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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392844

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the association of percent mammographic density (PMD), absolute dense area (DA), and non-dense area (NDA) with risk of "intrinsic" molecular breast cancer (BC) subtypes. METHODS: We pooled 3492 invasive BC and 10,148 controls across six studies with density measures from prediagnostic, digitized film-screen mammograms. We classified BC tumors into subtypes [63% Luminal A, 21% Luminal B, 5% HER2 expressing, and 11% as triple negative (TN)] using information on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and tumor grade. We used polytomous logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for density measures (per SD) across the subtypes compared to controls, adjusting for age, body mass index and study, and examined differences by age group. RESULTS: All density measures were similarly associated with BC risk across subtypes. Significant interaction of PMD by age (P = 0.001) was observed for Luminal A tumors, with stronger effect sizes seen for younger women < 45 years (OR = 1.69 per SD PMD) relative to women of older ages (OR = 1.53, ages 65-74, OR = 1.44 ages 75 +). Similar but opposite trends were seen for NDA by age for risk of Luminal A: risk for women: < 45 years (OR = 0.71 per SD NDA) was lower than older women (OR = 0.83 and OR = 0.84 for ages 65-74 and 75 + , respectively) (P < 0.001). Although not significant, similar patterns of associations were seen by age for TN cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Mammographic density measures were associated with risk of all "intrinsic" molecular subtypes. However, findings of significant interactions between age and density measures may have implications for subtype-specific risk models.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 145: 44-52, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 play a central role in DNA repair. Therefore, patients harbouring germline (g) BRCA1/2 mutations (m) treated with chemotherapy might be at higher risk of haematological toxicities. METHODS: Patients from German Breast Group (GBG) and Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie-breast group studies with early triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and known gBRCA1/2m status treated with anthracycline-taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analysed. Primary objective was the rate of neutropenia grade (G)III-IV in cycle 1 (C1). Secondary objectives included effects on overall and other haematological toxicities GIII-IV in C1, cumulative haematological toxicity across all cycles, relative total dose intensity, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor prophylaxis. Haematological toxicities under taxanes, carboplatin, and cyclophosphamide were explored. RESULTS: Two hundred nine of 1171 (17.8%) evaluated patients had gBRCA1/2m. In C1, 37.4% gBRCA1/2m versus 35.7% wild-type patients had neutropenia GIII-IV (P = 0.683). For C1, gBRCA1/2m predicted neither for neutropenia GIII-IV (odds ratio [OR]: 1.26, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.87-1.82, P = 0.226) nor for other haematological toxicities GIII-IV (OR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.64-1.31, P = 0.625) in multivariable regression models. Analyses of cumulative toxicities across all cycles yielded similar results except thrombocytopaenia GIII-IV, which was increased in gBRCA1m patients. In patients treated with taxanes, the rate of haematological toxicities GIII-IV was higher in gBRCA1/2m compared with wild-type (59.5% versus 43.1%; p < 0.001). No difference was seen under cyclophosphamide or platinum-containing chemotherapies. CONCLUSIONS: gBRCA1/2m was not associated with higher risk of overall severe haematological toxicities in the first cycle or cumulatively across all cycles under standard chemotherapy for TNBC. Under taxane, patients with gBRCA1/2m might have a higher risk of haematological toxicities GIII-IV, requiring further research.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326660

RESUMO

The current study aimed to identify new breast and/or ovarian cancer predisposition genes. For that, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in the germline DNA of 52 non-BRCA1/BRCA2/TP53 mutation carrier women at high-risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). All variants were classified using information from population and disease specific databases, in silico prediction tools and the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) criteria. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of tumor samples and segregation analyses were performed whenever possible. The variants identified were investigated in a second, independent cohort of 17 BC cases. Pathogenic/Likely Pathogenic variants were identified in known cancer genes such as CHEK2, MUTYH, PMS2, and RAD51C. Rare and potentially pathogenic variants were identified in DNA repair genes (FAN1, POLQ, and RAD54L) and other cancer-related genes such as DROSHA and SLC34A2. Interestingly, the variant c.149T>G in the FAN1 gene was identified in two unrelated families, and exhibited LOH in the tumor tissue of one of them. In conclusion, this is the largest Brazilian WES study involving families at high-risk for HBOC which has brought novel insights into the role of potentially new genetic risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

4.
Blood ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140103

RESUMO

Chromosome region maintenance protein1 (CRM1) mediates protein export from the nucleus and is a new target for anti-cancer therapeutics. Broader application of KPT-330 (selinexor), a first in class CRM1 inhibitor recently approved for relapsed multiple myeloma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, have been limited by substantial toxicity. We discovered that salicylates markedly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CRM1 inhibitors by extending the mechanisms of action beyond CRM1 inhibition. Using salicylates in combination enables targeting of a range of blood cancers with a much lower dose of selinexor, thereby potentially mitigating prohibitive clinical adverse effects. Choline salicylate (CS) with low-dose KPT-330 (K+CS) had potent, broad activity across high-risk hematological malignancies and solid organ cancers ex vivo and in vivo. The K+CS combination was not toxic to non-malignant cells as compared to malignant cells and was safe without inducing toxicity to normal organs in mice. Mechanistically, compared to KPT-330 alone, K+CS suppresses the expression of CRM1, Rad51 and thymidylate synthase proteins, leading to more efficient inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export, impairment of DNA-damage repair, reduced pyrimidine synthesis, cell cycle arrest in S-phase, and cell apoptosis. Moreover, the addition of PARP inhibitors further potentiates the K+CS anti-tumor effect. K+CS represents a new class of therapy for multiple types of blood cancers and will stimulate future investigations to exploit DNA-damage repair and nucleocytoplasmic transport for cancer therapy in general.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146377

RESUMO

To evaluate the racial/ethnic differences in prevalence of germline pathogenic variants (PVs) and the effect of race/ethnicity on breast cancer (BC) risk among carriers, results of multigene testing of 77,900 women with BC (Non-Hispanic White [NHW] = 57,003; Ashkenazi-Jewish = 4,798; Black = 6,722; Hispanic = 5,194; and Asian = 4,183) were analyzed and the frequency of PVs in each gene were compared between BC cases and race/ethnicity-matched gnomAD reference controls. Compared to NHWs, BRCA1 PVs were enriched in Ashkenazi-Jews and Hispanics while CHEK2 PVs were statistically significantly lower in Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians (all two-sided P< 0.05). In case-control studies BARD1 PVs were associated with high risks (Odds Ratio>4.00) of BC in Blacks, Hispanics and Asians; ATM PVs were associated with increased risk of BC among all races/ethnicities except Asians; whereas CHEK2 and BRIP1 PVs were associated with increased risk of BC among NHWs and Hispanics only. These findings suggest a need for personalized management of BC risk in PV carriers based on race/ethnicity.

6.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146899

RESUMO

Approximately 5% to 10% of women diagnosed with breast cancer will have a pathogenic variant (PV) in a hereditary cancer susceptibility gene, and this has significant implications for the management of these patients and their relatives. Despite the benefits of genetic testing, many eligible patients with breast cancer never undergo testing because of various barriers, including complicated testing criteria such as those from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). In 2019, the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) proposed germline genetic testing for all patients with breast cancer to increase the identification of PV carriers. In 2020, a Mayo Clinic study highlighted the limitations of these 2 genetic testing guidelines (NCCN and ASBrS) and proposed a hybrid approach of testing all women diagnosed with breast cancer by the age of 65 years and using NCCN criteria for older patients. This commentary presents an updated analysis of the Mayo Clinic data and discusses the rationale for using the age of 60 years rather than 65 years as the cutoff for this hybrid approach. Using an age at diagnosis of ≤60 or ≤65 years for the universal testing of patients with breast cancer detected more PVs (11.9% [16 of 134] and 15.7% [21 of 134], respectively) in comparison with using the NCCN criteria. Lowering the age for universal testing from 65 to 60 years maintained the sensitivity of detecting a PV at >90% while sparing testing for an additional 10% of women. Compared with the testing of all patients, the hybrid approach would allow 31% of all women with breast cancer to forgo testing and result in fewer variants of uncertain significance identified and, therefore, would decrease the chance of harm from misinterpretation of these variants.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159444

RESUMO

Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is a promising biomarker for ovarian reserve. In this study, we assessed AMH before and one year after initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy on NSABP/NRG Oncology B-47 in female participants aged 42 years and younger (with median age 39 years). At baseline, median AMH was 1.2 ng/mL; 13 (4.7%) values were <0.1ng/mL (the threshold for detectable levels, in the perimenopause/menopause range), and 57 values (20.6%) were less than 0.5 ng/mL. At 1 year, 215 (77.6%) were less than 0.1ng/mL, and 264 (95.3%) were less than 0.5 ng/mL. Post-chemotherapy menses were reported by 46.2% of participants. Multivariable logistic regression found that the odds of having post-chemotherapy menses increased with younger age, higher BMI, and higher pre-chemotherapy AMH, but not by trastuzumab administration or by the choice of chemotherapy (doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel vs. docetaxel-cyclophosphamide). We conclude that higher pre-chemotherapy AMH predicts a lower risk of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea, and that AMH one year after chemotherapy initiation is not informative in this setting because it is likely to be very low.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097489

RESUMO

Endocrine therapy (ET) is underutilized to reduce breast cancer (BC) incidence among women at increased risk. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) assessing 77 BC genetic susceptibility loci personalizes risk estimates. We examined effect of personalized PRS BC risk prediction on intention to take and ET uptake among women recruited from BC clinics. Eligible participants had a 10-year BC risk >5% by Tyrer-Cuzick model (International Breast Cancer Intervention Study [IBIS]) or >3.0 % 5-year Gail Model risk with no BC history or hereditary BC syndrome. At baseline, BC calculators estimated risk, ET options were reviewed, and questionnaires assessed ET intent. After genotyping, PRS-updated BC risk estimates, ET options, and intent to take ET were reassessed; ET uptake was assessed during follow-up. From March 2016 to October 2017, 151 patients were enrolled (median [range] age, 56.1 [36.0-76.4] years). Median 10-year and lifetime IBIS risks were 7.9% and 25.3%. Inclusion of PRS increased lifetime IBIS BC risk estimates for 81 patients (53.6%) and reduced risk for 70 (46.4%). Of participants with increased BC risk by PRS, 39 (41.9%) had greater intent to take ET; of those with decreased BC risk by PRS, 28 (46.7%) had less intent to take ET (P<.001). On multivariable regression, increased BC risk by PRS was associated with greater intent to take ET (P<.001). ET uptake was greater among participants with increased BC risk by PRS (53.4%) than with decreased risk (20.9%) (P<.001). PRS testing influenced intent to take and ET uptake. Assessing PRS effect on ET adherence is needed.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028596

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the clinical characteristics and overall survival (OS) of germline mutation carriers in homologous recombination repair (HRR) genes and noncarriers with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: Germline DNA from 3,078 patients with PDAC enrolled in a prospective registry at Mayo Clinic between 2000 and 2017 was analyzed for mutations in 37 cancer predisposition genes. Characteristics and OS of patients with mutations in eight genes (ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D) involved in HRR were compared with patients testing negative for mutations in all 37 genes. RESULTS: The 175 HRR mutation carriers and 2,730 noncarriers in the study had a median duration of follow-up of 9.9 years. HRR mutation carriers were younger (median age at diagnosis: 63 vs. 66 years, P < 0.001) and more likely to have metastatic disease at diagnosis (46% vs. 36%, P = 0.004). In a multivariable model adjusting for sex, age at diagnosis, and tumor staging, patients with germline HRR mutations had a significantly longer OS compared with noncarriers [HR, 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-0.97; P = 0.02]. Further gene-level analysis demonstrated that germline ATM mutation carriers had longer OS compared with patients without germline mutations in any of the 37 genes (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.94; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that germline mutation carrier status in PDAC is associated with longer OS compared with noncarriers. Further research into tumor biology and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in germline mutation carriers with PDAC are needed to better understand the association with longer OS.

10.
Genet Med ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087888

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA1 pathogenic variant heterozygotes are at a substantially increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer. The widespread uptake of testing has led to a significant increase in the detection of missense variants in BRCA1, the vast majority of which are variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS), posing a challenge to genetic counseling. Here, we harness a wealth of functional data for thousands of variants to aid in variant classification. METHODS: We have collected, curated, and harmonized functional data for 2701 missense variants representing 24.5% of possible missense variants in BRCA1. Results were harmonized across studies by converting data into binary categorical variables (functional impact versus no functional impact). Using a panel of reference variants we identified a subset of assays with high sensitivity and specificity (≥80%) and apply the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) variant interpretation guidelines to assign evidence criteria for classification. RESULTS: Integration of data from validated assays provided ACMG/AMP evidence criteria in favor of pathogenicity for 297 variants or against pathogenicity for 2058 representing 96.2% of current VUS functionally assessed. We also explore discordant results and identify limitations in the approach. CONCLUSION: High quality functional data are available for BRCA1 missense variants and provide evidence for classification of 2355 VUS according to their pathogenicity.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

13.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 4: 32-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832836

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In studies of men of European ancestry, rare pathogenic variants in DNA repair pathway genes have been shown to be associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. The contribution of rare coding variation to prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry has not been established. METHODS: We sequenced a panel of 19 DNA repair and cancer predisposition genes in 2,453 African American and 1,151 Ugandan prostate cancer cases and controls. Rare variants were classified as pathogenic or putatively functionally disruptive and examined in association with prostate cancer risk and disease aggressiveness in gene and pathway-level association analyses. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants were found in 75 out of 2,098 cases (3.6%) and 31 out of 1,481 controls (2.1%) (OR=1.82, 95% CI=1.19 to 2.79, P=0.0044) with the association being stronger for more aggressive disease phenotypes (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.54 to 6.23, P=0.0022). The highest risks for aggressive disease were observed with pathogenic variants in the ATM, BRCA2, PALB2 and NBN genes, with odds ratios ranging from ~4 to 15 in the combined study sample of African American and Ugandan men. Rare, non-pathogenic, non-synonymous variants did not have a major impact on risk of overall prostate cancer or disease aggressiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Rare pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes have appreciable effects on risk of aggressive prostate cancer in men of African ancestry. These findings have potential implications for panel testing and risk stratification in this high-risk population.

14.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

15.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3732-3744, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675277

RESUMO

Germline mutations in TP53 cause a rare high penetrance cancer syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Here, we identified a rare TP53 tetramerization domain missense mutation, c.1000G>C;p.G334R, in a family with multiple late-onset LFS-spectrum cancers. Twenty additional c.1000G>C probands and one c.1000G>A proband were identified, and available tumors showed biallelic somatic inactivation of TP53. The majority of families were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and the TP53 c.1000G>C allele was found on a commonly inherited chromosome 17p13.1 haplotype. Transient transfection of the p.G334R allele conferred a mild defect in colony suppression assays. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from the index family in comparison with TP53 normal lines showed that although classical p53 target gene activation was maintained, a subset of p53 target genes (including PCLO, PLTP, PLXNB3, and LCN15) showed defective transactivation when treated with Nutlin-3a. Structural analysis demonstrated thermal instability of the G334R-mutant tetramer, and the G334R-mutant protein showed increased preponderance of mutant conformation. Clinical case review in comparison with classic LFS cohorts demonstrated similar rates of pediatric adrenocortical tumors and other LFS component cancers, but the latter at significantly later ages of onset. Our data show that TP53 c.1000G>C;p.G334R is found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, causes a mild defect in p53 function, and leads to low penetrance LFS. SIGNIFICANCE: TP53 c.1000C>G;p.G334R is a pathogenic, Ashkenazi Jewish-predominant mutation associated with a familial multiple cancer syndrome in which carriers should undergo screening and preventive measures to reduce cancer risk.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

17.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377563

RESUMO

In silico predictions of missense variants is an important consideration when interpreting variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. We trained and evaluated hundreds of machine learning algorithms based on results from validated functional assays to better predict missense variants in these genes as damaging or neutral. This new optimal "BRCA-ML" model yielded a substantially more accurate method than current algorithms for interpreting the functional impact of variants in these genes, making BRCA-ML a valuable addition to data sources for VUS classification.

18.
Hum Mutat ; 41(8): e1-e6, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442341

RESUMO

Multigene panel testing for cancer predisposition mutations is becoming routine in clinical care. However, the gene content of panels offered by testing laboratories vary significantly, and data on mutation detection rates by gene and by the panel is limited, causing confusion among clinicians on which test to order. Using results from 147,994 multigene panel tests conducted at Ambry Genetics, we built an interactive prevalence tool to explore how differences in ethnicity, age of onset, and personal and family history of different cancers affect the prevalence of pathogenic mutations in 31 cancer predisposition genes, across various clinically available hereditary cancer gene panels. Over 13,000 mutation carriers were identified in this high-risk population. Most were non-Hispanic white (74%, n = 109,537), but also Black (n = 10,875), Ashkenazi Jewish (n = 10,464), Hispanic (n = 10,028), and Asian (n = 7,090). The most prevalent cancer types were breast (50%), ovarian (6.6%), and colorectal (4.7%), which is expected based on genetic testing guidelines and clinician referral for testing. The Hereditary Cancer Multi-Gene Panel Prevalence Tool presented here can be used to provide insight into the prevalence of mutations on a per-gene and per-multigene panel basis, while conditioning on multiple custom phenotypic variables to include race and cancer type.

19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359158

RESUMO

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72,284 cases and 80,354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression, and a newly developed case-only method, for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history), and on average 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.

20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

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