40s-50s) and older-adulthood (1 year prior to questionnaire completion). Physical activity trajectories were identified using latent class analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression adjusted for covariates: age, sex, race, alcohol, smoking, vegetable, fruit and meat consumption, and family history of pancreatic cancer. RESULTS: Six life-course physical activity trajectories were identified: inactive at all ages (41.2%), low activity at all ages (31.9%), increasingly active (3.6%), high activity in young adulthood with substantial decrease (13.0%), high activity in young adulthood with slight decrease (5.0%), and persistent high activity (5.3%). Compared to the inactive at all ages trajectory, the associations between each trajectory and pancreatic cancer after confounder adjustment were: low activity at all ages (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.66), increasingly active (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.56, 2.21), high activity in young adulthood with substantial decrease in older adulthood (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.23), high activity in young adulthood with slight decrease in older adulthood (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.53), and persistently high activity (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 0.86, 2.62). When time periods were evaluated separately, the OR for the association between high moderate activity in the 20s-30s and pancreatic cancer was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.25) and some sex differences were observed. CONCLUSION: Distinct life-course physical activity trajectories were identified, but there was no evidence that any of the trajectories were associated with pancreatic cancer. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to understand the associations between physical activity trajectories over the life-course and pancreatic cancer risk.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(10): 1003-1012, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study in Europeans using three approaches: FUSION, MetaXcan, and Summary-MulTiXcan. We integrated genome-wide association studies summary statistics from 9040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12 496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics [n = 95] and Genotype-Tissue Expression v7 [n = 174] datasets) and data from 48 different tissues (Genotype-Tissue Expression v7, n = 74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (false discovery rate < .05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12: PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at six known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1, and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 363-372, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1274-1286.e12, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. METHODS: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. RESULTS: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10-5). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
8.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(9): 955-966, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230151

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic cancer has the highest fatality rate of all cancers. Adulthood obesity is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer; however, life-course obesity is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) trajectories throughout the life-course and pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted (2011-2013) in Ontario, Canada. Cases were recruited from the Ontario pancreas cancer study (n = 310) and controls from the Ontario cancer risk factor study (n = 1258). Questionnaires captured self-reported height and weight at four timepoints (adolescence, 20 s, 30-40 s, 50-60 s). BMI trajectories were identified using latent class growth mixture modeling. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Five BMI trajectories were identified: stable-normal weight (38.9%), progressively overweight (42.2%), persistent overweight (12.6%), progressive obesity (4.2%), and persistent obesity (2.1%). The persistent overweight (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.02, 2.39) and progressive obesity trajectories (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 0.77, 2.87) compared to stable-normal weight were associated with increased odds of pancreatic cancer. When BMI was evaluated separately the strongest associations with pancreatic cancer emerged in young and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSION: BMI trajectories characterized by overweight in early adulthood were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk suggesting a life-course approach to disease risk.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Fam Cancer ; 18(4): 389-397, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209717

RESUMO

Before SNP-based risk can be incorporated in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, the ability of these SNPs to estimate CRC risk for persons with and without a family history of CRC, and the screening implications need to be determined. We estimated the association with CRC of a 45 SNP-based risk using 1181 cases and 999 controls, and its correlation with CRC risk predicted from detailed family history. We estimated the predicted change in the distribution across predefined risk categories, and implications for recommended screening commencement age, from adding SNP-based risk to family history. The inter-quintile risk ratio for colorectal cancer risk of the SNP-based risk was 3.28 (95% CI 2.54-4.22). SNP-based and family history-based risks were not correlated (r = 0.02). For persons with no first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 4 years earlier for women (5 years for men) in the highest quintile of SNP-based risk. For persons with two first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 16 years earlier for men and women in the highest quintile, and 7 years earlier for the lowest quintile. This 45 SNP panel in conjunction with family history, can identify people who could benefit from earlier screening. Risk reclassification by 45 SNPs could inform targeted screening for CRC prevention, particularly in clinical genetics settings when mutations in high-risk genes cannot be identified. Yet to be determined is cost-effectiveness, resources requirements, community, patient and clinician acceptance, and feasibility with potentially ethical, legal and insurance implications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
10.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 543, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron has been shown to promote breast carcinogenesis in animal models through generation of oxidative stress and interaction with estrogen. Heme iron, which is found exclusively in animal-sourced foods, is suggested to have a more detrimental effect. Epidemiological evidence of the association between iron and breast cancer risk remains inconclusive and has not been comprehensively summarized. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated associations between both iron intake and body iron status and breast cancer risk. METHODS: Four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Scopus) were searched up to December 2018 for studies assessing iron intake and/or biomarkers of iron status in relation to breast cancer risk. Using random-effects meta-analyses, pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated comparing the highest vs. lowest category of each iron measure. Dose-response meta-analyses were also performed to investigate linear and nonlinear associations. RESULTS: A total of 27 studies were included in the review, of which 23 were eligible for meta-analysis of one or more iron intake/status measures. Comparing the highest vs. lowest category, heme iron intake was significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk, with a pooled RR of 1.12 (95% CI: 1.04-1.22), whereas no associations were found for dietary (1.01, 95% CI: 0.89-1.15), supplemental (1.02, 95% CI: 0.91-1.13), or total (0.97, 95% CI: 0.82-1.14) iron intake. Associations of iron status indicators with breast cancer risk were generally in the positive direction; however, a significant pooled RR was found only for serum/plasma levels (highest vs. lowest) of iron (1.22, 95% CI: 1.01-1.47), but not for ferritin (1.13, 95% CI: 0.78-1.62), transferrin saturation (1.16, 95% CI: 0.91-1.47), or total iron-binding capacity (1.10, 95% CI: 0.97-1.25). In addition, a nonlinear dose-response was observed for heme iron intake and serum iron (both Pnonlinearity < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Heme iron intake and serum iron levels may be positively associated with breast cancer risk. Although associations were modest, these findings may have public health implications given the widespread consumption of (heme) iron-rich foods. In light of methodological and research gaps identified, further research is warranted to better elucidate the relationship between iron and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ferro na Dieta , Ferro/sangue , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Heme/química , Humanos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Risco , Transferrina/análise , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(6): 557-567, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes. METHODS: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. We performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and functional annotation of the top SNPs in genes contributing to the top associated pathways and gene sets. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 14 pathways and gene sets associated with PDAC at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. After Bonferroni correction (P ≤ 1.3 × 10-5), the strongest associations were detected in five pathways and gene sets, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young, regulation of beta-cell development, role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation by G protein-coupled receptors in cardiac hypertrophy pathways, and the Nikolsky breast cancer chr17q11-q21 amplicon and Pujana ATM Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) network gene sets. We identified and validated rs876493 and three correlating SNPs (PGAP3) and rs3124737 (CASP7) from the Pujana ATM PCC gene set as eQTLs in two normal derived pancreas tissue datasets. CONCLUSION: Our agnostic pathway and gene set analysis integrated with functional annotation and eQTL analysis provides insight into genes and pathways that may be biologically relevant for risk of PDAC, including those not previously identified.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(2): 146-157, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk. METHODS: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10-8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Nutr Cancer ; 71(3): 385-398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375890

RESUMO

Lignan intake, and its richest food source, flaxseed, have been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Endogenous sex hormones, such as estrogens, play a role in breast cancer development, and lignans may alter these sex hormone levels. To assess the effect of flaxseed on circulating sex hormones, a randomized controlled trial was conducted among 99 postmenopausal women in Toronto, Canada. The intervention arm consumed 2 tablespoons (15 g) of ground flaxseed daily for 7 weeks; the control arm maintained usual diet. Baseline and week 7 concentrations of 14 serum sex hormones were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunoassay, and serum enterolignans (lignan biomarker) using LC-MS/MS. Intervention effects on sex hormone levels were assessed using analysis of covariance. Serum enterolignans increased among the flaxseed arm (+516%). Women consuming flaxseed (vs. controls) had increased serum 2-hydroxyestrone [treatment effect ratio (TER) = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.18-2.00] and 2:16α-hydroxyestrone ratio (TER =1.54; 95% CI: 1.15-2.06); effects on other hormones were not statistically significant. Within the flaxseed arm, change in enterolignan level was positively correlated with changes in 2-hydroxyestrone and 2:16α-hydroxyestrone ratio, and negatively with prolactin. Findings suggest flaxseed affects certain circulating sex hormone levels with possible implications for future breast cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Dieta , Linho , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Canadá , Feminino , Linho/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidroxiestronas/sangue , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Lignanas/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prolactina/sangue
14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 767-780, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) is also moderately associated with CRC risk. However, observational studies are susceptible to unmeasured confounding or reverse causality. Using genetic risk variants as instrumental variables, we investigated the causal relationship between genetically elevated CRP concentration and CRC risk, using a Mendelian randomization approach. METHODS: Individual-level data from 30 480 CRC cases and 22 844 controls from 33 participating studies in three international consortia were used: the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study (CORECT) and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). As instrumental variables, we included 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with CRP concentration. The SNP-CRC associations were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, principal components and genotyping phases. An inverse-variance weighted method was applied to estimate the causal effect of CRP on CRC risk. RESULTS: Among the 19 CRP-associated SNPs, rs1260326 and rs6734238 were significantly associated with CRC risk (P = 7.5 × 10-4, and P = 0.003, respectively). A genetically predicted one-unit increase in the log-transformed CRP concentrations (mg/l) was not associated with increased risk of CRC [odds ratio (OR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 1.12; P = 0.256). No evidence of association was observed in subgroup analyses stratified by other risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of adequate statistical power to detect moderate association, we found genetically elevated CRP concentration was not associated with increased risk of CRC among individuals of European ancestry. Our findings suggested that circulating CRP is unlikely to be a causal factor in CRC development.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Causalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 2(3): nzx009, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377679

RESUMO

Background: Isoflavones and lignans (phytoestrogens) are dietary components with potential anticarcinogenic effects. Although the intake of isoflavones and lignans may affect breast cancer treatment and prognosis-and associations may differ by menopausal status-postdiagnosis intake data are limited. Objective: We aimed to describe postdiagnosis isoflavone and lignan intake in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, examine differences by menopausal status and phytoestrogen type, and inform the assessment of diet and survival in future prognostic studies. Methods: Our cross-sectional study included 278 women aged 25-74 y, diagnosed with pathologically confirmed breast cancer in April-May 2010 and identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry. Intake in the previous 2 mo was assessed using questionnaires listing 17 soy and 3 high-lignan foods (flaxseed, flaxseed bread, sesame seeds), completed 71 d after breast cancer diagnosis, on average. Food consumption by menopausal status was examined. Geometric mean and median phytoestrogen intakes were estimated among all patients and in consumers only; differences by menopausal status and phytoestrogen type were assessed. Results: Among all patients, foods were similarly consumed by menopausal status and isoflavone intakes were low (median: 56 µg/d). Consumers (n = 219) had higher intakes (median isoflavones: 1808 µg/d); 7% of isoflavone and 21% of lignan consumers had intakes ≥10 mg/d. Intakes were higher in premenopausal than in postmenopausal consumers, particularly for lignans, but were not significantly different (median lignans: 4375 compared with 1863 µg/d; P = 0.07). Lignans were significantly higher than isoflavones among most consumers (postmenopausal means: 746 compared with 100 µg/d; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Postdiagnosis lignan intakes from 3 high-content foods may be considerable among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, yet they have been unassessed in previous prognostic studies. The inclusion of these foods in dietary assessment methods may improve future intake estimates and the distributions on which breast cancer survival analyses are based.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 556, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422604

RESUMO

In 2020, 146,063 deaths due to pancreatic cancer are estimated to occur in Europe and the United States combined. To identify common susceptibility alleles, we performed the largest pancreatic cancer GWAS to date, including 9040 patients and 12,496 controls of European ancestry from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Here, we find significant evidence of a novel association at rs78417682 (7p12/TNS3, P = 4.35 × 10-8). Replication of 10 promising signals in up to 2737 patients and 4752 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium yields new genome-wide significant loci: rs13303010 at 1p36.33 (NOC2L, P = 8.36 × 10-14), rs2941471 at 8q21.11 (HNF4G, P = 6.60 × 10-10), rs4795218 at 17q12 (HNF1B, P = 1.32 × 10-8), and rs1517037 at 18q21.32 (GRP, P = 3.28 × 10-8). rs78417682 is not statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer in PANDoRA. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in three independent pancreatic data sets provides molecular support of NOC2L as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Tensinas/genética
18.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 61(3): 355-363, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are lacking regarding physical functioning, psychological well-being, and quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors >10 years postdiagnosis. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported physical functioning, quality of life, and psychological well-being in long-term colorectal cancer survivors compared with age- and sex-matched unaffected control subjects. DESIGN: Participants completed a cross-sectional survey. SETTINGS: The colorectal cancer survivors and unaffected control subjects were recruited from the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry. PATIENTS: A population-based sample of colorectal cancer survivors (N = 296) and their age- and sex-matched unaffected control subjects (N = 255) were included. Survivors were, on average, 15 years postdiagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quality of life was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General scale, bowel dysfunction with the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center scale, urinary dysfunction with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, fatigue with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale, and depression with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. RESULTS: In linear mixed-model analyses adjusting for income, education, race, and comorbid medical conditions, survivors reported good emotional, functional, physical, and overall quality of life, comparable to control subjects. Fatigue and urinary functioning did not differ significantly between survivors and control subjects. Survivors reported significantly higher social quality of life and lower depression compared with unaffected control subjects. The only area where survivors reported significantly worse deficits was in bowel dysfunction, but the magnitude of differences was relatively small. LIMITATIONS: Generalizability is limited by moderately low participation rates. Findings are likely biased toward healthy participants. No baseline assessment was available to examine change in outcomes over time. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term colorectal cancer survivors appear to have comparable quality of life and, in some areas, better well-being than their unaffected peers. Bowel dysfunction may continue to be an ongoing issue even 15 years after colorectal cancer diagnosis. Overall quality of life can be expected to be good in this group of older survivors. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A476.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Prev Med ; 107: 14-20, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197533

RESUMO

Cervical cancer caused by oncogenic types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is of concern among HIV-positive women due to impairment of immune responses required to control HPV infection. Our objectives were to describe patterns of cervical cancer screening using Pap cytology testing among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada from 2008 to 2013 and to identify factors associated with adequate screening. We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study among screen-eligible HIV-positive women using provincial administrative health data. We estimated annual proportions tested and reported these with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Next, using person-years as the unit of analysis, we identified factors associated with annual Pap testing using log-binomial regression. A total of 2271 women were followed over 10,697 person-years. In 2008, 34.0% (95%CI 31.1-37.0%) had a Pap test. By 2013, the proportion of HIV-positive women tested was 25.9% (95%CI 23.6-28.2%). Women who were most likely to undergo testing were younger, were immigrants from countries with generalized HIV epidemics, lived in the highest income neighbourhoods, had a female primary care physician, had two or more encounters per year with an infectious disease or internal medicine specialist, and had greater comorbidity. Nearly three in four HIV-positive women were under-screened despite all having universal insurance for medically-necessary services. Annual Pap testing decreased following the 2011-2013 release of new guidelines for a lengthened screen interval for average risk women and a billing disincentive. Clinic-based intervention such as physician alerts or reminders may be needed to improve screening coverage among HIV-positive women.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Teste de Papanicolaou , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
20.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 37(8): 238-247, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800293

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While some studies have suggested associations between shift work and obesity, few have been population-based or considered multiple shift schedules. Since obesity is linked with several chronic health conditions, understanding which types of shift work influence obesity is important and additional work with more detailed exposure assessment of shift work is warranted. METHODS: Using multivariate polytomous logistic regression, we investigated the associations between shift work (evening/night, rotating and other shift schedules) and overweight and obesity as measured by body mass index cross-sectionally among 1561 men. These men had previously participated as population controls in a prostate cancer case-control study conducted in northeastern Ontario from 1995 to 1999. We obtained information on work history (including shift work), height and weight from the existing self-reported questionnaire data. RESULTS: We observed an association for ever (vs. never) having been employed in rotating shift work for both the overweight (OR [odds ratio] = 1.34; 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.05-1.73) and obese (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.12-2.21) groups. We also observed nonsignificant associations for ever (vs. never) having been employed in permanent evening/night shifts. In addition, we found a significant trend of increased risk for both overweight and obesity with increasing duration of rotating shift work. CONCLUSION: Both the positive association between rotating shift work and obesity and the suggested positive association for permanent evening/night shift work in this study are consistent with previous findings. Future population-based research that is able to build on our results while examining additional shift work characteristics will further clarify whether some shift patterns have a greater impact on obesity than others.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
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