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1.
Cancer ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease for which there is limited understanding of treatment patterns and prognostic factors. METHODS: Men with TNM stage I to stage III breast cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2014 in the National Cancer Data Base were included. Trends in treatment modalities were described using the average annual percentage change (AAPC) and estimated using Joinpoint software for the analysis of trends. Kaplan-Meier curves and the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to compare survival between subgroups and to identify prognostic factors. RESULTS: A total of 10,873 MBC cases were included, with a median age at diagnosis of 64 years. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in 24% of patients, and 70% of patients undergoing breast conservation received radiotherapy. Approximately 44% of patients received chemotherapy, and 62% of patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease received endocrine therapy. Oncotype DX was ordered in 35% of patients with lymph node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors. During the study period, there was a significant increase in the rates of total mastectomy, contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, radiotherapy after breast conservation, ordering of Oncotype DX, and the use of endocrine therapy (P < .05). On multivariate analysis, factors found to be associated with worse overall survival were older age, black race, higher Charlson Comorbidity Index, high tumor grade and stage of disease, and undergoing total mastectomy. Residing in a higher income area; having progesterone receptor-positive tumors; and receipt of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and endocrine therapy were associated with better overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the lack of prospective randomized trials in patients with MBC, the results of the current study demonstrated that the treatment of this disease has evolved over the years. These findings further the understanding of the modern treatment and prognosis of MBC, and identify several areas for further research.

2.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406321

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the rapid uptake of multigene panel testing (MGPT) for hereditary cancer predisposition, there is limited guidance surrounding indications for testing and genes to include. METHODS: To inform the clinical approach to hereditary cancer MGPT, we comprehensively evaluated 32 cancer predisposition genes by assessing phenotype-specific pathogenic variant (PV) frequencies, cancer risk associations, and performance of genetic testing criteria in a cohort of 165,000 patients referred for MGPT. RESULTS: We identified extensive genetic heterogeneity surrounding predisposition to cancer types commonly referred for germline testing (breast, ovarian, colorectal, uterine/endometrial, pancreatic, and melanoma). PV frequencies were highest among patients with ovarian cancer (13.8%) and lowest among patients with melanoma (8.1%). Fewer than half of PVs identified in patients meeting testing criteria for only BRCA1/2 or only Lynch syndrome occurred in the respective genes (33.1% and 46.2%). In addition, 5.8% of patients with PVs in BRCA1/2 and 26.9% of patients with PVs in Lynch syndrome genes did not meet respective testing criteria. CONCLUSION: Opportunities to improve upon identification of patients at risk for hereditary cancer predisposition include revising BRCA1/2 and Lynch syndrome testing criteria to include additional clinically actionable genes with overlapping phenotypes and relaxing testing criteria for associated cancers.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12524, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467304

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.

4.
Fertil Steril ; 112(4): 731-739.e1, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study how genetics may play a role in determining risk of chemotherapy-related amenorrhea (CRA) in young women with breast cancer. DESIGN: Genome-wide association study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Premenopausal women ≤45 years of age enrolled in one of these three trials were included if they had at least one menstrual case report form after chemotherapy ended and if they were of European ancestry. Forms during and up to 3 months after receipt of GnRH agonist were excluded. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with post-chemotherapy menstruation adjusted for trial and arm, age, tamoxifen use, and nodal status. RESULT(S): The median age of the 1,168 women was 41 years (range 19-45). Among these, 457 (39%) never resumed menses after chemotherapy. Older age, tamoxifen use, and node-negative disease were associated with increased risk of CRA. Adjusting for these, rs147451859, in an intron of PPCDC (phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase), and rs17587029, located 5' upstream of RPS20P11 (ribosomal protein S20 pseudogene 11), were associated with post-chemotherapy menstruation. CONCLUSION(S): Genetic variation may contribute to risk of CRA. Better prediction of who will experience CRA may inform reproductive and treatment decision making in young women with cancer.

5.
Biotechniques ; 67(3): 118-122, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267764

RESUMO

We have previously reported Hi-Plex, a multiplex PCR methodology for building targeted DNA sequencing libraries that offers a low-cost protocol compatible with high-throughput processing. Here, we detail an improved protocol, Hi-Plex2, that more effectively enables the robust construction of small-to-medium panel-size libraries while maintaining low cost, simplicity and accuracy benefits of the Hi-Plex platform. Hi-Plex2 was applied to three panels, comprising 291, 740 and 1193 amplicons, targeting genes associated with risk for breast and/or colon cancer. We show substantial reduction of off-target amplification to enable library construction for small-to-medium-sized design panels not possible using the previous Hi-Plex chemistry.

6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(6): 1084-1098, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171119

RESUMO

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in both men and women in the United States, with colorectal cancer and breast cancer being two of the most frequent cancer types. Hereditary causes occurring due to pathogenic sequence variants and defects in certain genes makes up roughly 5% of all colorectal cancers and breast-ovarian cancers. High-risk hereditary predisposition syndromes have been associated with a substantially increased lifetime risk for the development of colorectal cancers and breast-ovarian cancers depending on the genetic syndrome, and many people also carry an increased risk of several other cancers compared with the general population. The aim of this review was to provide comprehensive literature on the most commonly encountered hereditary predisposition syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, hamartomatous polyposis, and breast-ovarian cancer conditions. This will be presented as a 2-part series: the first part will cover the breast-ovarian cancer syndromes, and the second will focus on the inherited colorectal cancer and polyposis conditions.

7.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(6): 1099-1116, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171120

RESUMO

Hereditary causes due to mutations and defects in certain genes account for roughly 5% to 10% of all colorectal cancers. These inherited syndromes have been associated with a 60% to 100% lifetime risk for development of colorectal cancer, depending on the genetic syndrome, and many also carry an increased risk for multiple extracolonic malignancies. In this second part of a review series on hereditary cancer syndromes, the focus will be to provide guidance on the features and management of the most commonly encountered hereditary colorectal cancers and polyposis conditions including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, and hamartomatous polyposis.

8.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

9.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 39: 61-74, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099663

RESUMO

The field of germline genetic testing for breast cancer (BC) risk has evolved substantially in the last decade. The introduction of multigene panel testing (MGPT) led to an urgent need to understand the cancer risk associated with several genes included in the panels. Although the research on understanding the cancer risk associated with mutations in several genes continues, there is also a need to understand the modifying effects of race and ethnicity, family history, and BC pathology on the prevalence of germline mutations and associated BC risk. Furthermore, polygenic risk scores (PRSs) to predict BC risk in patients with or without germline mutations in cancer-predisposition genes are now available for clinical use, although data on the clinical utility of PRSs are lacking. In patients with advanced BC associated with BRCA1/2 mutation, olaparib and talazoparib are now approved for treatment. In addition, molecular profiling studies are being used to clarify the BC tumor biology in mutation carriers to identify potential therapeutic options. In this article, we discuss these advances in the field of germline genetic testing and highlight current limitations and implications for clinical care.

10.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 68, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammographic breast density, adjusted for age and body mass index, and a polygenic risk score (PRS), comprised of common genetic variation, are both strong risk factors for breast cancer and increase discrimination of risk models. Understanding their joint contribution will be important to more accurately predict risk. METHODS: Using 3628 breast cancer cases and 5126 controls of European ancestry from eight case-control studies, we evaluated joint associations of a 77-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PRS and quantitative mammographic density measures with breast cancer. Mammographic percent density and absolute dense area were evaluated using thresholding software and examined as residuals after adjusting for age, 1/BMI, and study. PRS and adjusted density phenotypes were modeled both continuously (per 1 standard deviation, SD) and categorically. We fit logistic regression models and tested the null hypothesis of multiplicative joint associations for PRS and adjusted density measures using likelihood ratio and global and tail-based goodness of fit tests within the subset of six cohort or population-based studies. RESULTS: Adjusted percent density (odds ratio (OR) = 1.45 per SD, 95% CI 1.38-1.52), adjusted absolute dense area (OR = 1.34 per SD, 95% CI 1.28-1.41), and the 77-SNP PRS (OR = 1.52 per SD, 95% CI 1.45-1.59) were associated with breast cancer risk. There was no evidence of interaction of the PRS with adjusted percent density or dense area on risk of breast cancer by either the likelihood ratio (P > 0.21) or goodness of fit tests (P > 0.09), whether assessed continuously or categorically. The joint association (OR) was 2.60 in the highest categories of adjusted PD and PRS and 0.34 in the lowest categories, relative to women in the second density quartile and middle PRS quintile. CONCLUSIONS: The combined associations of the 77-SNP PRS and adjusted density measures are generally well described by multiplicative models, and both risk factors provide independent information on breast cancer risk.

11.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1557-1578, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131967

RESUMO

The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
J Biol Chem ; 294(15): 5980-5992, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765603

RESUMO

Genetic testing for BRCA1, a DNA repair protein, can identify carriers of pathogenic variants associated with a substantially increased risk for breast and ovarian cancers. However, an association with increased risk is unclear for a large fraction of BRCA1 variants present in the human population. Most of these variants of uncertain clinical significance lead to amino acid changes in the BRCA1 protein. Functional assays are valuable tools to assess the potential pathogenicity of these variants. Here, we systematically probed the effects of substitutions in the C terminus of BRCA1: the N- and C-terminal borders of its tandem BRCT domain, the BRCT-[N-C] linker region, and the α1 and α'1 helices in BRCT-[N] and -[C]. Using a validated transcriptional assay based on a fusion of the GAL4 DNA-binding domain to the BRCA1 C terminus (amino acids 1396-1863), we assessed the functional impact of 99 missense variants of BRCA1. We include the data obtained for these 99 missense variants in a joint analysis to generate the likelihood of pathogenicity for 347 missense variants in BRCA1 using VarCall, a Bayesian integrative statistical model. The results from this analysis increase our understanding of BRCA1 regions less tolerant to changes, identify functional borders of structural domains, and predict the likelihood of pathogenicity for 98% of all BRCA1 missense variants in this region recorded in the population. This knowledge will be critical for improving risk assessment and clinical treatment of carriers of BRCA1 variants.

15.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.

16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 152(1): 20-25, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of germline cancer predisposition gene mutations in patients with endometrial cancer (EC) subtypes. METHODS: Germline DNA was extracted from whole blood collected from consenting patients undergoing primary surgery for EC between 5/2005 and 11/2016. DNA samples were evaluated by product sequencing from a targeted multiplex PCR panel including 21 known/suspected cancer predisposition genes. Variants were classified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic based on allele frequency (<0.003), effects on protein function, and ClinVar assertions. RESULTS: Germline panel testing was performed on 1170 cases of EC; 849 (72.6%) were type I, and 321 (27.4%) were type II EC, including 135 (11.5%) uterine serous cancers (USC). BRCA1 mutations were enriched in Type II EC compared to Type I EC (0.93% vs. 0.12%, p = 0.07). Lynch Syndrome (LS) mutations were identified in 1.4% of type I and 1.6% of type II EC (p = 0.79), including 1.5% for USC. In total, predisposition gene mutations were present in 4.2% of type I and 5.3% of type II EC, as well as 6.7% of patients with USC). CONCLUSIONS: BRCA1/2 and Lynch mutations were rare in this cohort of unselected patients with type I and II EC, including USC. However, the presence of predisposition gene mutations in 4.2% of EC type I, 5.3% of EC type II, and 6.7% of USC suggests that somatic mutation testing should be considered for all EC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Idoso , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Blood ; 133(10): 1130-1139, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573632

RESUMO

Female Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated with chest radiotherapy (RT) have a very high risk of breast cancer. The contribution of genetic factors to this risk is unclear. We therefore examined 211 155 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for gene-radiation interaction on breast cancer risk in a case-only analysis including 327 breast cancer patients after chest RT for HL and 4671 first primary breast cancer patients. Nine SNPs showed statistically significant interaction with RT on breast cancer risk (false discovery rate, <20%), of which 1 SNP in the PVT1 oncogene attained the Bonferroni threshold for statistical significance. A polygenic risk score (PRS) composed of these SNPs (RT-interaction-PRS) and a previously published breast cancer PRS (BC-PRS) derived in the general population were evaluated in a case-control analysis comprising the 327 chest-irradiated HL patients with breast cancer and 491 chest-irradiated HL patients without breast cancer. Patients in the highest tertile of the RT-interaction-PRS had a 1.6-fold higher breast cancer risk than those in the lowest tertile. Remarkably, we observed a fourfold increased RT-induced breast cancer risk in the highest compared with the lowest decile of the BC-PRS. On a continuous scale, breast cancer risk increased 1.4-fold per standard deviation of the BC-PRS, similar to the effect size found in the general population. This study demonstrates that genetic factors influence breast cancer risk after chest RT for HL. Given the high absolute breast cancer risk in radiation-exposed women, these results can have important implications for the management of current HL survivors and future patients.

18.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several genes on hereditary breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility test panels have not been systematically examined for strength of association with disease. We employed the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) clinical validity framework to assess the strength of evidence between selected genes and breast or ovarian cancer. METHODS: Thirty-one genes offered on cancer panel testing were selected for evaluation. The strength of gene-disease relationship was systematically evaluated and a clinical validity classification of either Definitive, Strong, Moderate, Limited, Refuted, Disputed, or No Reported Evidence was assigned. RESULTS: Definitive clinical validity classifications were made for 10/31 and 10/32 gene-disease pairs for breast and ovarian cancer respectively. Two genes had a Moderate classification whereas, 6/31 and 6/32 genes had Limited classifications for breast and ovarian cancer respectively. Contradictory evidence resulted in Disputed or Refuted assertions for 9/31 genes for breast and 4/32 genes for ovarian cancer. No Reported Evidence of disease association was asserted for 5/31 genes for breast and 11/32 for ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of gene-disease association using the ClinGen clinical validity framework revealed a wide range of classifications. This information should aid laboratories in tailoring appropriate gene panels and assist health-care providers in interpreting results from panel testing.

19.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007752, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586411

RESUMO

The BRCA Challenge is a long-term data-sharing project initiated within the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) to aggregate BRCA1 and BRCA2 data to support highly collaborative research activities. Its goal is to generate an informed and current understanding of the impact of genetic variation on cancer risk across the iconic cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Initially, reported variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 available from public databases were integrated into a single, newly created site, www.brcaexchange.org. The purpose of the BRCA Exchange is to provide the community with a reliable and easily accessible record of variants interpreted for a high-penetrance phenotype. More than 20,000 variants have been aggregated, three times the number found in the next-largest public database at the project's outset, of which approximately 7,250 have expert classifications. The data set is based on shared information from existing clinical databases-Breast Cancer Information Core (BIC), ClinVar, and the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)-as well as population databases, all linked to a single point of access. The BRCA Challenge has brought together the existing international Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium expert panel, along with expert clinicians, diagnosticians, researchers, and database providers, all with a common goal of advancing our understanding of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variation. Ongoing work includes direct contact with national centers with access to BRCA1 and BRCA2 diagnostic data to encourage data sharing, development of methods suitable for extraction of genetic variation at the level of individual laboratory reports, and engagement with participant communities to enable a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical significance of genetic variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Variação Genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/ética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387004

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In post-menopausal women, high body mass index (BMI) is an established breast cancer risk factor and is associated with worse breast cancer prognosis. We assessed the associations between BMI and gene expression of both breast tumor and adjacent tissue in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) diseases to help elucidate the mechanisms linking obesity with breast cancer biology in 519 post-menopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. METHODS: Differential gene expression was analyzed separately in ER+ and ER- disease both comparing overweight (BMI ≥ 25 to < 30) or obese (BMI ≥ 30) women to women with normal BMI (BMI < 25), and per 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI. Analyses controlled for age and year of diagnosis, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and hormone therapy use. Gene set enrichment analyses were performed and validated among a subset of post-menopausal cases in The Cancer Genome Atlas (for tumor) and Polish Breast Cancer Study (for tumor-adjacent). RESULTS: No gene was differentially expressed by BMI (FDR < 0.05). BMI was significantly associated with increased cellular proliferation pathways, particularly in ER+ tumors, and increased inflammation pathways in ER- tumor and ER- tumor-adjacent tissues (FDR < 0.05). High BMI was associated with upregulation of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ER+ tumor-adjacent tissues. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into molecular mechanisms of BMI influencing post-menopausal breast cancer biology. Tumor and tumor-adjacent tissues provide independent information about potential mechanisms.

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