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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 15, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, is a disease that affects up to 8 million people worldwide. Parasites are transmitted to human and animal hosts through the bite of an infected sand fly. Novel strategies for disease control require a better understanding of the key step for transmission, namely the establishment of infection inside the fly. METHODS: The aim of this work was to identify sand fly systemic transcriptomic signatures associated with Leishmania infection. We used next generation sequencing to describe the transcriptome of whole Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies when fed with blood alone (control) or with blood containing one of three trypanosomatids: Leishmania major, L. donovani and Herpetomonas muscarum, the latter being a parasite not transmitted to humans. RESULTS: Of the trypanosomatids studied, only L. major was able to successfully establish an infection in the host P. papatasi. However, the transcriptional signatures observed after each parasite-contaminated blood meal were not specific to success or failure of a specific infection and they did not differ from each other. The transcriptional signatures were also indistinguishable after a non-contaminated blood meal. CONCLUSIONS: The results imply that sand flies perceive Leishmania as just one feature of their microbiome landscape and that any strategy to tackle transmission should focus on the response towards the blood meal rather than parasite establishment. Alternatively, Leishmania could suppress host responses. These results will generate new thinking around the concept of stopping transmission by controlling the parasite inside the insect.

2.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 656, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168940

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus is a globally distributed and economically important gastrointestinal pathogen of small ruminants and has become a key nematode model for studying anthelmintic resistance and other parasite-specific traits among a wider group of parasites including major human pathogens. Here, we report using PacBio long-read and OpGen and 10X Genomics long-molecule methods to generate a highly contiguous 283.4 Mbp chromosome-scale genome assembly including a resolved sex chromosome for the MHco3(ISE).N1 isolate. We show a remarkable pattern of conservation of chromosome content with Caenorhabditis elegans, but almost no conservation of gene order. Short and long-read transcriptome sequencing allowed us to define coordinated transcriptional regulation throughout the parasite's life cycle and refine our understanding of cis- and trans-splicing. Finally, we provide a comprehensive picture of chromosome-wide genetic diversity both within a single isolate and globally. These data provide a high-quality comparison for understanding the evolution and genomics of Caenorhabditis and other nematodes and extend the experimental tractability of this model parasitic nematode in understanding helminth biology, drug discovery and vaccine development, as well as important adaptive traits such as drug resistance.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(11): e0008623, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guinea worm-Dracunculus medinensis-was historically one of the major parasites of humans and has been known since antiquity. Now, Guinea worm is on the brink of eradication, as efforts to interrupt transmission have reduced the annual burden of disease from millions of infections per year in the 1980s to only 54 human cases reported globally in 2019. Despite the enormous success of eradication efforts to date, one complication has arisen. Over the last few years, hundreds of dogs have been found infected with this previously apparently anthroponotic parasite, almost all in Chad. Moreover, the relative numbers of infections in humans and dogs suggests that dogs are currently the principal reservoir on infection and key to maintaining transmission in that country. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to shed light on this peculiar epidemiology of Guinea worm in Chad, we have sequenced and compared the genomes of worms from dog, human and other animal infections. Confirming previous work with other molecular markers, we show that all of these worms are D. medinensis, and that the same population of worms are causing both infections, can confirm the suspected transmission between host species and detect signs of a population bottleneck due to the eradication efforts. The diversity of worms in Chad appears to exclude the possibility that there were no, or very few, worms present in the country during a 10-year absence of reported cases. CONCLUSIONS: This work reinforces the importance of adequate surveillance of both human and dog populations in the Guinea worm eradication campaign and suggests that control programs aiming to interrupt disease transmission should stay aware of the possible emergence of unusual epidemiology as pathogens approach elimination.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 25159-25168, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958676

RESUMO

The tropical Andes are an important natural laboratory to understand speciation in many taxa. Here we examined the evolutionary history of parasites of the Leishmania braziliensis species complex based on whole-genome sequencing of 67 isolates from 47 localities in Peru. We first show the origin of Andean Leishmania as a clade of near-clonal lineages that diverged from admixed Amazonian ancestors, accompanied by a significant reduction in genome diversity and large structural variations implicated in host-parasite interactions. Within the Andean species, patterns of population structure were strongly associated with biogeographical origin. Molecular clock and ecological niche modeling suggested that the history of diversification of the Andean lineages is limited to the Late Pleistocene and intimately associated with habitat contractions driven by climate change. These results suggest that changes in forestation over the past 150,000 y have influenced speciation and diversity of these Neotropical parasites. Second, genome-scale analyses provided evidence of meiotic-like recombination between Andean and Amazonian Leishmania species, resulting in full-genome hybrids. The mitochondrial genome of these hybrids consisted of homogeneous uniparental maxicircles, but minicircles originated from both parental species. We further show that mitochondrial minicircles-but not maxicircles-show a similar evolutionary pattern to the nuclear genome, suggesting that compatibility between nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and minicircle-encoded guide RNA genes is essential to maintain efficient respiration. By comparing full nuclear and mitochondrial genome ancestries, our data expand our appreciation on the genetic consequences of diversification and hybridization in parasitic protozoa.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/genética , Ecossistema , Florestas , Especiação Genética , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Filogeografia
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15043, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929126

RESUMO

Here, we report a pilot study paving the way for further single cell genomics studies in Leishmania. First, the performances of two commercially available kits for Whole Genome Amplification (WGA), PicoPLEX and RepliG were compared on small amounts of Leishmania donovani DNA, testing their ability to preserve specific genetic variations, including aneuploidy levels and SNPs. We show here that the choice of WGA method should be determined by the planned downstream genetic analysis, PicoPLEX and RepliG performing better for aneuploidy and SNP calling, respectively. This comparison allowed us to evaluate and optimize corresponding bio-informatic methods. As PicoPLEX was shown to be the preferred method for studying single cell aneuploidy, this method was applied in a second step, on single cells of L. braziliensis, which were sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Even sequencing depth was achieved in 28 single cells, allowing accurate somy estimation. A dominant karyotype with three aneuploid chromosomes was observed in 25 cells, while two different minor karyotypes were observed in the other cells. Our method thus allowed the detection of aneuploidy mosaicism, and provides a solid basis which can be further refined to concur with higher-throughput single cell genomic methods.

6.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(9): 719-721, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741600

RESUMO

Genetic exchange between Leishmania parasites was demonstrated in sandflies over 10 years ago. Louradour et al. have shown in vitro hybridization of two Leishmania tropica isolates, with the potential to remove a major roadblock to using forward genetics in Leishmania, understanding Leishmania reproductive biology, and analyzing gene flow in natural populations.


Assuntos
Leishmania tropica , Psychodidae , Animais , Psychodidae/genética
7.
Microorganisms ; 8(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492796

RESUMO

The discovery of novel anti-leishmanial compounds remains essential as current treatments have known limitations and there are insufficient novel compounds in development. We have investigated three complex and physiologically relevant in vitro assays, including: (i) a media perfusion based cell culture model, (ii) two 3D cell culture models, and (iii) iPSC derived macrophages in place of primary macrophages or cell lines, to determine whether they offer improved approaches to anti-leishmanial drug discovery and development. Using a Leishmania major amastigote-macrophage assay the activities of standard drugs were investigated to show the effect of changing parameters in these assays. We determined that drug activity was reduced by media perfusion (EC50 values for amphotericin B shifted from 54 (51-57) nM in the static system to 70 (61-75) nM under media perfusion; EC50 values for miltefosine shifted from 12 (11-15) µM in the static system to 30 (26-34) µM under media perfusion) (mean and 95% confidence intervals), with corresponding reduced drug accumulation by macrophages. In the 3D cell culture model there was a significant difference in the EC50 values of amphotericin B but not miltefosine (EC50 values for amphotericin B were 34.9 (31.4-38.6) nM in the 2D and 52.3 (46.6-58.7) nM in 3D; EC50 values for miltefosine were 5.0 (4.9-5.2) µM in 2D and 5.9 (5.5-6.2) µM in 3D (mean and 95% confidence intervals). Finally, in experiments using iPSC derived macrophages infected with Leishmania, reported here for the first time, we observed a higher level of intracellular infection in iPSC derived macrophages compared to the other macrophage types for four different species of Leishmania studied. For L. major with an initial infection ratio of 0.5 parasites per host cell the percentage infection level of the macrophages after 72 h was 11.3% ± 1.5%, 46.0% ± 1.4%, 66.4% ± 3.5% and 75.1% ± 2.4% (average ± SD) for the four cells types, THP1 a human monocytic cell line, mouse bone marrow macrophages (MBMMs), human bone marrow macrophages (HBMMs) and iPSC derived macrophages respectively. Despite the higher infection levels, drug activity in iPSC derived macrophages was similar to that in other macrophage types, for example, amphotericin B EC50 values were 35.9 (33.4-38.5), 33.5 (31.5-36.5), 33.6 (30.5-not calculated (NC)) and 46.4 (45.8-47.2) nM in iPSC, MBMMs, HBMMs and THP1 cells respectively (mean and 95% confidence intervals). We conclude that increasing the complexity of cellular assays does impact upon anti-leishmanial drug activities but not sufficiently to replace the current model used in HTS/HCS assays in drug discovery programmes. The impact of media perfusion on drug activities and the use of iPSC macrophages do, however, deserve further investigation.

8.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(24)2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527783

RESUMO

Lymphatic filariasis affects ∼120 million people and can result in elephantiasis and hydrocele. Here, we report the nearly complete genome sequence of the best-studied causative agent of lymphatic filariasis, Brugia malayi The assembly contains four autosomes, an X chromosome, and only eight gaps but lacks a contiguous sequence for the known Y chromosome.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1964, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327641

RESUMO

Sex determination mechanisms often differ even between related species yet the evolution of sex chromosomes remains poorly understood in all but a few model organisms. Some nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans have an XO sex determination system while others, such as the filarial parasite Brugia malayi, have an XY mechanism. We present a complete B. malayi genome assembly and define Nigon elements shared with C. elegans, which we then map to the genomes of other filarial species and more distantly related nematodes. We find a remarkable plasticity in sex chromosome evolution with several distinct cases of neo-X and neo-Y formation, X-added regions, and conversion of autosomes to sex chromosomes from which we propose a model of chromosome evolution across different nematode clades. The phylum Nematoda offers a new and innovative system for gaining a deeper understanding of sex chromosome evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Animais , Brugia Malayi/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Helmíntico/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Nematoides/classificação , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0007143, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310945

RESUMO

Parasites of the genus Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) cause widespread and devastating human diseases. Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania donovani is endemic in Ethiopia where it has also been responsible for major epidemics. The presence of hybrid genotypes has been widely reported in surveys of natural populations, genetic variation reported in a number of Leishmania species, and the extant capacity for genetic exchange demonstrated in laboratory experiments. However, patterns of recombination and the evolutionary history of admixture that produced these hybrid populations remain unclear. Here, we use whole-genome sequence data to investigate Ethiopian L. donovani isolates previously characterized as hybrids by microsatellite and multi-locus sequencing. To date there is only one previous study on a natural population of Leishmania hybrids based on whole-genome sequences. We propose that these hybrids originate from recombination between two different lineages of Ethiopian L. donovani occurring in the same region. Patterns of inheritance are more complex than previously reported with multiple, apparently independent, origins from similar parents that include backcrossing with parental types. Analysis indicates that hybrids are representative of at least three different histories. Furthermore, isolates were highly polysomic at the level of chromosomes with differences between parasites recovered from a recrudescent infection from a previously treated individual. The results demonstrate that recombination is a significant feature of natural populations and contributes to the growing body of data that shows how recombination, and gene flow, shape natural populations of Leishmania.


Assuntos
Quimera , Leishmania donovani/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Etiópia , Genótipo , Humanos , Recombinação Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(4): 263-275, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184085

RESUMO

Polymicrobial infections of the gastro-intestinal tract are common in areas with poor sanitation. Disease outcome is the result of complex interactions between the host and pathogens. Such interactions lie at the core of future management strategies of enteric diseases. In developed countries of the world, Giardia duodenalis is a common cause of diarrheal disease. In contrast, giardiasis appears to protect children against diarrhea in countries with poor sanitation, via obscure mechanisms. We hypothesized that Giardia may protect its host from disease induced by a co-infecting pathogen such as attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. This enteropathogen is commonly implicated in pediatric diarrhea in developing countries. The findings indicate that co-infection with Giardia attenuates the severity of disease induced by Citrobacter rodentium, an equivalent of A/E E. coli in mice. Co-infection with Giardia reduced colitis, blood in stools, fecal softening, bacterial invasion, and weight loss; the protective effects were lost when co-infection occurred in Nod-like receptor pyrin-containing 3 knockout mice. In co-infected mice, elevated levels of antimicrobial peptides Murine ß defensin 3 and Trefoil Factor 3, and enhanced bacterial killing, were NLRP3-dependent. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human enterocytes blocked the activation of AMPs and bacterial killing. The findings uncover novel NLRP3-dependent modulatory mechanisms during co-infections with Giardia spp. and A/E enteropathogens, and demonstrate how these interactions may regulate the severity of enteric disease.

12.
Elife ; 92020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209228

RESUMO

Protozoan parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex - L. donovani and L. infantum - cause the fatal disease visceral leishmaniasis. We present the first comprehensive genome-wide global study, with 151 cultured field isolates representing most of the geographical distribution. L. donovani isolates separated into five groups that largely coincide with geographical origin but vary greatly in diversity. In contrast, the majority of L. infantum samples fell into one globally-distributed group with little diversity. This picture is complicated by several hybrid lineages. Identified genetic groups vary in heterozygosity and levels of linkage, suggesting different recombination histories. We characterise chromosome-specific patterns of aneuploidy and identified extensive structural variation, including known and suspected drug resistance loci. This study reveals greater genetic diversity than suggested by geographically-focused studies, provides a resource of genomic variation for future work and sets the scene for a new understanding of the evolution and genetics of the Leishmania donovani complex.

13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007900, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830038

RESUMO

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly used for molecular diagnosis and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Current Leishmania genomic studies rely on DNA extracted from cultured parasites, which might introduce sampling and biological biases into the subsequent analyses. Up to now, direct analysis of Leishmania genome in clinical samples is hampered by high levels of human DNA and large variation in parasite load in clinical samples. Here, we present a method, based on target enrichment of Leishmania donovani DNA with Agilent SureSelect technology, that allows the analysis of Leishmania genomes directly in clinical samples. We validated our protocol with a set of artificially mixed samples, followed by the analysis of 63 clinical samples (bone marrow or spleen aspirates) from visceral leishmaniasis patients in Nepal. We were able to identify genotypes using a set of diagnostic SNPs in almost all of these samples (97%) and access comprehensive genome-wide information in most (83%). This allowed us to perform phylogenomic analysis, assess chromosome copy number and identify large copy number variants (CNVs). Pairwise comparisons between the parasite genomes in clinical samples and derived in vitro cultured promastigotes showed a lower aneuploidy in amastigotes as well as genomic differences, suggesting polyclonal infections in patients. Altogether our results underline the need for sequencing parasite genomes directly in the host samples.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Nepal
14.
PLoS Genet ; 15(11): e1008452, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710597

RESUMO

Trypanosomatid parasites are causative agents of important human and animal diseases such as sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis. Most trypanosomatids are transmitted to their mammalian hosts by insects, often belonging to Diptera (or true flies). These are called dixenous trypanosomatids since they infect two different hosts, in contrast to those that infect just insects (monoxenous). However, it is still unclear whether dixenous and monoxenous trypanosomatids interact similarly with their insect host, as fly-monoxenous trypanosomatid interaction systems are rarely reported and under-studied-despite being common in nature. Here we present the genome of monoxenous trypanosomatid Herpetomonas muscarum and discuss its transcriptome during in vitro culture and during infection of its natural insect host Drosophila melanogaster. The H. muscarum genome is broadly syntenic with that of human parasite Leishmania major. We also found strong similarities between the H. muscarum transcriptome during fruit fly infection, and those of Leishmania during sand fly infections. Overall this suggests Drosophila-Herpetomonas is a suitable model for less accessible insect-trypanosomatid host-parasite systems such as sand fly-Leishmania.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Leishmania/genética , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Trypanosomatina/genética , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/parasitologia , Infecções por Euglenozoa/genética , Infecções por Euglenozoa/parasitologia , Infecções por Euglenozoa/transmissão , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/genética , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose/genética , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Psychodidae/genética , Trypanosomatina/patogenicidade
15.
Front Genet ; 10: 826, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616465

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing is being rapidly applied to the study of helminth genomes, including de novo genome assembly, population genetics, and diagnostic applications. Although late-stage juvenile and adult parasites typically produce sufficient DNA for molecular analyses, these parasitic stages are almost always inaccessible in the live host; immature life stages found in the environment for which samples can be collected non-invasively offer a potential alternative; however, these samples typically yield very low quantities of DNA, can be environmentally resistant, and are susceptible to contamination, often from bacterial or host DNA. Here, we have tested five low-input DNA extraction protocols together with a low-input sequencing library protocol to assess the feasibility of whole-genome sequencing of individual immature helminth samples. These approaches do not use whole-genome amplification, a common but costly approach to increase the yield of low-input samples. We first tested individual parasites from two species spotted onto FTA cards-egg and L1 stages of Haemonchus contortus and miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni-before further testing on an additional five species-Ancylostoma caninum, Ascaridia dissimilis, Dirofilaria immitis, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris muris-with an optimal protocol. A sixth species-Dracunculus medinensis-was included for comparison. Whole-genome sequencing followed by analyses to determine the proportion of on- and off-target mapping revealed successful sample preparations for six of the eight species tested with variation both between species and between different life stages from some species described. These results demonstrate the feasibility of whole-genome sequencing of individual parasites, and highlight a new avenue toward generating sensitive, specific, and information-rich data for the diagnosis and surveillance of helminths.

16.
Int J Parasitol ; 49(11): 847-858, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525371

RESUMO

Differential expression analysis between parasitic nematode strains is commonly used to implicate candidate genes in anthelmintic resistance or other biological functions. We have tested the hypothesis that the high genetic diversity of an organism such as Haemonchus contortus could complicate such analyses. First, we investigated the extent to which sequence polymorphism affects the reliability of differential expression analysis between the genetically divergent H. contortus strains MHco3(ISE), MHco4(WRS) and MHco10(CAVR). Using triplicates of 20 adult female worms from each population isolated under parallel experimental conditions, we found that high rates of sequence polymorphism in RNAseq reads were associated with lower efficiency read mapping to gene models under default TopHat2 parameters, leading to biased estimates of inter-strain differential expression. We then showed it is possible to largely compensate for this bias by optimising the read mapping single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allowance and filtering out genes with particularly high single nucleotide polymorphism rates. Once the sequence polymorphism biases were removed, we then assessed the genuine transcriptional diversity between the strains, finding ≥824 differentially expressed genes across all three pairwise strain comparisons. This high level of inter-strain transcriptional diversity not only suggests substantive inter-strain phenotypic variation but also highlights the difficulty in reliably associating differential expression of specific genes with phenotypic differences. To provide a practical example, we analysed two gene families of potential relevance to ivermectin drug resistance; the ABC transporters and the ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs). Over half of genes identified as differentially expressed using default TopHat2 parameters were shown to be an artifact of sequence polymorphism differences. This work illustrates the need to account for sequence polymorphism in differential expression analysis. It also demonstrates that a large number of genuine transcriptional differences can occur between H. contortus strains and these must be considered before associating the differential expression of specific genes with phenotypic differences between strains.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/normas , Variação Genética , Haemonchus/genética , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/normas , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Biologia Computacional/normas , Resistência a Medicamentos , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/normas
17.
PLoS Genet ; 15(5): e1008042, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091230

RESUMO

Hybrid genotypes have been repeatedly described among natural isolates of Leishmania, and the recovery of experimental hybrids from sand flies co-infected with different strains or species of Leishmania has formally demonstrated that members of the genus possess the machinery for genetic exchange. As neither gamete stages nor cell fusion events have been directly observed during parasite development in the vector, we have relied on a classical genetic analysis to determine if Leishmania has a true sexual cycle. Here, we used whole genome sequencing to follow the chromosomal inheritance patterns of experimental hybrids generated within and between different strains of L. major and L. infantum. We also generated and sequenced the first experimental hybrids in L. tropica. We found that in each case the parental somy and allele contributions matched the inheritance patterns expected under meiosis 97-99% of the time. The hybrids were equivalent to F1 progeny, heterozygous throughout most of the genome for the markers that were homozygous and different between the parents. Rare, non-Mendelian patterns of chromosomal inheritance were observed, including a gain or loss of somy, and loss of heterozygosity, that likely arose during meiosis or during mitotic divisions of the progeny clones in the fly or culture. While the interspecies hybrids appeared to be sterile, the intraspecies hybrids were able to produce backcross and outcross progeny. Analysis of 5 backcross and outcross progeny clones generated from an L. major F1 hybrid, as well as 17 progeny clones generated from backcrosses involving a natural hybrid of L. tropica, revealed genome wide patterns of recombination, demonstrating that classical crossing over occurs at meiosis, and allowed us to construct the first physical and genetic maps in Leishmania. Altogether, the findings provide strong evidence for meiosis-like sexual recombination in Leishmania, presenting clear opportunities for forward genetic analysis and positional cloning of important genes.


Assuntos
Genoma de Protozoário , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania major/genética , Leishmania tropica/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Quimera , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Genótipo , Padrões de Herança , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/metabolismo , Leishmania major/metabolismo , Leishmania tropica/metabolismo , Meiose , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Recombinação Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 218, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections with helminths cause an enormous disease burden in billions of animals and plants worldwide. Large scale use of anthelmintics has driven the evolution of resistance in a number of species that infect livestock and companion animals, and there are growing concerns regarding the reduced efficacy in some human-infective helminths. Understanding the mechanisms by which resistance evolves is the focus of increasing interest; robust genetic analysis of helminths is challenging, and although many candidate genes have been proposed, the genetic basis of resistance remains poorly resolved. RESULTS: Here, we present a genome-wide analysis of two genetic crosses between ivermectin resistant and sensitive isolates of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus, an economically important gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants and a model for anthelmintic research. Whole genome sequencing of parental populations, and key stages throughout the crosses, identified extensive genomic diversity that differentiates populations, but after backcrossing and selection, a single genomic quantitative trait locus (QTL) localised on chromosome V was revealed to be associated with ivermectin resistance. This QTL was common between the two geographically and genetically divergent resistant populations and did not include any leading candidate genes, suggestive of a previously uncharacterised mechanism and/or driver of resistance. Despite limited resolution due to low recombination in this region, population genetic analyses and novel evolutionary models supported strong selection at this QTL, driven by at least partial dominance of the resistant allele, and that large resistance-associated haplotype blocks were enriched in response to selection. CONCLUSIONS: We have described the genetic architecture and mode of ivermectin selection, revealing a major genomic locus associated with ivermectin resistance, the most conclusive evidence to date in any parasitic nematode. This study highlights a novel genome-wide approach to the analysis of a genetic cross in non-model organisms with extreme genetic diversity, and the importance of a high-quality reference genome in interpreting the signals of selection so identified.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos , Evolução Molecular , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemonchus/genética , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Metagenômica , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , DNA de Helmintos , Variação Genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia
19.
Trends Parasitol ; 35(4): 289-301, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733094

RESUMO

The rapid evolution of anthelmintic resistance in a number of parasites of livestock and domesticated animals has occurred in response to widespread use of anthelmintics for parasite control, and threatens the success of parasite control of species that infect humans. The genetic basis of resistance to most anthelmintics remains poorly resolved. Genome-wide approaches are now accessible due to recent advances in high-throughput sequencing, and are increasingly applied to characterize traits including drug resistance. Here, we discuss why traditional candidate gene studies have largely failed to define the genetics of resistance, and why - and in what circumstances - we expect genome-wide approaches to shed new light on the modes of action and the evolution of resistance to anthelmintic compounds.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Genoma Helmíntico/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Helmintos/efeitos dos fármacos , Helmintos/genética , Animais
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(10): e0006747, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286084

RESUMO

Following almost 10 years of no reported cases, Guinea worm disease (GWD or dracunculiasis) reemerged in Chad in 2010 with peculiar epidemiological patterns and unprecedented prevalence of infection among non-human hosts, particularly domestic dogs. Since 2014, animal infections with Guinea worms have also been observed in the other three countries with endemic transmission (Ethiopia, Mali, and South Sudan), causing concern and generating interest in the parasites' true taxonomic identity and population genetics. We present the first extensive population genetic data for Guinea worm, investigating mitochondrial and microsatellite variation in adult female worms from both human and non-human hosts in the four endemic countries to elucidate the origins of Chad's current outbreak and possible host-specific differences between parasites. Genetic diversity of Chadian Guinea worms was considerably higher than that of the other three countries, even after controlling for sample size through rarefaction, and demographic analyses are consistent with a large, stable parasite population. Genealogical analyses eliminate the other three countries as possible sources of parasite reintroduction into Chad, and sequence divergence and distribution of genetic variation provide no evidence that parasites in human and non-human hosts are separate species or maintain isolated transmission cycles. Both among and within countries, geographic origin appears to have more influence on parasite population structure than host species. Guinea worm infection in non-human hosts has been occasionally reported throughout the history of the disease, particularly when elimination programs appear to be reaching their end goals. However, no previous reports have evaluated molecular support of the parasite species identity. Our data confirm that Guinea worms collected from non-human hosts in the remaining endemic countries of Africa are Dracunculus medinensis and that the same population of worms infects both humans and dogs in Chad. Our genetic data and the epidemiological evidence suggest that transmission in the Chadian context is currently being maintained by canine hosts.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Dracunculíase/parasitologia , Dracunculíase/veterinária , Dracunculus/classificação , Dracunculus/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Animais , Chade , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Cães , Dracunculíase/transmissão , Dracunculus/isolamento & purificação , Etiópia , Feminino , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Mali , Repetições de Microssatélites , Papio , Sudão
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