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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(4): 576-586, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125264

RESUMO

Introduction. In some species, the population structure of pathogenic bacteria is clonal. However, the mechanisms that determine the predominance and persistence of specific bacterial lineages of group C Streptococcus remain poorly understood. In Brazil, a previous study revealed the predominance of two main lineages of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE).Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the virulence and fitness advantages that might explain the predominance of these SDSE lineages for a long period of time.Methodology. emm typing was determined by DNA sequencing. Adhesion and invasion tests were performed using human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-). Biofilm formation was tested on glass surfaces and the presence of virulence genes was assessed by PCR. Additionally, virulence was studied using Caenorhabditis elegans models and competitive fitness was analysed in murine models.Results. The predominant lineages A and B were mostly typed as emm stC839 and stC6979, respectively. Notably, these lineages exhibited a superior ability to adhere and invade airway cells. Furthermore, the dominant lineages were more prone to induce aversive olfactory learning and more likely to kill C. elegans. In the competitive fitness assays, they also showed increased adaptability. Consistent with the increased virulence observed in the ex vivo and in vivo models, the predominant lineages A and B showed a higher number of virulence-associated genes and a superior ability to accumulate biofilm.Conclusion. These results suggest strongly that this predominance did not occur randomly but rather was due to adaptive mechanisms that culminated in increased colonization and other bacterial properties that might confer increased bacteria-host adaptability to cause disease.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/patogenicidade , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Brasil , Caenorhabditis elegans , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Virulência
2.
Biophys Chem ; 231: 116-124, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28410940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A viruses can cross naturally into mammals and cause severe diseases, as observed for H5N1. The high lethality of human infections causes major concerns about the real risk of a possible pandemic of severe diseases to which human susceptibility may be high and universal. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a valuable tool for studies regarding the folding of proteins and the assembly of macromolecular structures such as viruses; furthermore, HHP has already been demonstrated to promote viral inactivation. METHODS: Here, we investigated the structural stability of avian and human influenza viruses using spectroscopic and light-scattering techniques. We found that both particles have similar structural stabilities and that HHP promotes structural changes. RESULTS: HHP induced slight structural changes to both human and avian influenza viruses, and these changes were largely reversible when the pressure returned to its initial level. The spectroscopic data showed that H3N2 was more pressure-sensitive than H3N8. Structural changes did not predict changes in protein function, as H3N2 fusion activity was not affected, while H3N8 fusion activity drastically decreased. The fusion activity of H1N1 was also strongly affected by HHP. In all cases, HHP caused inactivation of the different influenza viruses. CONCLUSIONS: HHP may be a useful tool for vaccine development, as it induces minor and reversible structural changes that may be associated with partial preservation of viral biological activities and may potentiate their immunogenic response while abolishing their infectivity. We also confirmed that, although pressure does not promote drastic changes in viral particle structure, it can distinctly affect viral fusion activity.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/química , Animais , Guanidina/química , Humanos , Pressão Hidrostática , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/química , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/química , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/fisiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/química , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/fisiologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Temperatura , Ureia/química , Vacinas/imunologia , Inativação de Vírus
3.
Homeopathy ; 105(3): 257-264, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27473547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza affects thousands of people worldwide every year, motivating the development of new therapies. In this work, the effects of two homeopathic preparations (influenza biotherapies and thymulin) were chosen following two different rationales: isotherapy and endo-isotherapy models. The homeopathic effects were evaluated individually considering the inflammatory and behavioral responses against influenza virus antigen were studied in BALB/c mice. METHODS: Male adult mice were treated orally and blindly for 21 days with highly diluted influenza virus or with thymulin, and were divided in two sets of experiments. The first series of experiments aimed to describe their behavior, using an open field (OF) device. In the second series, mice were challenged subcutaneously with influenza hemagglutinin antigen (7 µg/200 µl) at day 21. At day 42, behavior and inflammation response were evaluated. RESULTS: No behavioral changes were seen in OF tests at any time point after treatments. Flow cytometry and morphometry revealed significant changes in T and B cell balance after influenza antigen challenge, varying according to treatment. CONCLUSION: The results show that both homeopathic treatments induced subtle changes in acquired immune anti-viral response regulation. A deeper understanding of the mechanism could elucidate their possible use in influenza epidemiological situations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Inflamação/terapia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/terapia , Fator Tímico Circulante/química , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Homeopatia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
4.
Homeopathy ; 105(1): 71-7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26828000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza and its complications are common at all ages, especially in children. Vaccines and anti-influenza drugs aim to prevent it. Preventative approaches with favorable risk profiles should be considered for flu, particularly since the evidence of the efficacy of anti-viral drugs is debated. METHODS: This pragmatic clinical trial was conducted in the Brazilian Public Health System in Petrópolis (BPHSP) with children aged from 1 to 5 years old. The medications used were mainly selected based on in vitro experiments (InfluBio), and in successful qualitative clinical experiences (Homeopathic Complex). Following informed parental consent, subjects were randomly distributed, in a blind manner, to three experimental groups: Homeopathic Complex, Placebo, and InfluBio. BPHSP health agents collected flu and acute respiratory infection symptomatic episodes monthly following the established protocol. The number of these episodes was registered in one year (2009-2010). RESULTS: Out of the 600 children recruited, 445 (74.17%) completed the study (149: Homeopathic complex; 151: Placebo; 145: InfluBio). The number of flu and acute respiratory infection symptomatic episodes detected in this clinical trial was low; however, it was different between homeopathic groups and placebo (p < 0.001). In the first year post-intervention, 46/151 (30.5%) of children in the placebo group developed 3 or more flu and acute respiratory infection episodes, while there was no episode in the group of 149 children who used Homeopathic Complex, and only 1 episode in the group of 145 (1%) children who received InfluBio. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that the use of homeopathic medicines minimized the number of flu and acute respiratory infection symptomatic episodes in children, signalizing that the homeopathic prophylactic potential should be investigated in further studies.


Assuntos
Homeopatia/métodos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Materia Medica/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda/terapia , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
6.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0128785, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26056825

RESUMO

Influenza viruses pose a serious global health threat, particularly in light of newly emerging strains, such as the avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. Vaccination remains the primary method for preventing acquiring influenza or for avoiding developing serious complications related to the disease. Vaccinations based on inactivated split virus vaccines or on chemically inactivated whole virus have some important drawbacks, including changes in the immunogenic properties of the virus. To induce a greater mucosal immune response, intranasally administered vaccines are highly desired as they not only prevent disease but can also block the infection at its primary site. To avoid these drawbacks, hydrostatic pressure has been used as a potential method for viral inactivation and vaccine production. In this study, we show that hydrostatic pressure inactivates the avian influenza A H3N8 virus, while still maintaining hemagglutinin and neuraminidase functionalities. Challenged vaccinated animals showed no disease signs (ruffled fur, lethargy, weight loss, and huddling). Similarly, these animals showed less Evans Blue dye leakage and lower cell counts in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the challenged non-vaccinated group. We found that the whole inactivated particles were capable of generating a neutralizing antibody response in serum, and IgA was also found in nasal mucosa and feces. After the vaccination and challenge we observed Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion with a prevalence of IFN-γ. Our data indicate that the animals present a satisfactory immune response after vaccination and are protected against infection. Our results may pave the way for the development of a novel pressure-based vaccine against influenza virus.


Assuntos
Administração Intranasal/métodos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Administração Intranasal/efeitos adversos , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Cães , Feminino , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/imunologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Pressão , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(1): 30-35, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-741239

RESUMO

Aims: To determine the frequency of viral pathogens causing upper respiratory tract infections in non-hospitalized, symptomatic adults in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: Respiratory samples (nasal/throat swabs) were collected between August 2010 and November 2012 and real time PCR was used to detect different viral pathogens. Results: Viruses were detected in 32.1% (43/134) of samples from 101 patients. Specifically, 9% (12/134) were positive for HBoV, 8.2% (11/134) were positive for HAdV, 5.2% (7/134) were positive for HRV, and 1.5% (2/134) were positive for FLUBV or HMPV, as single infections. HRSV-A, HPIV-3, and HCoV-HKU1 were detected in one (0.75%) sample each. Co-infections were detected in 4.8% (6/134) of the samples. Peaks of viral infections were observed in March, April, May, August, and October. However, positive samples were detected all year round. Only 23.3% (10/43) of the positive samples were collected from patients with febrile illness. Conclusion: Results presented in this report suggest that respiratory viral infections are largely under diagnosed in immunocompetent adults. Although the majority of young adult infections are not life-threatening they may impose a significant burden, especially in developing countries since these individuals represent a large fraction of the working force. .


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
9.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 19(1): 30-5, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25307684

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the frequency of viral pathogens causing upper respiratory tract infections in non-hospitalized, symptomatic adults in the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: Respiratory samples (nasal/throat swabs) were collected between August 2010 and November 2012 and real time PCR was used to detect different viral pathogens. RESULTS: Viruses were detected in 32.1% (43/134) of samples from 101 patients. Specifically, 9% (12/134) were positive for HBoV, 8.2% (11/134) were positive for HAdV, 5.2% (7/134) were positive for HRV, and 1.5% (2/134) were positive for FLUBV or HMPV, as single infections. HRSV-A, HPIV-3, and HCoV-HKU1 were detected in one (0.75%) sample each. Co-infections were detected in 4.8% (6/134) of the samples. Peaks of viral infections were observed in March, April, May, August, and October. However, positive samples were detected all year round. Only 23.3% (10/43) of the positive samples were collected from patients with febrile illness. CONCLUSION: Results presented in this report suggest that respiratory viral infections are largely under diagnosed in immunocompetent adults. Although the majority of young adult infections are not life-threatening they may impose a significant burden, especially in developing countries since these individuals represent a large fraction of the working force.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 8(11): e80785, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24282553

RESUMO

Whole inactivated vaccines (WIVs) possess greater immunogenicity than split or subunit vaccines, and recent studies have demonstrated that WIVs with preserved fusogenic activity are more protective than non-fusogenic WIVs. In this work, we describe the inactivation of human influenza virus X-31 by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and analyze the effects on the structure by spectroscopic measurements, light scattering, and electron microscopy. We also investigated the effects of HHP on the glycoprotein activity and fusogenic activity of the viral particles. The electron microscopy data showed pore formation on the viral envelope, but the general morphology was preserved, and small variations were seen in the particle structure. The activity of hemagglutinin (HA) during the process of binding and fusion was affected in a time-dependent manner, but neuraminidase (NA) activity was not affected. Infectious activity ceased after 3 hours of pressurization, and mice were protected from infection after being vaccinated. Our results revealed full viral inactivation with overall preservation of viral structure and maintenance of fusogenic activity, thereby conferring protection against infection. A strong response consisting of serum immunoglobulin IgG1, IgG2a, and serum and mucosal IgA was also detected after vaccination. Thus, our data strongly suggest that applying hydrostatic pressure may be an effective method for developing new vaccines against influenza A as well as other viruses.


Assuntos
Pressão Hidrostática , Influenza Humana/virologia , Fusão de Membrana , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Humanos , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia
11.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 548-53, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23903968

RESUMO

Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9%) influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Exposição Ocupacional , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Matadouros , Animais , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Masculino , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 548-553, ago. 2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-680774

RESUMO

Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9%) influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Exposição Ocupacional , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Matadouros , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
13.
BMC Microbiol ; 13: 93, 2013 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23622558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel variant of the ST1-SCCmecIV methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lineage, mostly associated with nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI), has emerged in Rio de Janeiro. Bacterial biofilm has been considered a major virulence factor in central venous catheter-associated BSI. The mechanisms involved in biofilm formation/accumulation are multifactorial and complex. Studies have suggested that biofilm production was affected in vitro and vivo for agr-null mutants of S. aureus. RESULTS: The impact of naturally occurring inhibition of agr signaling on virulence profiles and infections associated with the ST1 variant was investigated. agr dysfunction was detected in a significant percentage (13%) of the isolates with concomitant increase in biofilm accumulation in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced ability to adhere to and invade airway cells. The biofilm formed by these ST1 isolates was ica-independent and proteinaceous in nature. In fact, the improved colonization properties were paralleled by an increased expression of the biofilm-associated genes fnbA, spa and sasG. The transcription of sarA, a positive regulator of agr, was two-times reduced for the agr-dysfunctional MRSA. Remarkably, the agr inhibition was genetically stable. Indeed, agr-dysfunctional isolates succeed to colonize and cause both acute and chronic infections in hospitalized patients, and also to effectively accumulate biofilm in a mouse subcutaneous catheter implant model. CONCLUSION: The ability of agr-dysfunctional isolates to cause infections in humans and to form biofilm in the animal model suggests that therapeutic approaches based on agr-inactivation strategies are unlikely to be effective in controlling human-device infections caused by ST1 isolates. The increased biofilm accumulation associated with the acquisition of multiple antimicrobial resistant traits might have influenced (at least in part) the expansion of this USA400 related clone in our hospitals.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Transativadores/deficiência , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Proteínas de Bactérias , Brasil , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endocitose , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tipagem Molecular , Virulência
14.
Homeopathy ; 102(1): 31-40, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23290877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses cause highly contagious acute respiratory illnesses with significant mortality, especially among young children, elderly people, and individuals with serious medical conditions. This encourages the development of new treatments for human flu. Biotherapies are diluted solutions prepared from biological products compounded following homeopathic procedures. OBJECTIVES: To develop a biotherapy prepared from the infectious influenza A virus (A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2) and to verify its in vitro response. METHODS: The ultradiluted influenza virus solution was prepared in the homeopathic dilution 30dH, it was termed Influenzinum RC. The cellular alterations induced by this preparation were analyzed by optical and electron microscopy, MTT and neutral red assays. Glycolytic metabolism (PFK-1) was studied by spectrophotometric assay. Additionally, the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by J774.G8 macrophage cells was quantified by ELISA before and after infection with H3N2 influenza virus and treatment. RESULTS: Influenzinum RC did not cause cytotoxic effects but induced morphological alterations in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. After 30 days, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mitosis rate was detected compared to control. MDCK mitochondrial activity was changed after treatment for 10 and 30 days. Treatment significantly diminished (p < 0.05) PFK-1 activity. TNF-α in biotherapy-stimulated J774.G8 macrophages indicated a significant (p < 0.05) increase in this cytokine when the cell supernatant was analyzed. CONCLUSION: Influenzinum RC altered cellular and biochemical features of MDCK and J774G8 cells.


Assuntos
Homeopatia/métodos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/fisiologia , Animais , Terapia Biológica , Linhagem Celular/virologia , Cães , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica , Mitose , Fosfofrutoquinase-1/metabolismo , Soluções/análise , Espectrofotometria , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Avian Dis ; 57(4): 780-4, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24597121

RESUMO

Paramyxoviruses and avian influenza viruses are present worldwide, and wild birds are known natural reservoirs of these viruses. This study monitored the circulation of these viruses in migratory and resident coastal birds captured in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In total, 494 birds were trapped, and their fecal samples were collected and inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs. The allantoic fluids were evaluated using a hemagglutination test and PCR amplification of the genes of the M and L proteins of influenza A virus and paramyxovirus, respectively. Avian paramyxovirus was detected in 5 (1.01%) of the birds. The majority of these viruses were isolated from migratory birds classified into the order Charadriiformes (families Scolopacidae and Charadriidae). Four samples were characterized as avian paramyxovirus serotype-2 (APMV-2) by a hemagglutination inhibition test. These results reinforce the importance of continuous surveillance of wild species in Brazil.


Assuntos
Infecções por Avulavirus/veterinária , Avulavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Migração Animal , Animais , Infecções por Avulavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Avulavirus/virologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Aves , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Testes de Hemaglutinação/veterinária , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Microscopia Eletrônica/veterinária , Óvulo/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Estações do Ano
16.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 22(10): 1111-21, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22971104

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Influenza viruses are common agents of flu outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics that have occurred through the centuries. Prevention and control of flu are of great clinical importance, since they cause serious damage to health, with a consequent impact on quality of life and economy of a country. Resistance against the current drugs justifies the development of new anti-influenza molecules. Flavonoids exhibit significant activity against flu through their anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. The profile of these molecules makes them particularly promising as therapeutic agents against flu. AREAS COVERED: This review focus on the activity of flavonoids on different influenza virus targets as well as their use in patented pharmaceutical formulations. Twenty-one patents of these compounds for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza infection are discussed. EXPERT OPINION: The H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009 resulted in a significant increase in the number of patents claiming pharmaceutical formulations for prophylaxis and treatment of flu. The research advances on flavonoids showing anti-influenza activity and the efforts made by researchers and industries consolidate the interest on new alternatives for the therapy of an infectious disease that represents a serious public health problem throughout the world.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antivirais/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/virologia , Estrutura Molecular , Patentes como Assunto , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 156(3-4): 429-33, 2012 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22189432

RESUMO

Aquatic migratory birds are a major vectors by which influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses are spread in nature. Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are usually present on the southern shores of South America and can swim as far as the southern coast of Brazil in winter. In 2008, however, several Magellanic penguins were observed on the northeastern coast of Brazil. Paramyxoviruses were isolated from Magellanic penguins on the Espírito Santo state coast, approximately 4000 km from their breeding colonies, although influenza viruses were not detected. Among the paramyxoviruses, five Avulavirus isolates belonging to serotype APMV-2 and the serotype APMV-10, which was proposed by Miller et al. (2010), were identified. These results highlight the risks associated with the spread of paramyxoviruses between natural to non-natural habitats by birds exhibiting unusual migration patterns, and they document for the first time the presence of the APMV-2 and APMV-10 serotypes on penguins in Brazil. The local avifauna may become infected with these viruses through close contact between migratory and resident birds. Continued surveillance of virus incidence in these migratory populations of penguins is necessary to detect and prevent the potential risks associated with these unusual migration patterns.


Assuntos
Infecções por Avulavirus/veterinária , Avulavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Spheniscidae/virologia , Migração Animal , Animais , Avulavirus/classificação , Avulavirus/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Avulavirus/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Microscopia Eletrônica , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Estações do Ano
18.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 10(36): 174-176, september 30, 2011.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: hom-10676

RESUMO

In Brazil, homeopathy was implemented in the Public Health Service through the National Policy on Complementary and Integrative Practices of the Health Ministry, published in 2006. Homeopathy appears as a very interesting therapy to be used in the Public Health Services since its medicines are compounded at a very low cost. Considering this interesting scenario to develop research in the Public Health, the Family Health Program (FHP) in Petropolis and the Faculty of Pharmacy at UFRJ started a partnership with the Roberto Costa Institute.(AU)


No Brasil, a homeopatia foi implementada no Serviço Público de Saúde, através da Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares do Ministério da Saúde, publicada em 2006. A homeopatia surge como uma terapia muito interessante para ser usada no serviço público de saúde uma vez que seus medicamentos tem um custo muito baixo. Considerando este cenário interessante para desenvolver uma pesquisa em Saúde Pública, o Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF) de Petrópolis e a Faculdade de Farmácia da UFRJ iniciaram uma parceria com o Instituto Roberto Costa. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Bioterápicos , Complexos Farmacêuticos Homeopáticos , Infecções Respiratórias
19.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 10(36): 170-171, september 30, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: hom-10710

RESUMO

Biotherapics are homeopathic remedies prepared from organic products that are chemically undefined and can be used for treatment of diseases like influenza. There are several classes of biotherapics and, among these, there are some called "living biotherapics" or "Roberto Costa?s Biotherapics". This study aimed to compare the cellular and biochemical effects of biotherapics prepared from intact influenza virus diluted in water and the one obtained from the same viral sample inactivated by ethanol 70% (v / v), both in the potencies of 12x and 30x. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were performed on both preparations to assess the integrity of viral particles, which showed that ethanol 70% (v/v) induced a complete denaturation of viral particles. In contrast, the integrity of virus particles was preserved when water was used as the biotherapic solvent. Cellular and biochemical alterations induced by the preparations on MDCK cells were analyzed and compared with those induced by respective controls (water 30x-treated and untreated cells). Cellular viability analyzed by MTT method showed statistically significant differences (p <0.05) in MDCK cells treated with intact biotherapic for 5 (3 stimuli) and 30 (18 stimuli) days in comparison with untreated control. TEM analysis did not show significant cellular changes when the different experimental groups were compared. The enzymatic activity of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK), an important enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, presented a statistically significant increase (p <0.05) after 30 days of treatment when compared to control groups. The results obtained suggest that inactivation of viral sample with ethanol 70% induces lysis and disruption of viral particles. In addition, preliminary results indicated that treatment with intact biotherapic seems to induce higher variations on MDCK cells responses when compared to inactivated-biotherapic-treated cells. Further analyses are ongoing, including scanning electron microscopy and quantification of the number of mitosis, in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved with biochemical and cellular responses induced by theses biotherapics.(AU)


Assuntos
Influenzavirus A , Bioterápicos
20.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 10(36): 167-169, september 30, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: hom-10711

RESUMO

Strains of macrophages, such as murine J774.G8 macrophages, are susceptible to influenza A infection [1]. One of the responses to viral infection involves the production of various types of immunostimulatory cytokines by infected cells [2].In all cases, there were no significant differences compared to control groups. However, the production of TNF-? detected in macrophages treated by intact and inactivated biotherapics presented a tendency to increase after infection. In fact, similar results were previously detected in other experiments conducted only with the intact biotherapic [3]. The release of the cytokine MCP1 in all experimental situations presented a tendency to decrease after the viral infection when compared to untreated macrophages. No statistically significant difference was detected in the production of IL 12 and IL 10. These experiments will be repeated to confirm the data obtained.(AU)


Assuntos
Citocinas , Macrófagos , Bioterápicos
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