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2.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103154, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is of the utmost importance but remains challenging. The objective of the current study was to characterize exhaled breath from mechanically ventilated adults with COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we used real-time, online, proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry to perform a metabolomic analysis of expired air from adults undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit due to severe COVID-19 or non-COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). FINDINGS: Between March 25th and June 25th, 2020, we included 40 patients with ARDS, of whom 28 had proven COVID-19. In a multivariate analysis, we identified a characteristic breathprint for COVID-19. We could differentiate between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS with accuracy of 93% (sensitivity: 90%, specificity: 94%, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0•94-0•98, after cross-validation). The four most prominent volatile compounds in COVID-19 patients were methylpent-2-enal, 2,4-octadiene 1-chloroheptane, and nonanal. INTERPRETATION: The real-time, non-invasive detection of methylpent-2-enal, 2,4-octadiene 1-chloroheptane, and nonanal in exhaled breath may identify ARDS patients with COVID-19. FUNDING: The study was funded by Agence Nationale de la Recherche (SoftwAiR, ANR-18-CE45-0017 and RHU4 RECORDS, Programme d'Investissements d'Avenir, ANR-18-RHUS-0004), Région Île de France (SESAME 2016), and Fondation Foch.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) correlate with disease severity in COVID-19. We hypothesized that tocilizumab (a recombinant humanized anti-IL-6 receptor) could improve outcomes in selected patients with severe worsening COVID-19 pneumonia and high inflammatory parameters. METHODS: The TOCICOVID study included a prospective cohort of patients aged 16-80 years with severe (requiring > 6 L/min of oxygen therapy to obtain Sp02 > 94%) rapidly deteriorating (increase by ≥ 3 L/min of oxygen flow within the previous 12 h) COVID-19 pneumonia with ≥ 5 days of symptoms and C-reactive protein levels > 40 mg/L. They entered a compassionate use program of treatment with intravenous tocilizumab (8 mg/kg with a maximum of 800 mg per infusion; and if needed a second infusion 24 to 72 h later). A control group was retrospectively selected with the same inclusion criteria. Outcomes were assessed at D28 using inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) methodology. RESULTS: Among the 96 patients included (81% male, mean (SD) age: 60 (12.5) years), underlying conditions, baseline disease severity, and concomitant medications were broadly similar between the tocilizumab (n = 49) and the control (n = 47) groups. In the IPTW analysis, treatment with tocilizumab was associated with a reduced need for overall ventilatory support (49 vs. 89%, wHR: 0.39 [0.25-0.56]; p < 0.001). Albeit lacking statistical significance, there was a substantial trend towards a reduction of mechanical ventilation (31% vs. 45%; wHR: 0.58 [0.36-0.94]; p = 0.026). However, tocilizumab did not improve overall survival (wHR = 0.68 [0.31-1.748], p = 0.338). Among the 85 (89%) patients still alive at D28, patients treated with tocilizumab had a higher rate of oxygen withdrawal (82% vs. 73.5%, wHR = 1.66 [1.17-2.37], p = 0.005), with a shorter delay before being weaned of oxygen therapy (mean 11 vs. 16 days; p < 0.001). At D28, the rate of patients discharged from hospital was higher in the tocilizumab group (70% vs. 40%, wHR = 1.82 [1.22-2.75]; p = 0.003). The levels of CRP and fibrinogen post therapy (p < 0.001 for both variables) were significantly lower in the tocilizumab group (interaction test, mixed model). Rates of neutropenia (35% vs. 0%; p < 0.001) were higher in the tocilizumab group, yet rates of infections (22% vs. 38%, p = 0.089) including ventilator-acquired pneumonia (8% vs. 26%, p = 0.022) were higher in the control group. CONCLUSION: These data could be helpful for the design of future trials aiming to counter COVID-19-induced inflammation, especially before patients require admission to the intensive care unit.

4.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 21-25, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045465

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: About 2-3% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harbor MET exon-14-skipping (METex14) mutations. Efficacy of the MET-inhibitor crizotinib has been reported, but progression-free survival (PFS) was very short. Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become a cornerstone of NSCLC treatment but appear to be less effective in non-smokers and against tumors exhibiting oncogenic addiction. We describe 6 remarkable (PFS exceeding 18 months) and durable responses to ICIs of NSCLCs harboring a METex14 mutation. METHODS: Each patient's clinical and biological characteristics, and tumor responses after ICIs were examined. Complete tumor-DNA sequencing was available after starting second-line ICIs, which followed first-line chemotherapy. Tumor-cell programmed cell-death protein-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression on tumor cells was evaluated using antibody clone E1L3N (Cell Signaling Technology). RESULTS: Among 25 patients with METex14-mutated NSCLCs, 13 of whom were ICI-treated, 6 had prolonged responses: 5 women, 1 man; 57-80 years old; 3 never-smokers, 1 ex-smoker and 2 smokers; 5 adenocarcinomas, 1 sarcomatoid carcinoma; 5 received nivolumab, 1 pembrolizumab. No EGFR, BRAF or KRAS mutations (only 1 minority KRAS mutation), or ALK or ROS translocations were detected. No concurrent MET amplification was observed. Tumor-mutation burden was low (<10 mutations/Mb) in 3 tested tumors. Four partial and 2 complete responses were obtained during the first 3 months for 5 patients, while pseudoprogression was initially observed in 1. Tolerance was excellent, with only 1 grade-3 immune-related adverse event. Response was maintained for 18-49 months. CONCLUSION: ICIs could be considered to treat patients whose NSCLCs harbor a METex14 mutation. More biological marker data are needed to identify which patients are most likely to benefit from ICIs.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808108

RESUMO

Identification of moulds is crucial for the clinical management of patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the new ID-FUNGI plate (IDFP) for the identification of moulds by MALDI Biotyper. IDFP was compared with Sabouraud with gentamicin and chloramphenicol plate (SAB) for the identification of 80 moulds from respiratory samples and eight reference strains. With the direct transfer method, species identification rose from 6% with SAB to 68% with IDFP using score cut-off 2 and from 20 to 75% using cut-off 1.7 (p < 0.001). Our study highlights that the new IDFP improves mycological diagnostic and workflow in laboratories.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2265-2268, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382733

RESUMO

On human lung parenchymal explants, chloroquine concentration clinically achievable in the lung (100 µM) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced release of TNF-ɑ (by 76%), IL-6 (by 68%), CCL2 (by 72%), and CCL3 (by 67%). Besides its antiviral activity, chloroquine might also mitigate the cytokine storm associated with severe pneumonia caused by coronaviruses.

8.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(6): 844-849, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459615

RESUMO

Introduction. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections, notably pulmonary aspergillosis.Aim. We describe the emergence of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus infections in STAT3-deficient patients.Methodology. During a retrospective study of 13 pulmonary aspergillosis cases in STAT3-deficient patients conducted in France, we identified patients infected with azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates.Results. Two out of the 13 STAT3-deficient patients with aspergillosis had azole-resistant A. fumigatus infection, indicating an unexpectedly high prevalence of resistance. The first patient with STAT3 deficiency presented several flares of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis-like episodes. He was chronically infected with two azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates (TR34/L98). Despite prolonged antifungal treatment, including caspofungin and amphotericin B, the patient was not able to clear the azole-resistant A. fumigatus. The second patient had chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA). The A. fumigatus isolate was initially azole susceptible but harboured three F46Y, M172V and E427K point mutations. Despite prolonged antifungal therapies, lesions worsened and the isolate became resistant to all azoles. Surgery and caspofungin treatments were then required to cure CCPA. Resistance was probably acquired from the environment (TR34/L98) in the first case whereas resistance developed under antifungal treatments in the second case. These infections required long-term antifungal treatments and surgery.Conclusions. The emergence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus infections in STAT3-deficiency dramatically impacts both curative and prophylactic antifungal strategies. Physicians following patients with primary immune-deficiencies should be aware of this emerging problem as it complicates management of the patient.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergilose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/deficiência , Adulto , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Caspofungina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , França , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Exp Med ; 217(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207811

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is typically caused by dominant-negative (DN) STAT3 mutations. Patients suffer from cold staphylococcal lesions and mucocutaneous candidiasis, severe allergy, and skeletal abnormalities. We report 12 patients from 8 unrelated kindreds with AD-HIES due to DN IL6ST mutations. We identified seven different truncating mutations, one of which was recurrent. The mutant alleles encode GP130 receptors bearing the transmembrane domain but lacking both the recycling motif and all four STAT3-recruiting tyrosine residues. Upon overexpression, the mutant proteins accumulate at the cell surface and are loss of function and DN for cellular responses to IL-6, IL-11, LIF, and OSM. Moreover, the patients' heterozygous leukocytes and fibroblasts respond poorly to IL-6 and IL-11. Consistently, patients with STAT3 and IL6ST mutations display infectious and allergic manifestations of IL-6R deficiency, and some of the skeletal abnormalities of IL-11R deficiency. DN STAT3 and IL6ST mutations thus appear to underlie clinical phenocopies through impairment of the IL-6 and IL-11 response pathways.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 56, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132922

RESUMO

Background: Obesity is associated with an elevated risk of respiratory infections and inflammatory lung diseases. The objective was to investigate (i) the effects of adipokines (adiponectin (APN), leptin, chemerin, and visfatin) on the production of cytokines by unstimulated and poly(I:C)- and TNF-α-activated human primary bronchial epithelial cells (hBECs), (ii) the cells' expression of the APN receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), and (iii) the cells' production of APN. Methods: The hBECs were isolated from patients undergoing surgery for lung carcinoma. The cells were then cultured with human recombinant adipokines in the absence or presence of TNF-α or poly(I:C) for 24 h. Supernatant levels of cytokines (IL-6, CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL8) and APN were measured using ELISAs. The mRNA levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in hBECs were determined using a real-time quantitative PCR. Results: Of the four adipokines tested, only APN significantly influenced the basal production and the TNF-α poly(I:C)-induced production of cytokines by hBECs. APN (3-30 µg.ml-1) was associated with greater basal production of IL-6, CCL20, and CXCL8, lower basal production of CCL2 and CXCL1 and no difference in CCL5 production. APN inhibited the poly(I:C)-induced production of these five cytokines and the TNF-α-induced production of CCL2 and CXCL1. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were both expressed in hBECs. In contrast to human bronchial explants, isolated hBECs did not produce APN. Conclusions: The APN concentrations are abnormally low in obese individuals, and this fall may contribute to the susceptibility to viral lung infections and the severity of these infections in obese individuals.

11.
J Rheumatol ; 47(10): 1522-1531, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report on a large series of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and bronchiectasis, with a specific focus on the timeline of occurrence of both features. METHODS: Retrospective nationwide multicenter study of patients diagnosed with both AAV and bronchiectasis. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were included, among whom 27 (44.25%) had microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), 27 (44.25%) had granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and 7 (11.5%) had eosinophilic GPA. Thirty-nine (64%) had myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA and 13 (21%) had proteinase 3-ANCA. The diagnosis of bronchiectasis either preceded (n = 25; median time between both diagnoses: 16 yrs, IQR 4-54 yrs), was concomitant to (n = 12), or followed (n = 24; median time between both diagnoses: 1, IQR 0-6 yrs) that of AAV. Patients in whom bronchiectasis precedes the onset of AAV (B-AAV group) have more frequent mononeuritis multiplex, MPA, MPO-ANCA, and a 5-fold increase of death. The occurrence of an AAV relapse tended to be protective against bronchiectasis worsening (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.99, P = 0.049), while a diagnosis of bronchiectasis before AAV (HR 5.8, 95% CI 1.2-28.7, P = 0.03) or MPA (HR 18.1, 95% CI 2.2-146.3, P = 0.01) were associated with shorter survival during AAV follow-up. CONCLUSION: The association of bronchiectasis with AAV is likely not accidental and is mostly associated with MPO-ANCA. Patients in whom bronchiectasis precedes the onset of AAV tend to have distinct clinical and biological features and could carry a worse prognosis.

12.
Allergol Int ; 69(2): 215-222, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although antibody deficiency (AD) is a well-known cause of recurrent respiratory infections, there are few data on its impact in adults with asthma. The objective of the present study was to assess outcomes in adults with severe asthma and AD after treatment with either azithromycin or subcutaneous immunoglobulins (SCIg). METHODS: We performed a 5-year, prospective, observational, two-centre study of adults with severe asthma and AD in France. Bronchiectasis was ruled out by high-resolution computed tomography. Patients were treated for one year with either azithromycin (250 mg every other day) or SCIg (0.4-0.6 g/kg/months, weekly). All patients were evaluated for exacerbations, asthma control and lung function at baseline and then one year after treatment initiation. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients with severe asthma were included in the study: 14 had been treated with azithromycin and 25 had been treated with SCIg. Before the initiation of treatment for AD, all patients had an Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-7) score > 1.5 (mean ± SD: 2.71 ± 0.53) despite treatment at GINA step 4 or 5, and had a high exacerbation rate requiring oral corticosteroids and/or rescue antibiotics (∼7.2 ± 2.1/patient/year). One year after treatment initiation, we observed a significantly higher FEV1 (mean: 0.18 ± 0.22 L) and ACQ-7 score (1.26 ± 0.68), and a significantly lower exacerbation rate (1.63 ± 1.24/patient/year). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of AD dramatically improved asthma outcomes - suggesting that adults with severe asthma and recurrent respiratory infections should be screened and (if appropriate) treated for AD.

13.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 275, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a heterogeneous disease depending on etiology. It represents the most frequent non-infectious pulmonary complication of primary immunodeficiencies (PID). We investigated whether bronchiectasis associated with PID had a distinct course in comparison to bronchiectasis of other causes. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study of adult patients diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis with more than 5 years of follow-up and at least 4 pulmonary functional tests available at one year apart. They were divided into three groups: PID- related bronchiectasis, idiopathic/post infectious-related bronchiectasis and other causes of bronchiectasis. Respiratory functional data and clinical outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Of 329 patients with bronchiectasis diagnosed in Foch Hospital (Suresnes, France), 98 patients fulfilled the selected criteria (20 PID-related cases, 39 idiopathic or post-infectious cases, and 39 cases with other causes). Median time of follow-up was 9.5 years. Groups were similar concerning initial characteristics (female 70.4%, never smokers 59.2%, mild severity bronchiectasis according to the FACED score and median FEV1 at diagnosis 73.5% predicted values [Q1-Q3: 53.75-90.5]), except PID patients who were younger (median age of 51.5 vs 62 years, p = 0.02). Eighty-five percent of PID patients received immunoglobulin substitution (median trough level was measured at 10.5 g/dl [10;10.92]). Global median FEV1 annual decline was 25.03 ml/year [8.16;43.9] and 19.82 ml/year [16.08;48.02] in the PID patients group. Forty-five percent of patients had bacterial colonization, pneumoniae occurred in 56% of patients and median exacerbation annual rate was 0.8 [0.3-1.4]. Hemoptysis occurred in 31.6% of patients. Global mortality rate was 11.2%. We did not record any significant difference for all clinical and functional outcomes between patients with PID and other etiologies. The median decline in FEV1 was similar in the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: The course of PID-related bronchiectasis was similar to bronchiectasis of other causes. Provided that patients receive immunoglobulin replacement, the course of PID-related bronchiectasis seems to be independent of the underlying immune disorder.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Fibrose Cística , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária
14.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1267, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632299

RESUMO

Background: Bitter-taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are involved in airway relaxation but are also expressed in human blood leukocytes. We studied TAS2R expression and the effects of TAS2R agonists on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine release in human lung macrophages (LMs). Methods: Lung macrophages were isolated from patients undergoing surgery for carcinoma. We used RT-qPCR to measure transcripts of 16 TAS2Rs (TAS2Rs 3/4/5/7/8/9/10/14/19/20/31/38/39/43/45 and 46) in unstimulated and LPS-stimulated (10 ng.mL-1) LMs. The macrophages were also incubated with TAS2R agonists for 24 h. Supernatant levels of the cytokines TNF-α, CCL3, CXCL8 and IL-10 were measured using ELISAs. Results: The transcripts of all 16 TAS2Rs were detected in macrophages. The addition of LPS led to an increase in the expression of most TAS2Rs, which was significant for TAS2R7 and 38. Although the promiscuous TAS2R agonists, quinine and denatonium, inhibited the LPS-induced release of TNF-α, CCL3 and CXCL8, diphenidol was inactive. Partially selective agonists (dapsone, colchicine, strychnine, and chloroquine) and selective agonists [erythromycin (TAS2R10), phenanthroline (TAS2R5), ofloxacin (TAS2R9), and carisoprodol (TAS2R14)] also suppressed the LPS-induced cytokine release. In contrast, two other agonists [sodium cromoglycate (TAS2R20) and saccharin (TAS2R31 and 43)] were inactive. TAS2R agonists suppressed IL-10 production - suggesting that this anti-inflammatory cytokine is not involved in the inhibition of cytokine production. Conclusion: Human LMs expressed TAS2Rs. Experiments with TAS2R agonists' suggested the involvement of TAS2Rs 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 14, 30, 39 and 40 in the inhibition of cytokine production. TAS2Rs may constitute new drug targets in inflammatory obstructive lung disease.

15.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 702-712, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) are at risk of serious complications. However, data on the incidence and causes of emergency hospital admissions are scarce. The primary objective of the present study was to describe emergency hospital admissions among patients with PID, with a view to identifying "at-risk" patient profiles. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational 12-month multicenter study in France via the CEREDIH network of regional PID reference centers from November 2010 to October 2011. All patients with PIDs requiring emergency hospital admission were included. RESULTS: A total of 200 admissions concerned 137 patients (73 adults and 64 children, 53% of whom had antibody deficiencies). Thirty admissions were reported for 16 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. When considering the 170 admissions of non-transplant patients, 149 (85%) were related to acute infections (respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal tract infections in 72 (36%) and 34 (17%) of cases, respectively). Seventy-seven percent of the admissions occurred during winter or spring (December to May). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8% (12 patients); death was related to a severe infection in 11 cases (8%) and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma in 1 case. Patients with a central venous catheter (n = 19, 13.9%) were significantly more hospitalized for an infection (94.7%) than for a non-infectious reason (5.3%) (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the annual incidence of emergency hospital admission among patients with PID is 3.4%. The leading cause of emergency hospital admission was an acute infection, and having a central venous catheter was associated with a significantly greater risk of admission for an infectious episode.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Hospitalização , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis/etiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/etiologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/terapia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
N Engl J Med ; 378(22): 2144-5, 2018 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847900
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