Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 44
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
Psychooncology ; 28(8): 1679-1686, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intrafamilial disclosure of hereditary cancer predisposition in BRCA1/2 and mismatch repair gene (MMR) syndromes allows appropriate prevention strategies in at-risk relatives. We previously showed in a nationwide study that the uptake of genetic targeted testing (GTT) in these families was only 30%. We aimed to identify the clinical and psychosocial factors affecting the probands' intrafamilial disclosure and relatives' uptake of GTT in BRCA1/2 or MMR syndromes. METHODS: We assessed clinical variables, family history, and psychosocial variables of probands (depressive symptoms, anxiety, alexithymia, optimism, coping, family relationship, perception of cancer risks, and of hereditary transmission), together with disclosure and uptake of GTT within 103 French BRCA1/2 or MMR families. RESULTS: Among relatives eligible for GTT, 68% were informed of the predisposition, and 37% underwent GTT, according to probands' reports. Intrafamilial disclosure was inversely associated with the degree of kinship (P < .01). In multivariable analysis, disclosure increased with time since probands' genetic diagnosis (P < .01) and probands' feeling of family cohesion (0.01). GTT uptake increased with probands' depressive symptoms (0.02) and decreased with probands' perception of cancer risks (0.03). BRCA1/2 and MMR groups did not differ concerning family information and GTT uptake. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified factors affecting disclosure to relatives and GTT uptake in BRCA1/2 and MMR syndromes and gives new insights to improve probands' follow-up and intrafamilial sharing of genetic information.

2.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(4): 470-475, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost no prospective data on endoscopy in MUTYH monoallelic carriers are available. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to define the prevalence of colorectal and duodenal adenomas in a population of people presenting with a single mutation of the MUTYH gene and being first-degree relatives of biallelic MUTYH mutation carriers. DESIGN: This study is a prospective cohort evaluation. PATIENTS: Patients were first-degree relatives of a patient who had polyposis with biallelic MUTYH mutation and carrying a single gene mutation of the gene from 12 French centers. SETTINGS: This is a multicenter study. INTERVENTION: Detailed data on life habits (tobacco, alcohol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), extraintestinal manifestations, and germline analysis were recorded. Complete endoscopic evaluation (colonoscopy and upper endoscopy) with chromoendoscopy was performed. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were prospectively included (34 women (55%), mean age of 54, range 30-70 years). Thirty-two patients (52%) presented with colorectal polyps at colonoscopy. Of these patients with polyps, 15 (25%) had only adenomas, 8 (13%) had only hyperplastic polyps, 1 (1%) had sessile serrated adenomas, and 8 (13%) had adenomas and/or sessile serrated adenomas. We detected, in total, 29 adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, 5 adenomas with high-grade dysplasia, and 6 sessile serrated adenomas. Fourteen patients (23%) presented with a single adenoma, and 10 (16%) had 1 to 5 adenomas. No patient had more than 5 adenomas. At upper endoscopy, 3 had a limited number of fundic gland polyps; none had duodenal adenomas. The 2 main missense mutations c.1145G>A, p.Gly382Asp and c.494A>G, p.Tyr165Cys were associated with the development of colorectal adenomas/serrated polyps in these monoallelic carriers. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by the small number of patients. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study provides unique prospective data suggesting that monoallelic mutation carriers related to patients with polyposis show no colorectal polyposis and have very limited upper GI manifestations justifying an endoscopic follow-up. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A862.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Neoplasias Duodenais , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/patologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/epidemiologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Corantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias Duodenais/genética , Neoplasias Duodenais/patologia , Saúde da Família , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Gastric Cancer ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515673

RESUMO

In 2017, we implemented CTNNA1 germline analysis in probands suspected of having hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. Here, we report the results from a retrospective series of 41 cases, including the identification of a new family with a CTNNA1 mutation and the first prophylactic total gastrectomy in an asymptomatic carrier after a normal upper endoscopy. Diffuse gastric cancer foci with loss of catenin alpha-1 expression were seen in the resected tissue, suggesting that CTNNA1 and CDH1 germline mutations behave in a similar manner. Life-changing prophylactic total gastrectomy should therefore also be considered in CTNNA1 mutation carriers.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

Background: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. Methods: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Conclusion: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1732-1742, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089825

RESUMO

In oncology, the expanding use of multi-gene panels to explore familial cancer predisposition and tumor genome analysis has led to increased secondary findings discoveries (SFs) and has given rise to important medical, ethical, and legal issues. The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics published a policy statement for managing SFs for a list of genes, including 25 cancer-related genes. Currently, there are few recommendations in Europe. From June 2016 to May 2017, the French Society of Predictive and Personalized Medicine (SFMPP) established a working group of 47 experts to elaborate guidelines for managing information given on the SFs for genes related to cancers. A subgroup of ethicists, lawyers, patients' representatives, and psychologists provided ethical reflection, information guidelines, and materials (written consent form and video). A subgroup with medical expertise, including oncologists and clinical and molecular geneticists, provided independent evaluation and classification of 60 genes. The main criteria were the "actionability" of the genes (available screening or prevention strategies), the risk evaluation (severity, penetrance, and age of disease onset), and the level of evidence from published data. Genes were divided into three classes: for class 1 genes (n = 36), delivering the information on SFs was recommended; for class 2 genes (n = 5), delivering the information remained questionable because of insufficient data from the literature and/or level of evidence; and for class 3 genes (n = 19), delivering the information on SFs was not recommended. These guidelines for managing SFs for cancer-predisposing genes provide new insights for clinicians and laboratories to standardize clinical practices.

8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 28, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is a moderate-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene; germline loss-of-function variants are found in up to 3% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families who undergo genetic testing. So far, no clear histopathological and molecular features of breast tumours occurring in ATM deleterious variant carriers have been described, but identification of an ATM-associated tumour signature may help in patient management. METHODS: To characterise hallmarks of ATM-associated tumours, we performed systematic pathology review of tumours from 21 participants from ataxia-telangiectasia families and 18 participants from HBOC families, as well as copy number profiling on a subset of 23 tumours. Morphology of ATM-associated tumours was compared with that of 599 patients with no BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations from a hospital-based series, as well as with data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Absolute copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles were obtained from the OncoScan SNP array. In addition, we performed whole-genome sequencing on four tumours from ATM loss-of-function variant carriers with available frozen material. RESULTS: We found that ATM-associated tumours belong mostly to the luminal B subtype, are tetraploid and show LOH at the ATM locus at 11q22-23. Unlike tumours in which BRCA1 or BRCA2 is inactivated, tumours arising in ATM deleterious variant carriers are not associated with increased large-scale genomic instability as measured by the large-scale state transitions signature. Losses at 13q14.11-q14.3, 17p13.2-p12, 21p11.2-p11.1 and 22q11.23 were observed. Somatic alterations at these loci may therefore represent biomarkers for ATM testing and harbour driver mutations in potentially 'druggable' genes that would allow patients to be directed towards tailored therapeutic strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Although ATM is involved in the DNA damage response, ATM-associated tumours are distinct from BRCA1-associated tumours in terms of morphological characteristics and genomic alterations, and they are also distinguishable from sporadic breast tumours, thus opening up the possibility to identify ATM variant carriers outside the ataxia-telangiectasia disorder and direct them towards effective cancer risk management and therapeutic strategies.

9.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 36(2): 154-163, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29203382

RESUMO

This study provides an overview of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for single gene diseases and the management of expanding indications in the context of a fully financially covered service at Montpellier's regional hospital centre. Within the framework of a restrictive law ruling PGD in France, only the parental genetic risk can be studied in embryos (concurrent aneuploidy screening is not allowed). PCR-based techniques were developed combining mutation detection and closely linked short tandem repeat markers within or flanking the affected genes, and set up more than 100 different robust fluorescent multiplex assays for 61 monogenic disorders. This strategy was used to analyse blastomeres from cleavage-stage embryos. Overall, 893 cycles were initiated in 384 couples; 727 cycles proceeded to oocyte retrieval and 608 cycles to embryo transfer, resulting in 184 deliveries. Clinical pregnancy rate per transfer, implantation and miscarriage rates were 33.6%, 25.1% and 8.8%, respectively. Our PGD programme resulted in the birth of 214 healthy babies for 162 out of 358 couples (45.3%), constituting a relevant achievement within an organizational framework that does not allow aneuploidy screening but provides equal access to PGD, both geographically and socioeconomically. This is a rare example of a fully free-of-charge PGD service.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Melanoma Res ; 27(6): 645-648, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036014

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, most commonly results from an expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene to more than 200 copies (full mutation). The FXS phenotype differs by sex and is associated with intellectual and cognitive impairment, characteristic physical features, epilepsy, and/or behavioral challenges including autism spectrum disorder. In this patient population, tumors involving blood cells, digestive organs, the central nervous system, and testes have been described, but melanocytic tumors have not been reported. Here, we describe two maternal cousins with FXS, one of whom has melanoma and the other has atypical nevus syndrome. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to this unusual or possibly coincidental association and the difficulties in the optimal treatment of FXS patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Melanoma/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Carcinogenesis ; 38(10): 994-1003, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981872

RESUMO

Recent studies have linked constitutive telomere length (TL) to aging-related diseases including cancer at different sites. ATM participates in the signaling of telomere erosion, and inherited mutations in ATM have been associated with increased risk of cancer, particularly breast cancer. The goal of this study was to investigate whether carriage of an ATM mutation and TL interplay to modify cancer risk in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) families.The study population consisted of 284 heterozygous ATM mutation carriers (HetAT) and 174 non-carriers (non-HetAT) from 103 A-T families. Forty-eight HetAT and 14 non-HetAT individuals had cancer, among them 25 HetAT and 6 non-HetAT were diagnosed after blood sample collection. We measured mean TL using a quantitative PCR assay and genotyped seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) recurrently associated with TL in large population-based studies.HetAT individuals were at increased risk of cancer (OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.2-4.4, P = 0.01), and particularly of breast cancer for women (OR = 2.9, 95%CI = 1.2-7.1, P = 0.02), in comparison to their non-HetAT relatives. HetAT individuals had longer telomeres than non-HetAT individuals (P = 0.0008) but TL was not associated with cancer risk, and no significant interaction was observed between ATM mutation status and TL. Furthermore, rs9257445 (ZNF311) was associated with TL in HetAT subjects and rs6060627 (BCL2L1) modified cancer risk in HetAT and non-HetAT women.Our findings suggest that carriage of an ATM mutation impacts on the age-related TL shortening and that TL per se is not related to cancer risk in ATM carriers. TL measurement alone is not a good marker for predicting cancer risk in A-T families.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/complicações , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Telômero/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Encurtamento do Telômero/genética , Proteína bcl-X/genética
12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 166(2): 631-639, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779219

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This report compares the risk factors, the tumor phenotypes, and the BRCA1/BRCA2 genotype of early onset breast cancer (EOBC) patients between Southern Europe and North Africa. METHODS: Four hundred and fifty six women with invasive EOBC (≤40 years) were prospectively included from four centers in France (n = 270) and four centers in North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia; n = 186). Life style, tumor phenotype, familial history, BRCA1/BRCA2 genotype were compared between the two populations. RESULTS: We found an older age at menarche, a higher number of childbearing, a more frequent breastfeeding, a higher body mass index, a lower use of oral contraceptives in North African women compared to French women. TNM stage at diagnosis was higher in North African women than in French women. North African women had a lower incidence of triple negative and proliferative (Ki 67 index > 20%) tumors. There was a lower rate of BRCA1 mutation in North Africa (7 vs. 15%, P = 0.02). Three putative BRCA1/2 founder mutations were identified in North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: In EOBC, we found significant differences in risk factors, phenotype and a higher incidence of BRCA1 mutations in Southern Europe as compared to North Africa. The worst prognosis previously reported for EOBC in North Africa is more likely due to a higher stage at diagnosis than to a more aggressive phenotype, since triple negative tumors are more common in Southern Europe and advanced tumors in North Africa.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , África do Norte , Idade de Início , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , França , Genótipo , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Med Genet ; 54(9): 607-612, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28592523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcomas are rare mesenchymal malignancies whose pathogenesis is poorly understood; both environmental and genetic risk factors could contribute to their aetiology. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in a familial aggregation of three individuals affected with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) without TP53 mutation (Li-Fraumeni-like, LFL) and found a shared pathogenic mutation in CDKN2A tumour suppressor gene. We searched for individuals with sarcoma among 474 melanoma-prone families with a CDKN2A-/+ genotype and for CDKN2A mutations in 190 TP53-negative LFL families where the index case was a sarcoma. Including the initial family, eight independent sarcoma cases carried a germline mutation in the CDKN2A/p16INK4A gene. In five out of seven formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sarcomas, heterozygosity was lost at germline CDKN2A mutations sites demonstrating complete loss of function. As sarcomas are rare in CDKN2A/p16INK4A carriers, we searched in constitutional WES of nine carriers for potential modifying rare variants and identified three in platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRA) gene. Molecular modelling showed that two never-described variants could impact the PDGFRA extracellular domain structure. CONCLUSION: Germline mutations in CDKN2A/P16INK4A, a gene known to predispose to hereditary melanoma, pancreatic cancer and tobacco-related cancers, account also for a subset of hereditary sarcoma. In addition, we identified PDGFRA as a candidate modifier gene.


Assuntos
Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Genes p16 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sarcoma/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Feminino , Determinismo Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
J Med Genet ; 54(2): 125-133, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27856506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the SDHD tumour suppressor gene (11q23.1) predispose to phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) mainly on a paternal transmission. However, PPGL have been recently reported in three carriers of a maternally inherited SDHD mutation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of PPGL occurrence on maternal transmission of SDHD mutation. METHODS: Pedigrees of 80 SDHD-related families have been reviewed. 35 asymptomatic subjects carrying a maternally transmitted SDHD mutation were identified. 20 of them accepted to benefit from a PPGL imaging screening. RESULTS: A unique histologically proven biochemically negative phaeochromocytoma has been diagnosed in a 35-year-old woman. Molecular investigations carried out on tumour tissue revealed that the loss of heterozygosity encompassed the paternally derived q arm and the maternally derived p arm of chromosome 11. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the risk of developing PPGL for a subject carrying a germline SDHD mutation on the maternal allele remains a rare scenario but does exist. Our data suggest an adjustment of current genetic counselling and clinical care recommendations for at-risk subjects. A targeted familial genetic test should be proposed from the age of 18 years to every subject having a mother carrying a germline SDHD mutation and a first medical workup, including imaging, should be recommended to SDHD-positive mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética , Adolescente , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Herança Materna/genética , Paraganglioma/patologia , Linhagem , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Medição de Risco
15.
BMC Cancer ; 16: 13, 2016 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26758370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Less than 20% of familial breast cancer patients who undergo genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carry a pathogenic mutation in one of these two genes. The GENESIS (GENE SISter) study was designed to identify new breast cancer susceptibility genes in women attending cancer genetics clinics and with no BRCA1/2 mutation. METHODS: The study involved the French national network of family cancer clinics. It was based on enrichment in genetic factors of the recruited population through case selection relying on familial criteria, but also on the consideration of environmental factors and endophenotypes like mammary density or tumor characteristics to assess potential genetic heterogeneity. One of the initial aims of GENESIS was to recruit affected sibpairs. Siblings were eligible when index cases and at least one affected sister were diagnosed with infiltrating mammary or ductal adenocarcinoma, with no BRCA1/2 mutation. In addition, unrelated controls and unaffected sisters were recruited. The enrolment of patients, their relatives and their controls, the collection of the clinical, epidemiological, familial and biological data were centralized by a coordinating center. RESULTS: Inclusion of participants started in February 2007 and ended in December 2013. A total of 1721 index cases, 826 affected sisters, 599 unaffected sisters and 1419 controls were included. 98% of participants completed the epidemiological questionnaire, 97% provided a blood sample, and 76% were able to provide mammograms. Index cases were on average 59 years old at inclusion, were born in 1950, and were 49.7 years of age at breast cancer diagnosis. The mean age at diagnosis of affected sisters was slightly higher (51.4 years). The representativeness of the control group was verified. CONCLUSIONS: The size of the study, the availability of biological specimens and the clinical data collection together with the detailed and complete epidemiological questionnaire make this a unique national resource for investigation of the missing heritability of breast cancer, by taking into account environmental and life style factors and stratifying data on endophenotypes to decrease genetic heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(9): 1324-9, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26785832

RESUMO

Although a wide number of breast cancer susceptibility alleles associated with various levels of risk have been identified to date, about 50% of the heritability is still missing. Although the major BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are being extensively screened for truncating and missense variants in breast and/or ovarian cancer families, potential regulatory variants affecting their expression remain largely unexplored. In an attempt to identify such variants, we focused our attention on gene regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRs). We screened two genes, MIR146A and MIR146B, producing miR-146a and miR-146b-5p, respectively, that regulate BRCA1, and the 3'- untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the GENESIS French national case/control study (BRCA1- and BRCA2-negative breast cancer cases with at least one sister with breast cancer and matched controls). We identified one rare variant in MIR146A, four in MIR146B, five in BRCA1 3'-UTR and one in BRCA2 3'-UTR in 716 index cases and 619 controls. Among these 11 rare variants, 7 were identified each in 1 index case. None of the three relevant MIR146A/MIR146B variants affected the pre-miR sequences. The potential causality of the four relevant BRCA1/BRCA2 3'-UTRs variants was evaluated with luciferase reporter assays and co-segregation studies, as well as with bioinformatics analyses to predict miRs-binding sites, RNA secondary structures and RNA accessibility. This is the first study to report the screening of miR genes and of BRCA2 3'-UTR in a large series of familial breast cancer cases. None of the variant identified in this study gave convincing evidence of potential pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(1): 99-105, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25873010

RESUMO

To determine if the at-risk single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles for colorectal cancer (CRC) could contribute to clinical situations suggestive of an increased genetic risk for CRC, we performed a prospective national case-control study based on highly selected patients (CRC in two first-degree relatives, one before 61 years of age; or CRC diagnosed before 51 years of age; or multiple primary CRCs, the first before 61 years of age; exclusion of Lynch syndrome and polyposes) and controls without personal or familial history of CRC. SNPs were genotyped using SNaPshot, and statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's χ(2) test, Cochran-Armitage test of trend and logistic regression. We included 1029 patients and 350 controls. We confirmed the association of CRC risk with four SNPs, with odds ratio (OR) higher than previously reported: rs16892766 on 8q23.3 (OR: 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-2.72; P=0.0007); rs4779584 on 15q13.3 (OR: 1.42, CI: 1.11-1.83; P=0.0061) and rs4939827 and rs58920878/Novel 1 on 18q21.1 (OR: 1.49, CI: 1.13-1.98; P=0.007 and OR: 1.49, CI: 1.14-1.95; P=0.0035). We found a significant (P<0.0001) cumulative effect of the at-risk alleles or genotypes with OR at 1.62 (CI: 1.10-2.37), 2.09 (CI: 1.43-3.07), 2.87 (CI: 1.76-4.70) and 3.88 (CI: 1.72-8.76) for 1, 2, 3 and at least 4 at-risk alleles, respectively, and OR at 1.71 (CI: 1.18-2.46), 2.29 (CI: 1.55-3.38) and 6.21 (CI: 2.67-14.42) for 1, 2 and 3 at-risk genotypes, respectively. Combination of SNPs may therefore explain a fraction of clinical situations suggestive of an increased risk for CRC.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Hum Mutat ; 36(9): 894-902, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26077438

RESUMO

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an imprinting disorder associating macroglossia, abdominal wall defects, visceromegaly, and a high risk of childhood tumor. Molecular anomalies are mostly epigenetic; however, mutations of CDKN1C are implicated in 8% of cases, including both sporadic and familial forms. We aimed to describe the phenotype of BWS patients with CDKN1C mutations and develop a functional test for CDKN1C mutations. For each propositus, we sequenced the three exons and intron-exon boundaries of CDKN1C in patients presenting a BWS phenotype, including abdominal wall defects, without 11p15 methylation defects. We developed a functional test based on flow cytometry. We identified 37 mutations in 38 pedigrees (50 patients and seven fetuses). Analysis of parental samples when available showed that all mutations tested but one was inherited from the mother. The four missense mutations led to a less severe phenotype (lower frequency of exomphalos) than the other 33 mutations. The following four tumors occurred: one neuroblastoma, one ganglioneuroblastoma, one melanoma, and one acute lymphoid leukemia. Cases of BWS caused by CDKN1C mutations are not rare. CDKN1C sequencing should be performed for BWS patients presenting with abdominal wall defects or cleft palate without 11p15 methylation defects or body asymmetry, or in familial cases of BWS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p57/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Impressão Genômica , Fenótipo , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p57/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Linhagem , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
J Med Genet ; 52(6): 426-30, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25911086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many cases of familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain unexplained by mutations in the known predisposing genes or shared environmental factors. There are therefore additional, still unidentified genes involved in familial RCC. PBRM1 is a tumour suppressor gene and somatic mutations are found in 30-45% of sporadic clear cell (cc) RCC. METHODS: We selected 35 unrelated patients with unexplained personal history of ccRCC and at least one affected first-degree relative, and sequenced the PBRM1 gene. RESULTS: A germline frameshift mutation (c.3998_4005del [p.Asp1333Glyfs]) was found in one patient. The patient's mother, his sister and one niece also had ccRCC. The mutation co-segregated with the disease as the three affected relatives were carriers, while an unaffected sister was not, according with autosomal-dominant transmission. Somatic studies supported these findings, as we observed both loss of heterozygosity for the mutation and loss of protein expression in renal tumours. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that an inherited mutation in PBRM1 predisposes to RCC. International studies are necessary to estimate the contribution of PBRM1 to RCC susceptibility, estimate penetrance and then integrate the gene into routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Masculino , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 24(4): 698-707, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25613119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA1/2 confer a high risk of breast cancer, but literature values of this risk vary. A genotype-phenotype correlation has been found in both genes, and the effect of reproductive factors differs according to mutation location. Therefore, we hypothesize that such a variation may exist for other factors related to estrogen exposure. METHODS: We used a weighted Cox regression model to assess variation in breast cancer risk with these factors using location of mutation in homogeneous breast cancer risk region of BRCA1/2 in the GENEPSO study. RESULTS: We found that late age at menarche reduced breast cancer risk by 31% and that among BRCA1 carriers, a long or a short menstrual cycle increased risk (by 65% and 73%, respectively). Among premenopausal women, overweight was associated with a 45% decrease in risk whereas underweight was associated with an increased risk (HR, 2.40). A natural menopause, mainly after age 50, was associated with a high breast cancer risk (HR, 2.46), and a significant interaction between menopause status and the location of mutations was found leading up to 10% variation in absolute risk according to the age at menopause. CONCLUSIONS: As observed in the general population, a late menarche, a long or a short menstrual cycle, over- or underweight, and being postmenopausal were associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers. The association with the menopause was observed only when the mutation was located in the "high-risk" zones. IMPACT: Taking into account modifier factors, location of mutation might be important for the clinical management of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Menarca , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA