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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621376

RESUMO

Significance: Cardiovascular disorders are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Monogenic developmental disorders of the heart and vessels are highly valuable to study the physiological and pathological processes in cardiovascular system homeostasis. The arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a rare, autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder showing lengthening, tortuosity, and stenosis of the large arteries, with a propensity for aneurysm formation. In histopathology, it associates with fragmentation and disorganization of elastic fibers in several tissues, including the arterial wall. ATS is caused by pathogenic variants in SLC2A10 encoding the facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT)10. Critical Issues: Although several hypotheses have been forwarded, the molecular mechanisms linking disrupted GLUT10 activity with arterial malformations are largely unknown. Recent Advances: The vascular and systemic manifestations and natural history of ATS patients have been largely delineated. GLUT10 was identified as an intracellular transporter of dehydroascorbic acid, which contributes to collagen and elastin cross-linking in the endoplasmic reticulum, redox homeostasis in the mitochondria, and global and gene-specific methylation/hydroxymethylation affecting epigenetic regulation in the nucleus. We revise here the current knowledge on ATS and the role of GLUT10 within the compartmentalization of ascorbate in physiological and diseased states. Future Directions: Centralization of clinical, treatment, and outcome data will enable better management for ATS patients. Establishment of representative animal disease models could facilitate the study of pathomechanisms underlying ATS. This might be relevant for other forms of vascular dysplasia, such as isolated aneurysm formation, hypertensive vasculopathy, and neovascularization. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316167

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder manifesting joint contractures, arachnodactyly, crumpled ears, and kyphoscoliosis as main features. Due to its rarity, rather aspecific clinical presentation, and overlap with other conditions including Marfan syndrome, the diagnosis is challenging, but important for prognosis and clinical management. CCA is caused by pathogenic variants in FBN2, encoding fibrillin-2, but locus heterogeneity has been suggested. We designed a clinical scoring system and diagnostic criteria to support the diagnostic process and guide molecular genetic testing. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we assessed 167 probands referred for FBN2 analysis and classified them into a FBN2-positive (n = 44) and FBN2-negative group (n = 123) following molecular analysis. We developed a 20-point weighted clinical scoring system based on the prevalence of ten main clinical characteristics of CCA in both groups. RESULTS: The total score was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.001) and was indicative for classifying patients into unlikely CCA (total score <7) and likely CCA (total score ≥7) groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical score is helpful for clinical guidance for patients suspected to have CCA, and provides a quantitative tool for phenotyping in research settings.

4.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 8156592, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800210

RESUMO

Ascorbate requiring Fe2+/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases located in the nucleoplasm have been shown to participate in epigenetic regulation of gene expression via histone and DNA demethylation. Transport of dehydroascorbic acid is impaired in the endomembranes of fibroblasts from arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) patients, due to the mutation in the gene coding for glucose transporter GLUT10. We hypothesized that altered nuclear ascorbate concentration might be present in ATS fibroblasts, affecting dioxygenase activity and DNA demethylation. Therefore, our aim was to characterize the subcellular distribution of vitamin C, the global and site-specific changes in 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels, and the effect of ascorbate supplementation in control and ATS fibroblast cultures. Diminished nuclear accumulation of ascorbate was found in ATS fibroblasts upon ascorbate or dehydroascorbic acid addition. Analyzing DNA samples of cultured fibroblasts from controls and ATS patients, a lower global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine level was found in ATS fibroblasts, which could not be significantly modified by ascorbate addition. Investigation of the (hydroxy)methylation status of specific regions in six candidate genes related to ascorbate metabolism and function showed that ascorbate addition could stimulate hydroxymethylation and active DNA demethylation at the PPAR-γ gene region in control fibroblasts only. The altered DNA hydroxymethylation patterns in patient cells both at the global level and at specific gene regions accompanied with decreased nuclear accumulation of ascorbate suggests the epigenetic role of vitamin C in the pathomechanism of ATS. The present findings represent the first example for the role of vitamin C transport in epigenetic regulation suggesting that ATS is a compartmentalization disease.


Assuntos
Artérias/anormalidades , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Genoma Humano , Instabilidade Articular/genética , Dermatopatias Genéticas/genética , Malformações Vasculares/genética , 5-Metilcitosina/análogos & derivados , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo
5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(11): 1801-1809, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657919

RESUMO

The cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element binding protein 3-like 1 (CREB3L1) gene codes for the endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS), which has an important role in osteoblast differentiation during bone development. Deficiency of OASIS is linked to a severe form of autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), but only few patients have been reported. We identified the first homozygous pathogenic missense variant [p.(Ala304Val)] in a patient with lethal OI, which is located within the highly conserved basic leucine zipper domain, four amino acids upstream of the DNA binding domain. In vitro structural modeling and luciferase assays demonstrate that this missense variant affects a critical residue in this functional domain, thereby decreasing the type I collagen transcriptional binding ability. In addition, overexpression of the mutant OASIS protein leads to decreased transcription of the SEC23A and SEC24D genes, which code for components of the coat protein complex type II (COPII), and aberrant OASIS signaling also results in decreased protein levels of SEC24D. Our findings therefore provide additional proof of the potential involvement of the COPII secretory complex in the context of bone-associated disease.

6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15845, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374100

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.

7.
Dis Model Mech ; 11(10)2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355591

RESUMO

Targeted genome editing by CRISPR/Cas9 is extremely well fitted to generate gene disruptions, although precise sequence replacement by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair (HDR) suffers from low efficiency, impeding its use for high-throughput knock-in disease modeling. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis to determine the efficiency and reliability of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated HDR using several types of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) repair templates for the introduction of disease-relevant point mutations in the zebrafish genome. Our results suggest that HDR rates are strongly determined by repair-template composition, with the most influential factor being homology-arm length. However, we found that repair using ssODNs does not only lead to precise sequence replacement but also induces integration of repair-template fragments at the Cas9 cut site. We observed that error-free repair occurs at a relatively constant rate of 1-4% when using different repair templates, which was sufficient for transmission of point mutations to the F1 generation. On the other hand, erroneous repair mainly accounts for the variability in repair rate between the different repair templates. To further improve error-free HDR rates, elucidating the mechanism behind this erroneous repair is essential. We show that the error-prone nature of ssODN-mediated repair, believed to act via synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), is most likely due to DNA synthesis errors. In conclusion, caution is warranted when using ssODNs for the generation of knock-in models or for therapeutic applications. We recommend the application of in-depth NGS analysis to examine both the efficiency and error-free nature of HDR events.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1865: 83-90, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151760

RESUMO

Due to its simple nature, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 technique is massively used nowadays to modify genomic loci in a wide range of model systems. The possibility to interrogate gene function on a genome-wide scale is revolutionizing fundamental life sciences and will lead to new clinical breakthroughs. Its strength is even more pronounced when it is used in tandem with next-generation sequencing (NGS). The high throughput and low cost cause NGS to be the method of choice for exploring CRISPR-Cas9 experimental results. To analyze the NGS reads from genome editing experiments only few bioinformatics tools are available. BATCH-GE is a flexible and easy-to-use tool, which is especially useful for dealing with large amounts of data. It detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(34): E8037-E8046, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082390

RESUMO

The type I collagenopathies are a group of heterogeneous connective tissue disorders, that are caused by mutations in the genes encoding type I collagen and include specific forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). These disorders present with a broad disease spectrum and large clinical variability of which the underlying genetic basis is still poorly understood. In this study, we systematically analyzed skeletal phenotypes in a large set of zebrafish, with diverse mutations in the genes encoding type I collagen, representing different genetic forms of human OI, and a zebrafish model resembling human EDS, which harbors a number of soft connective tissues defects, typical of EDS. Furthermore, we provide insight into how zebrafish and human type I collagen are compositionally and functionally related, which is relevant in the interpretation of human type I collagen-related disease models. Our studies reveal a high degree of intergenotype variability in phenotypic expressivity that closely correlates with associated OI severity. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential for select mutations to give rise to phenotypic variability, mirroring the clinical variability associated with human disease pathology. Therefore, our work suggests the future potential for zebrafish to aid in identifying unknown genetic modifiers and mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variability in OI and related disorders. This will improve diagnostic strategies and enable the discovery of new targetable pathways for pharmacological intervention.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos , Osteogênese Imperfeita , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/metabolismo , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/patologia , Humanos , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita/metabolismo , Osteogênese Imperfeita/patologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
11.
Bone ; 114: 268-277, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress transducer OASIS (encoded by CREB3L1), cause severe recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) not compatible with surviving the neonatal period, as has been shown in two unrelated families through a whole gene deletion vs. a qualitative alteration of OASIS. Heterozygous carriers in the described families have exhibited a mild phenotype. OASIS is a transcription factor highly expressed in osteoblasts, and OASIS-/- mice exhibit severe osteopenia and spontaneous fractures. Here, we expand the clinical spectrum by a detailed phenotypic characterization of the first case of OASIS-associated OI surviving the neonatal period, with heterozygous family members being unaffected. METHODS: All OI-associated genes were sequenced. Primary human osteoblast-like cell (hOB) and fibroblast (FB) cultures were obtained for qPCR, and steady-state collagen biochemistry. FB, hOB and skin biopsies were ultrastructurally analyzed. Bone was analyzed by µCT, histomorphometry, quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), and Raman microspectroscopy. RESULTS: The proband, a boy with severe OI, had blue sclera and tooth agenesis. A homozygous CREB3L1 stop codon mutation was detected by sequencing, while several family members were heterozygotes. Markedly low levels of CREB3L1 mRNA were confirmed by qPCR in hOBs (16%) and FB (21%); however, collagen I levels were only reduced in hOBs (5-10%). Electron microscopy of hOBs showed pronounced alterations, with numerous myelin figures and diminished RER vs. normal ultrastructure of FB. Bone histomorphometry and qBEI were similar to collagen I OI, with low trabecular thickness and mineral apposition rate, and increased bone matrix mineralization. Raman microspectroscopy revealed low level of glycosaminoglycans. Clinical response to life-long bisphosphonate treatment was as expected in severe OI with steadily increasing bone mineral density, but despite this the boy suffered repeated childhood fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiency of OASIS can cause severe OI compatible with surviving the neonatal period. A marked decrease of collagen type I transcription was noted in bone tissue, but not in skin, and ultrastructure of hOBs was pathological. Results also suggested OASIS involvement in glycosaminoglycan secretion in bone.

12.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(6): e002039, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of next-generation sequencing techniques has substantially increased the identification of new genetic variants and hence the necessity of accurate variant interpretation. In 2015, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology proposed new variant interpretation guidelines. Gene-specific characteristics were, however, not considered, sometimes leading to inconsistent variant interpretation. METHODS: To allow a more uniform interpretation of variants in the FBN1 (fibrillin-1) gene, causing Marfan syndrome, we tailored these guidelines to this gene and disease. We adapted 15 of the 28 general criteria and classified 713 FBN1 variants previously identified in our laboratory as causal mutation or variant of uncertain significance according to these adapted guidelines. We then compared the agreement between previous methods and the adapted American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology criteria. RESULTS: Agreement between the methods was 86.4% (K-alpha, 0.6). Application of the tailored guidelines resulted in an increased number of variants of uncertain significance (14.5% to 24.2%). Of the 85 variants that were downscaled to likely benign or variant of uncertain significance, 59.7% were missense variants outside a well-established functional site. Available clinical- or segregation data, necessary to further classify these types of variants, were in many cases insufficient to aid the classification. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that classification of variants remains challenging and may change over time. Currently, a higher level of evidence is necessary to classify a variant as pathogenic. Gene-specific guidelines may be useful to allow a more precise and uniform interpretation of the variants to accurately support clinical decision-making.

13.
Brain Pathol ; 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722917

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke causes a high mortality and morbidity worldwide. It results from a complex interplay of incompletely known environmental and genetic risk factors. We investigated the ABCC6 gene as a candidate risk factor for ischemic stroke because of the increased ischemic stroke incidence in the autosomal recessive disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum, caused by biallelic pathogenic ABCC6 variants, the higher cardiovascular risk in heterozygous carriers and the established role of ABCC6 dysfunction in myocardial ischemia. We established segregation of a known pathogenic ABCC6 variant (p.(Arg1314Gln)) in 11/19 family members of an ischemic stroke patient in a large multigenerational family suffering from ischemic stroke and/or cardiovascular disease at a relatively young age. In an independent case-control study in 424 ischemic stroke patients and 250 healthy controls, pathogenic ABCC6 variants were 4.9 times more frequent (p = 0.036; 95% confidence interval 1.11-21.33) in the ischemic stroke patient cohort. To study cellular consequences of ABCC6 deficiency in the brain, immunostaining of brain sections in Abcc6-deficient mice and wildtype controls were performed. An upregulation of Bmp4 and Eng and a downregulation of Alk2 was identified in Abcc6-/- mice, suggesting an increase in apoptosis and angiogenesis. As both of these processes are induced in ischemia, we propose that a pro-ischemic state may explain the higher risk to suffer from ischemic stroke in patients carrying a pathogenic ABCC6 variant, as this may lower the threshold to develop acute ischemic events in these patients. In conclusion, this study identified heterozygous ABCC6 variants as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Further, dysregulation of Bmp (Bmp4, Alk2) and Tgfß (Eng) signaling in the brain of Abcc6-/- mice could lead to a pro-ischemic state, lowering the threshold to develop acute ischemic events. These data demonstrate the importance of a molecular analysis of the ABCC6 gene in patients diagnosed with cryptogenic ischemic stroke. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Hum Mutat ; 39(5): 621-634, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29392890

RESUMO

The Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disorder affecting the cardiovascular, skeletal, and ocular system. Most typically, LDS patients present with aortic aneurysms and arterial tortuosity, hypertelorism, and bifid/broad uvula or cleft palate. Initially, mutations in transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2) were described to cause LDS, hereby leading to impaired TGF-ß signaling. More recently, TGF-ß ligands, TGFB2 and TGFB3, as well as intracellular downstream effectors of the TGF-ß pathway, SMAD2 and SMAD3, were shown to be involved in LDS. This emphasizes the role of disturbed TGF-ß signaling in LDS pathogenesis. Since most literature so far has focused on TGFBR1/2, we provide a comprehensive review on the known and some novel TGFB2/3 and SMAD2/3 mutations. For TGFB2 and SMAD3, the clinical manifestations, both of the patients previously described in the literature and our newly reported patients, are summarized in detail. This clearly indicates that LDS concerns a disorder with a broad phenotypical spectrum that is still emerging as more patients will be identified. All mutations described here are present in the corresponding Leiden Open Variant Database.

15.
Acta Clin Belg ; 73(1): 7-10, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384039

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In recent decades, we witnessed a revolution in genetic technology. Some 20 years ago, analysing a single gene was quite laborious and time-consuming. In addition, diagnostic testing was only available for selected genes. Nowadays, whole exome analysis - a technique enabling sequencing of all protein coding sequences in the entire genome - is gradually introduced in a clinical setting. Whole genome sequencing forms the ultimate exponent of this evolution and offers an even broader application. METHODS: A review of the application of these technologies in a diagnostic setting is presented. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing has a prominent place in modern clinical diagnostics. It offers a cost- and time-efficient way to interrogate all protein coding portions of the genome leading to a quick and adequate diagnosis, also in cases of phenotypic heterogeneity. As sequencing costs continue to drop, whole genome sequencing will take over in the near future guaranteeing a further improvement of the quality of genetic testing. CONCLUSION: Due to technological advances in the past decades, the field of clinical diagnostics has changed dramatically. With techniques such as whole exome and whole genome sequencing, the diagnostic yield increases serving both the patient and the health care system.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/tendências , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Humanos
16.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1236-1245, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We delineate the clinical spectrum and describe the histology in arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS), a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by tortuosity of the large and medium-sized arteries, caused by mutations in SLC2A10. METHODS: We retrospectively characterized 40 novel ATS families (50 patients) and reviewed the 52 previously reported patients. We performed histology and electron microscopy (EM) on skin and vascular biopsies and evaluated TGF-ß signaling with immunohistochemistry for pSMAD2 and CTGF. RESULTS: Stenoses, tortuosity, and aneurysm formation are widespread occurrences. Severe but rare vascular complications include early and aggressive aortic root aneurysms, neonatal intracranial bleeding, ischemic stroke, and gastric perforation. Thus far, no reports unequivocally document vascular dissections or ruptures. Of note, diaphragmatic hernia and infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) are frequently observed. Skin and vascular biopsies show fragmented elastic fibers (EF) and increased collagen deposition. EM of skin EF shows a fragmented elastin core and a peripheral mantle of microfibrils of random directionality. Skin and end-stage diseased vascular tissue do not indicate increased TGF-ß signaling. CONCLUSION: Our findings warrant attention for IRDS and diaphragmatic hernia, close monitoring of the aortic root early in life, and extensive vascular imaging afterwards. EM on skin biopsies shows disease-specific abnormalities.

17.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 6(1): 15-26, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29150909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous hereditary connective tissue disorder clinically hallmarked by increased susceptibility to bone fractures. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 77 diagnosed OI patients from 49 unrelated Palestinian families. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to screen a panel of known OI genes. RESULTS: In 41 probands, we identified 28 different disease-causing variants of 9 different known OI genes. Eleven of the variants are novel. Ten of the 28 variants are located in COL1A1, five in COL1A2, three in BMP1, three in FKBP10, two in TMEM38B, two in P3H1, and one each in CRTAP, SERPINF1, and SERPINH1. The absence of disease-causing variants in the remaining eight probands suggests further genetic heterogeneity in OI. In general, most OI patients (90%) harbor mainly variants in type I collagen resulting in an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. However, in our cohort almost 61% (25/41) were affected with autosomal recessive OI. Moreover, we document a 21-kb genomic deletion in the TMEM38B gene identified in 29% (12/41) of the tested probands, making it the most frequent OI-causing variant in the Palestinian population. CONCLUSION: This is the first genetic screening of an OI cohort from the Palestinian population. Our data are important for genetic counseling of OI patients and families in highly consanguineous populations.


Assuntos
Árabes/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Adulto , Calcificação Fisiológica/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Consanguinidade , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Família , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Deleção de Sequência
18.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 126(1): 24-32, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114927

RESUMO

Non-syndromic tooth agenesis (NSTA) is the most common developmental anomaly in humans. Several studies have been conducted on dental agenesis and numerous genes have been identified. However, the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for NSTA are not clearly understood. We studied a group of 28 patients with sporadic NSTA and nine patients with a family history of tooth agenesis. We focused on four genes - paired box 9 (PAX9), Wnt family member 10A (WNT10A), msh homeobox 1 (MSX1), and axin 2 (AXIN2) - using direct Sanger sequencing of the exons and intron-exon boundaries. The most prevalent variants identified in PAX9 and AXIN2 genes were analyzed using the chi-square test. The sequencing results revealed a number of variants in the AXIN2 gene, including one novel missense mutation in one patient with agenesis of a single second premolar. We also identified one variant in the AXIN2 gene as being a putative risk factor for tooth agenesis. Only one missense mutation was identified in the WNT10A gene and this mutation was found in two patients. Interestingly, WNT10A is reported as the most prevalent gene mutated in the European population with NSTA.

20.
Int J Dermatol ; 56(12): 1406-1413, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genodermatoses represent genetic anomalies of skin tissues including hair follicles, sebaceous glands, eccrine glands, nails, and teeth. Ten consanguineous families segregating various genodermatosis phenotypes were investigated in the present study. METHODS: Homozygosity mapping, exome, and Sanger sequencing were employed to search for the disease-causing variants in the 10 families. RESULTS: Exome sequencing identified seven homozygous sequence variants in different families, including: c.27delT in FERMT1; c.836delA in ABHD5; c.2453C>T in ERCC5; c.5314C>T in COL7A1; c.1630C>T in ALOXE3; c.502C>T in PPOX; and c.10G>T in ALDH3A2. Sanger sequencing revealed three homozygous variants: c.1718 + 2A>G in FERMT1; c.10459A>T in FLG; and c.92delT in the KRT14 genes as the underlying genetic cause of skin phenotypes. CONCLUSION: This study supports the use of exome sequencing as a powerful, efficient tool for identifying genes that underlie rare monogenic skin disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras/genética , Dermatopatias Genéticas/genética , 1-Acilglicerol-3-Fosfato O-Aciltransferase/genética , Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Vesícula/genética , Colágeno Tipo VII/genética , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Epidermólise Bolhosa/genética , Epidermólise Bolhosa Distrófica/genética , Epidermólise Bolhosa Simples/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Flavoproteínas/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Eritrodermia Ictiosiforme Congênita/genética , Ictiose Vulgar/genética , Ictiose Lamelar/genética , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/genética , Queratina-14/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/genética , Lipoxigenase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Linhagem , Doenças Periodontais/genética , Fenótipo , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/genética , Porfiria Variegada/genética , Protoporfirinogênio Oxidase/genética , Síndrome de Sjogren-Larsson/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética
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