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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2049-2055, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400068

RESUMO

Histone Gene Cluster 1 Member E, HIST1H1E, encodes Histone H1.4, is one of a family of epigenetic regulator genes, acts as a linker histone protein, and is responsible for higher order chromatin structure. HIST1H1E syndrome (also known as Rahman syndrome, OMIM #617537) is a recently described intellectual disability (ID) syndrome. Since the initial description of five unrelated individuals with three different heterozygous protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in the HIST1H1E gene in 2017, we have recruited 30 patients, all with HIST1H1E PTVs that result in the same shift in frame and that cluster to a 94-base pair region in the HIST1H1E carboxy terminal domain. The identification of 30 patients with HIST1H1E variants has allowed the clarification of the HIST1H1E syndrome phenotype. Major findings include an ID and a recognizable facial appearance. ID was reported in all patients and is most frequently of moderate severity. The facial gestalt consists of a high frontal hairline and full lower cheeks in early childhood and, in later childhood and adulthood, affected individuals have a strikingly high frontal hairline, frontal bossing, and deep-set eyes. Other associated clinical features include hypothyroidism, abnormal dentition, behavioral issues, cryptorchidism, skeletal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently abnormal with a slender corpus callosum a frequent finding.

2.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 116, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanced structural variants are mostly described in disease with gene disruption or subtle rearrangement at breakpoints. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a patient with mild intellectual deficiency who carries a de novo balanced translocation t(3;5). Breakpoints were fully explored by microarray, Array Painting and Sanger sequencing. No gene disruption was found but the chromosome 5 breakpoint was localized 228-kb upstream of the MEF2C gene. The predicted Topologically Associated Domains analysis shows that it contains only the MEF2C gene and a long non-coding RNA LINC01226. RNA studies looking for MEF2C gene expression revealed an overexpression of MEF2C in the lymphoblastoid cell line of the patient. CONCLUSIONS: Pathogenicity of MEF2C overexpression is still unclear as only four patients with mild intellectual deficiency carrying 5q14.3 microduplications containing MEF2C are described in the literature. The microduplications in these individuals also contain other genes expressed in the brain. The patient presented the same phenotype as 5q14.3 microduplication patients. We report the first case of a balanced translocation leading to an overexpression of MEF2C similar to a functional duplication.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036916

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Next-generation sequencing has revealed the major impact of de novo variants (DNVs) in developmental disorders (DD) such as intellectual disability, autism, and epilepsy. However, a substantial fraction of these predicted pathogenic DNVs remains challenging to distinguish from background DNVs, notably the missense variants acting via nonhaploinsufficient mechanisms on specific amino acid residues. We hypothesized that the detection of the same missense variation in at least two unrelated individuals presenting with a similar phenotype could be a powerful approach to reveal novel pathogenic variants. METHODS: We looked for variations independently present in both our database of >1200 solo exomes and in denovo-db, a large, publicly available collection of de novo variants identified in patients with DD. RESULTS: This approach identified 30 variants with strong evidence of pathogenicity, including variants already classified as pathogenic or probably pathogenic by our team, and also several new variants of interest in known OMIM genes or in novel genes. We identified FEM1B and GNAI2 as good candidate genes for syndromic intellectual disability and confirmed the implication of ACTL6B in a neurodevelopmental disorder. CONCLUSION: Annotation of local variants with denovo-db can highlight missense variants with high potential for pathogenicity, both facilitating the time-consuming reanalysis process and allowing novel DD gene discoveries.

4.
J Med Genet ; 56(8): 526-535, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanced chromosomal rearrangements associated with abnormal phenotype are rare events, but may be challenging for genetic counselling, since molecular characterisation of breakpoints is not performed routinely. We used next-generation sequencing to characterise breakpoints of balanced chromosomal rearrangements at the molecular level in patients with intellectual disability and/or congenital anomalies. METHODS: Breakpoints were characterised by a paired-end low depth whole genome sequencing (WGS) strategy and validated by Sanger sequencing. Expression study of disrupted and neighbouring genes was performed by RT-qPCR from blood or lymphoblastoid cell line RNA. RESULTS: Among the 55 patients included (41 reciprocal translocations, 4 inversions, 2 insertions and 8 complex chromosomal rearrangements), we were able to detect 89% of chromosomal rearrangements (49/55). Molecular signatures at the breakpoints suggested that DNA breaks arose randomly and that there was no major influence of repeated elements. Non-homologous end-joining appeared as the main mechanism of repair (55% of rearrangements). A diagnosis could be established in 22/49 patients (44.8%), 15 by gene disruption (KANSL1, FOXP1, SPRED1, TLK2, MBD5, DMD, AUTS2, MEIS2, MEF2C, NRXN1, NFIX, SYNGAP1, GHR, ZMIZ1) and 7 by position effect (DLX5, MEF2C, BCL11B, SATB2, ZMIZ1). In addition, 16 new candidate genes were identified. Systematic gene expression studies further supported these results. We also showed the contribution of topologically associated domain maps to WGS data interpretation. CONCLUSION: Paired-end WGS is a valid strategy and may be used for structural variation characterisation in a clinical setting.

5.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) encompasses a range of debilitating conditions defined by asymmetric overgrowth caused by mosaic activating PIK3CA variants. PIK3CA encodes the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), a critical transducer of growth factor signaling. As mTOR mediates the growth-promoting actions of PI3K, we hypothesized that the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus would slow pathological overgrowth. METHODS: Thirty-nine participants with PROS and progressive overgrowth were enrolled into open-label studies across three centers, and results were pooled. For the primary outcome, tissue volumes at affected and unaffected sites were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during 26 weeks of untreated run-in and 26 weeks of sirolimus therapy. RESULTS: Thirty participants completed the study. Sirolimus led to a change in mean percentage total tissue volume of -7.2% (SD 16.0, p = 0.04) at affected sites, but not at unaffected sites (+1.7%, SD 11.5, p = 0.48) (n = 23 evaluable). Twenty-eight of 39 (72%) participants had ≥1 adverse event related to sirolimus of which 37% were grade 3 or 4 in severity and 7/39 (18%) participants were withdrawn consequently. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that low-dose sirolimus can modestly reduce overgrowth, but cautions that the side-effect profile is significant, mandating individualized risk-benefit evaluations for sirolimus treatment in PROS.

7.
Brain ; 141(11): 3160-3178, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351409

RESUMO

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels control neuronal excitability and their dysfunction has been linked to epileptogenesis but few individuals with neurological disorders related to variants altering HCN channels have been reported so far. In 2014, we described five individuals with epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo HCN1 variants. To delineate HCN1-related disorders and investigate genotype-phenotype correlations further, we assembled a cohort of 33 unpublished patients with novel pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants: 19 probands carrying 14 different de novo mutations and four families with dominantly inherited variants segregating with epilepsy in 14 individuals, but not penetrant in six additional individuals. Sporadic patients had epilepsy with median onset at age 7 months and in 36% the first seizure occurred during a febrile illness. Overall, considering familial and sporadic patients, the predominant phenotypes were mild, including genetic generalized epilepsies and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) spectrum. About 20% manifested neonatal/infantile onset otherwise unclassified epileptic encephalopathy. The study also included eight patients with variants of unknown significance: one adopted patient had two HCN1 variants, four probands had intellectual disability without seizures, and three individuals had missense variants inherited from an asymptomatic parent. Of the 18 novel pathogenic missense variants identified, 12 were associated with severe phenotypes and clustered within or close to transmembrane domains, while variants segregating with milder phenotypes were located outside transmembrane domains, in the intracellular N- and C-terminal parts of the channel. Five recurrent variants were associated with similar phenotypes. Using whole-cell patch-clamp, we showed that the impact of 12 selected variants ranged from complete loss-of-function to significant shifts in activation kinetics and/or voltage dependence. Functional analysis of three different substitutions altering Gly391 revealed that these variants had different consequences on channel biophysical properties. The Gly391Asp variant, associated with the most severe, neonatal phenotype, also had the most severe impact on channel function. Molecular dynamics simulation on channel structure showed that homotetramers were not conducting ions because the permeation path was blocked by cation(s) strongly complexed to the Asp residue, whereas heterotetramers showed an instantaneous current component possibly linked to deformation of the channel pore. In conclusion, our results considerably expand the clinical spectrum related to HCN1 variants to include common generalized epilepsy phenotypes and further illustrate how HCN1 has a pivotal function in brain development and control of neuronal excitability.

8.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variants in IQSEC2, escaping X inactivation, cause X-linked intellectual disability with frequent epilepsy in males and females. We aimed to investigate sex-specific differences. METHODS: We collected the data of 37 unpublished patients (18 males and 19 females) with IQSEC2 pathogenic variants and 5 individuals with variants of unknown significance and reviewed published variants. We compared variant types and phenotypes in males and females and performed an analysis of IQSEC2 isoforms. RESULTS: IQSEC2 pathogenic variants mainly led to premature truncation and were scattered throughout the longest brain-specific isoform, encoding the synaptic IQSEC2/BRAG1 protein. Variants occurred de novo in females but were either de novo (2/3) or inherited (1/3) in males, with missense variants being predominantly inherited. Developmental delay and intellectual disability were overall more severe in males than in females. Likewise, seizures were more frequently observed and intractable, and started earlier in males than in females. No correlation was observed between the age at seizure onset and severity of intellectual disability or resistance to antiepileptic treatments. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive overview of IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females, and suggests that an accurate dosage of IQSEC2 at the synapse is crucial during normal brain development.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1226-1237, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897170

RESUMO

Malan syndrome is an overgrowth disorder described in a limited number of individuals. We aim to delineate the entity by studying a large group of affected individuals. We gathered data on 45 affected individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis through an international collaboration and compared data to the 35 previously reported individuals. Results indicate that height is > 2 SDS in infancy and childhood but in only half of affected adults. Cardinal facial characteristics include long, triangular face, macrocephaly, prominent forehead, everted lower lip, and prominent chin. Intellectual disability is universally present, behaviorally anxiety is characteristic. Malan syndrome is caused by deletions or point mutations of NFIX clustered mostly in exon 2. There is no genotype-phenotype correlation except for an increased risk for epilepsy with 19p13.2 microdeletions. Variants arose de novo, except in one family in which mother was mosaic. Variants causing Malan and Marshall-Smith syndrome can be discerned by differences in the site of stop codon formation. We conclude that Malan syndrome has a well recognizable phenotype that usually can be discerned easily from Marshall-Smith syndrome but rarely there is some overlap. Differentiation from Sotos and Weaver syndrome can be made by clinical evaluation only.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(7): 996-1006, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695756

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of human genome coding regions allows the simultaneous screen of a large number of genes, significantly improving the diagnosis of non-syndromic intellectual disabilities (ID). HTS studies permit the redefinition of the phenotypical spectrum of known disease-causing genes, escaping the clinical inclusion bias of gene-by-gene Sanger sequencing. We studied a cohort of 903 patients with ID not reminiscent of a well-known syndrome, using an ID-targeted HTS of several hundred genes and found de novo heterozygous variants in TCF4 (transcription factor 4) in eight novel patients. Piecing together the patients from this study and those from previous large-scale unbiased HTS studies, we estimated the rate of individuals with ID carrying a disease-causing TCF4 mutation to 0.7%. So far, TCF4 molecular abnormalities were known to cause a syndromic form of ID, Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), which combines severe ID, developmental delay, absence of speech, behavioral and ventilation disorders, and a distinctive facial gestalt. Therefore, we reevaluated ten patients carrying a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in TCF4 (eight patients included in this study and two from our previous ID-HTS study) for PTHS criteria defined by Whalen and Marangi. A posteriori, five patients had a score highly evocative of PTHS, three were possibly consistent with this diagnosis, and two had a score below the defined PTHS threshold. In conclusion, these results highlight TCF4 as a frequent cause of moderate to profound ID and broaden the clinical spectrum associated to TCF4 mutations to nonspecific ID.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 143-148, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187737

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A large number of genes involved in autosomal recessive forms of intellectual disability (ID) were identified over the past few years through whole-exome sequencing (WES) or whole-genome sequencing in consanguineous families. Disease-associated variants in TRAPPC9 were reported in eight multiplex consanguineous sibships from different ethnic backgrounds, and led to the delineation of the phenotype. Affected patients have microcephaly, obesity, normal motor development, severe ID, and language impairment and brain anomalies. PATIENTS: We report six new patients recruited through a national collaborative network. RESULTS: In the two patients heterozygous for a copy-number variation (CNV), the phenotype was clinically relevant with regard to the literature, which prompted to sequence the second allele, leading to identification of disease-associated variants in both. The third patient was homozygote for an intragenic TRAPPC9 CNV. The phenotype of the patients reported was concordant with the literature. Recent reports emphasized the role of CNVs in the etiology of rare recessive disorders. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that CNVs significantly contribute to the mutational spectrum of TRAPPC9 gene, and also confirms the interest of combining WES with CNV analysis to provide a molecular diagnosis to patients with rare Mendelian disorders.

12.
Genet Med ; 20(2): 269-274, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771243

RESUMO

PurposeBased on prenatal suspicion of the combination of radioulnar or radiohumeral synostosis and a peculiar shape of the skull suggestive of craniosynostosis, we report on six patients from four unrelated consanguineous families in whom Antley-Bixler syndrome was suspected during the prenatal period without mutation in genes known to be associated with the syndrome.MethodsMolecular diagnosis involved whole-exome and gene-panel sequencing. RESULTS: All sequenced patients showed a unique homozygous mutation of c.667G>A, p.Gly223Ser (NM_012200) in the beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 3 (B3GAT3) gene known to be involved in linkeropathy syndrome. Linkeropathies correspond to a recently identified group of heterogeneous genetic syndromes along a spectrum of skeletal and connective tissue disorders. These patients featured mainly craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, bilateral radioulnar synostosis, multiple neonatal fractures, dislocated joints, joint contracture, long fingers, foot deformity, and cardiovascular abnormalities. All died before 1 year of age.ConclusionWe identified a novel B3GAT3-related disorder with craniosynostosis and bone fragility, due to a unique homozygous mutation in B3GAT3. This syndrome should be considered in the prenatal period in light of the severe outcome and as an alternative diagnosis to Antley-Bixler or Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Craniossinostoses/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Mutação , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Crânio/anormalidades , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
Genet Med ; 19(9): 989-997, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postzygotic activating mutations of PIK3CA cause a wide range of mosaic disorders collectively referred to as PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS). We describe the diagnostic yield and characteristics of PIK3CA sequencing in PROS. METHODS: We performed ultradeep next-generation sequencing (NGS) of PIK3CA in various tissues from 162 patients referred to our clinical laboratory and assessed diagnostic yield by phenotype and tissue tested. RESULTS: We identified disease-causing mutations in 66.7% (108/162) of patients, with mutant allele levels as low as 1%. The diagnostic rate was higher (74%) in syndromic than in isolated cases (35.5%; P = 9.03 × 10-5). We identified 40 different mutations and found strong oncogenic mutations more frequently in patients without brain overgrowth (50.6%) than in those with brain overgrowth (15.2%; P = 0.00055). Mutant allele levels were higher in skin and overgrown tissues than in blood and buccal samples (P = 3.9 × 10-25), regardless of the phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the value of ultradeep NGS for molecular diagnosis of PROS, highlight its substantial allelic heterogeneity, and confirm that optimal diagnosis requires fresh skin or surgical samples from affected regions. Our findings may be of value in guiding future recommendations for genetic testing in PROS and other mosaic conditions.Genet Med advance online publication 02 February 2017.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Fenótipo , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neurogenetics ; 18(2): 73-79, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27747449

RESUMO

Kinesins play a critical role in the organization and dynamics of the microtubule cytoskeleton, making them central players in neuronal proliferation, neuronal migration, and postmigrational development. Recently, KIF2A mutations were identified in cortical malformation syndromes associated with microcephaly. Here, we detected two de novo p.Ser317Asn and p.His321Pro mutations in KIF2A in two patients with lissencephaly and microcephaly. In parallel, we re-evaluated the two previously reported cases showing de novo mutations of the same residues. The identification of mutations only in the residues Ser317 and His321 suggests these are hotspots for de novo mutations. Both mutations lead to a classic form of lissencephaly, with a posterior to anterior gradient, almost indistinguishable from LIS1-related lissencephaly. However, three fourths of patients also showed variable congenital and postnatal microcephaly, up to -5 SD. Located in the motor domain of the KIF2A protein, the Ser317 and His321 alterations are expected to disrupt binding or hydrolysis of ATP and consequently the MT depolymerizing activity. This report also establishes that KIF2A mutations represent significant causes of classic lissencephaly with microcephaly.


Assuntos
Lissencefalias Clássicas e Heterotopias Subcorticais em Banda/genética , Cinesina/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Lactente , Lisencefalia/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 76(7): 1191-1198, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that sense pathogens and trigger biological mechanisms to control infection. Nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-like receptor (NLR) containing a PYRIN domain 1 (NLRP1), NLRP3 and NLRC4 plays a key role in this innate immune system by directly assembling in inflammasomes and regulating inflammation. Mutations in NLRP3 and NLRC4 are linked to hereditary autoinflammatory diseases, whereas polymorphisms in NLRP1 are associated with autoimmune disorders such as vitiligo and rheumatoid arthritis. Whether human NLRP1 mutation is associated with autoinflammation remains to be determined. METHODS: To search for novel genes involved in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, we performed homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing to identify causative genes. Immunoassays were performed with blood samples from patients. RESULTS: We identified a novel disease in three patients from two unrelated families presenting diffuse skin dyskeratosis, autoinflammation, autoimmunity, arthritis and high transitional B-cell level. Molecular screening revealed a non-synonymous homozygous mutation in NLRP1 (c.2176C>T; p.Arg726Trp) in two cousins born of related parents originating from Algeria and a de novo heterozygous mutation (c.3641C>G, p.Pro1214Arg) in a girl of Dutch origin. The three patients showed elevated systemic levels of caspase-1 and interleukin 18, which suggested involvement of NLRP1 inflammasome. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the responsibility of human NLRP1 in a novel autoinflammatory disorder that we propose to call NAIAD for NLRP1-associated autoinflammation with arthritis and dyskeratosis. This disease could be a novel autoimmuno-inflammatory disease combining autoinflammatory and autoimmune features. Our data, combined with that in the literature, highlight the pleomorphic role of NLRP1 in inflammation and immunity. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02067962; Results.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Artrite Juvenil/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/genética , Dermatopatias/genética , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Argélia , Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Caspase 1/imunologia , Criança , Consanguinidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/complicações , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/imunologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Interleucina-18/imunologia , Masculino , Mutação , Países Baixos , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Dermatopatias/complicações , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Síndrome
16.
Hum Mutat ; 37(12): 1329-1339, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27363716

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common congenital cerebral malformation in humans, characterized by impaired forebrain cleavage and midline facial anomalies. It presents a high heterogeneity, both in clinics and genetics. We have developed a novel targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay and screened a cohort of 257 HPE patients. Mutations with high confidence in their deleterious effect were identified in approximately 24% of the cases and were held for diagnosis, whereas variants of uncertain significance were identified in 10% of cases. This study provides a new classification of genes that are involved in HPE. SHH, ZIC2, and SIX3 remain the top genes in term of frequency with GLI2, and are followed by FGF8 and FGFR1. The three minor HPE genes identified by our study are DLL1, DISP1, and SUFU. Here, we demonstrate that fibroblast growth factor signaling must now be considered a major pathway involved in HPE. Interestingly, several cases of double mutations were found and argue for a polygenic inheritance of HPE. Altogether, it supports that the implementation of NGS in HPE diagnosis is required to improve genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Mutação , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Genome Res ; 26(4): 474-85, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26893459

RESUMO

Ocular developmental anomalies (ODA) such as anophthalmia/microphthalmia (AM) or anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) have an estimated combined prevalence of 3.7 in 10,000 births. Mutations in SOX2 are the most frequent contributors to severe ODA, yet account for a minority of the genetic drivers. To identify novel ODA loci, we conducted targeted high-throughput sequencing of 407 candidate genes in an initial cohort of 22 sporadic ODA patients. Patched 1 (PTCH1), an inhibitor of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, harbored an enrichment of rare heterozygous variants in comparison to either controls, or to the other candidate genes (four missense and one frameshift); targeted resequencing of PTCH1 in a second cohort of 48 ODA patients identified two additional rare nonsynonymous changes. Using multiple transient models and a CRISPR/Cas9-generated mutant, we show physiologically relevant phenotypes altering SHH signaling and eye development upon abrogation of ptch1 in zebrafish for which in vivo complementation assays using these models showed that all six patient missense mutations affect SHH signaling. Finally, through transcriptomic and ChIP analyses, we show that SOX2 binds to an intronic domain of the PTCH1 locus to regulate PTCH1 expression, findings that were validated both in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results demonstrate that PTCH1 mutations contribute to as much as 10% of ODA, identify the SHH signaling pathway as a novel effector of SOX2 activity during human ocular development, and indicate that ODA is likely the result of overactive SHH signaling in humans harboring mutations in either PTCH1 or SOX2.


Assuntos
Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Anormalidades do Olho/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Receptor Patched-1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Alelos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Loci Gênicos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Receptor Patched-1/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Peixe-Zebra
18.
Genet Med ; 18(1): 49-56, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25790162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Treacher Collins/Franceschetti syndrome (TCS; OMIM 154500) is a disorder of craniofacial development belonging to the heterogeneous group of mandibulofacial dysostoses. TCS is classically characterized by bilateral mandibular and malar hypoplasia, downward-slanting palpebral fissures, and microtia. To date, three genes have been identified in TCS:,TCOF1, POLR1D, and POLR1C. METHODS: We report a clinical and extensive molecular study, including TCOF1, POLR1D, POLR1C, and EFTUD2 genes, in a series of 146 patients with TCS. Phenotype-genotype correlations were investigated for 19 clinical features, between TCOF1 and POLR1D, and the type of mutation or its localization in the TCOF1 gene. RESULTS: We identified 92/146 patients (63%) with a molecular anomaly within TCOF1, 9/146 (6%) within POLR1D, and none within POLR1C. Among the atypical negative patients (with intellectual disability and/or microcephaly), we identified four patients carrying a mutation in EFTUD2 and two patients with 5q32 deletion encompassing TCOF1 and CAMK2A in particular. Congenital cardiac defects occurred more frequently among patients with TCOF1 mutation (7/92, 8%) than reported in the literature. CONCLUSION: Even though TCOF1 and POLR1D were associated with extreme clinical variability, we found no phenotype-genotype correlation. In cases with a typical phenotype of TCS, 6/146 (4%) remained with an unidentified molecular defect.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Disostose Mandibulofacial/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(7): 992-1000, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26626311

RESUMO

Heterozygous COL2A1 variants cause a wide spectrum of skeletal dysplasia termed type II collagenopathies. We assessed the impact of this gene in our French series. A decision tree was applied to select 136 probands (71 Stickler cases, 21 Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita cases, 11 Kniest dysplasia cases, and 34 other dysplasia cases) before molecular diagnosis by Sanger sequencing. We identified 66 different variants among the 71 positive patients. Among those patients, 18 belonged to multiplex families and 53 were sporadic. Most variants (38/44, 86%) were located in the triple helical domain of the collagen chain and glycine substitutions were mainly observed in severe phenotypes, whereas arginine to cysteine changes were more often encountered in moderate phenotypes. This series of skeletal dysplasia is one of the largest reported so far, adding 44 novel variants (15%) to published data. We have confirmed that about half of our Stickler patients (46%) carried a COL2A1 variant, and that the molecular spectrum was different across the phenotypes. To further address the question of genotype-phenotype correlation, we plan to screen our patients for other candidate genes using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Artrite/genética , Doenças do Colágeno/genética , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Descolamento Retiniano/genética , Artrite/patologia , Doenças do Colágeno/patologia , Colágeno Tipo II/química , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Linhagem , Domínios Proteicos , Descolamento Retiniano/patologia
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(12): 3031-7, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26333717

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a frequent feature but is highly clinically and genetically heterogeneous. The establishment of the precise diagnosis in patients with ID is challenging due to this heterogeneity but crucial for genetic counseling and appropriate care for the patients. Among the etiologies of patients with ID, apparently balanced de novo rearrangements represent 0.6%. Several mechanisms explain the ID in patients with apparently balanced de novo rearrangement. Among them, disruption of a disease gene at the breakpoint, is frequently evoked. In this context, technologies recently developed are used to characterize precisely such chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we report the case of a boy with ID, facial features and autistic behavior who is carrying a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation t(3;7)(q11.2;q11.22)dn. Using microarray analysis, array painting (AP) technology combined with molecular study, we have identified the interruption of the autism susceptibility candidate 2 gene (AUTS2) and EPH receptor A6 gene (EPHA6). We consider that the disruption of AUTS2 explains the phenotype of the patient; the exact role of EPHA6 in human pathology is not well defined. Based on the observation of recurrent germinal and somatic translocations involving AUTS2 and the molecular environment content, we put forward the hypothesis that the likely chromosomal mechanism responsible for the translocation could be due either to replicative stress or to recombination-based mechanisms.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas/genética , Receptor EphA6/genética , Translocação Genética , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Coloração Cromossômica/métodos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Gravidez
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