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1.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103766, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536827

RESUMO

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6 (PCH6) is a rare infantile-onset progressive encephalopathy caused by biallelic mutations in RARS2 that encodes the mitochondrial arginine-tRNA synthetase enzyme (mtArgRS). The clinical presentation overlaps that of PEHO syndrome (Progressive Encephalopathy with edema, Hypsarrhythmia and Optic atrophy). The proband presented with severe intellectual disability, epilepsy with varying seizure types, optic atrophy, axial hypotonia, acquired microcephaly, dysmorphic features and progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and delayed myelination on MRI. The presentation had resemblance to PEHO syndrome but sequencing of ZNHIT3 did not identify pathogenic variants. Subsequent whole genome sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous variants in RARS2, a missense variant affecting a highly conserved amino acid and a frameshift variant with consequent degradation of the transcript resulting in decreased mtArgRS protein level confirming the diagnosis of PCH6. Features distinguishing the proband's phenotype from PEHO syndrome were later appearance of hypotonia and elevated lactate levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. On MRI the proband presented with more severe supratentorial atrophy and lesser degree of abnormal myelination than PEHO syndrome patients. The study highlights the challenges in clinical diagnosis of patients with neonatal and early infantile encephalopathies with overlapping clinical features and brain MRI findings.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(12): 2447-2453, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512363

RESUMO

Hartsfield syndrome is a rare clinical entity characterized by holoprosencephaly and ectrodactyly with the variable feature of cleft lip/palate. In addition to these symptoms patients with Hartsfield syndrome can show developmental delay of variable severity, isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, central diabetes insipidus, vertebral anomalies, eye anomalies, and cardiac malformations. Pathogenic variants in FGFR1 have been described to cause phenotypically different FGFR1-related disorders such as Hartsfield syndrome, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, osteoglophonic dysplasia, Pfeiffer syndrome, and trigonocephaly Type 1. Here, we report three patients with Hartsfield syndrome from two unrelated families. Exome sequencing revealed two siblings harboring a novel de novo heterozygous synonymous variant c.1029G>A, p.Ala343Ala causing a cryptic splice donor site in exon 8 of FGFR1 likely due to gonadal mosaicism in one parent. The third case was a sporadic patient with a novel de novo heterozygous missense variant c.1868A>G, p.(Asp623Gly).

3.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(4): 655-668, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019990

RESUMO

Objective: FOXG1 syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with heterozygous FOXG1 variants or chromosomal microaberrations in 14q12. The study aimed at assessing the scope of structural cerebral anomalies revealed by neuroimaging to delineate the genotype and neuroimaging phenotype associations. Methods: We compiled 34 patients with a heterozygous (likely) pathogenic FOXG1 variant. Qualitative assessment of cerebral anomalies was performed by standardized re-analysis of all 34 MRI data sets. Statistical analysis of genetic, clinical and neuroimaging data were performed. We quantified clinical and neuroimaging phenotypes using severity scores. Telencephalic phenotypes of adult Foxg1+/- mice were examined using immunohistological stainings followed by quantitative evaluation of structural anomalies. Results: Characteristic neuroimaging features included corpus callosum anomalies (82%), thickening of the fornix (74%), simplified gyral pattern (56%), enlargement of inner CSF spaces (44%), hypoplasia of basal ganglia (38%), and hypoplasia of frontal lobes (29%). We observed a marked, filiform thinning of the rostrum as recurrent highly typical pattern of corpus callosum anomaly in combination with distinct thickening of the fornix as a characteristic feature. Thickening of the fornices was not reported previously in FOXG1 syndrome. Simplified gyral pattern occurred significantly more frequently in patients with early truncating variants. Higher clinical severity scores were significantly associated with higher neuroimaging severity scores. Modeling of Foxg1 heterozygosity in mouse brain recapitulated the associated abnormal cerebral morphology phenotypes, including the striking enlargement of the fornix. Interpretation: Combination of specific corpus callosum anomalies with simplified gyral pattern and hyperplasia of the fornices is highly characteristic for FOXG1 syndrome.

4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2958, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054480

RESUMO

Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that has an important role in mitochondrial fusion and structural integrity. Dysfunctional OPA1 mutations cause atrophy of the optic nerve leading to blindness. Here, we show that OPA1 has an important role in the innate immune system. Using conditional knockout mice lacking Opa1 in neutrophils (Opa1N∆), we report that lack of OPA1 reduces the activity of mitochondrial electron transport complex I in neutrophils. This then causes a decline in adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) production through glycolysis due to lowered NAD+ availability. Additionally, we show that OPA1-dependent ATP production in these cells is required for microtubule network assembly and for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Finally, we show that Opa1N∆ mice exhibit a reduced antibacterial defense capability against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

5.
J Transl Med ; 16(1): 23, 2018 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer vaccines can effectively establish clinically relevant tumor immunity. Novel sequencing approaches rapidly identify the mutational fingerprint of tumors, thus allowing to generate personalized tumor vaccines within a few weeks from diagnosis. Here, we report the case of a 62-year-old patient receiving a four-peptide-vaccine targeting the two sole mutations of his pancreatic tumor, identified via exome sequencing. METHODS: Vaccination started during chemotherapy in second complete remission and continued monthly thereafter. We tracked IFN-γ+ T cell responses against vaccine peptides in peripheral blood after 12, 17 and 34 vaccinations by analyzing T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity and epitope-binding regions of peptide-reactive T-cell lines and clones. By restricting analysis to sorted IFN-γ-producing T cells we could assure epitope-specificity, functionality, and TH1 polarization. RESULTS: A peptide-specific T-cell response against three of the four vaccine peptides could be detected sequentially. Molecular TCR analysis revealed a broad vaccine-reactive TCR repertoire with clones of discernible specificity. Four identical or convergent TCR sequences could be identified at more than one time-point, indicating timely persistence of vaccine-reactive T cells. One dominant TCR expressing a dual TCRVα chain could be found in three T-cell clones. The observed T-cell responses possibly contributed to clinical outcome: The patient is alive 6 years after initial diagnosis and in complete remission for 4 years now. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic vaccination with a neoantigen-derived four-peptide vaccine resulted in a diverse and long-lasting immune response against these targets which was associated with prolonged clinical remission. These data warrant confirmation in a larger proof-of concept clinical trial.

6.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(2): 420-425, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445489

RESUMO

We present a case of diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD) which showed increased nuchal translucency at 1st trimester and missing ossification of the lower spine, short ribs with posterior gaps, and absent nasal bone in midtrimester. Autopsy revealed additionally bilateral nephroblastomatosis. Molecular genetic analysis showed a new mutation in the BMPER gene.

7.
Epilepsia ; 59(2): 389-402, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic SLC6A1 variants were recently described in patients with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability (ID). We set out to define the phenotypic spectrum in a larger cohort of SCL6A1-mutated patients. METHODS: We collected 24 SLC6A1 probands and 6 affected family members. Four previously published cases were included for further electroclinical description. In total, we reviewed the electroclinical data of 34 subjects. RESULTS: Cognitive development was impaired in 33/34 (97%) subjects; 28/34 had mild to moderate ID, with language impairment being the most common feature. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 31/34 cases with mean onset at 3.7 years. Cognitive assessment before epilepsy onset was available in 24/31 subjects and was normal in 25% (6/24), and consistent with mild ID in 46% (11/24) or moderate ID in 17% (4/24). Two patients had speech delay only, and 1 had severe ID. After epilepsy onset, cognition deteriorated in 46% (11/24) of cases. The most common seizure types were absence, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Sixteen cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MAE. Seven further patients had different forms of generalized epilepsy and 2 had focal epilepsy. Twenty of 31 patients became seizure-free, with valproic acid being the most effective drug. There was no clear-cut correlation between seizure control and cognitive outcome. Electroencephalography (EEG) findings were available in 27/31 patients showing irregular bursts of diffuse 2.5-3.5 Hz spikes/polyspikes-and-slow waves in 25/31. Two patients developed an EEG pattern resembling electrical status epilepticus during sleep. Ataxia was observed in 7/34 cases. We describe 7 truncating and 18 missense variants, including 4 recurrent variants (Gly232Val, Ala288Val, Val342Met, and Gly362Arg). SIGNIFICANCE: Most patients carrying pathogenic SLC6A1 variants have an MAE phenotype with language delay and mild/moderate ID before epilepsy onset. However, ID alone or associated with focal epilepsy can also be observed.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/complicações , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/complicações , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
8.
Genet Med ; 20(1): 98-108, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28661489

RESUMO

PurposeThe study aimed at widening the clinical and genetic spectrum and assessing genotype-phenotype associations in FOXG1 syndrome due to FOXG1 variants.MethodsWe compiled 30 new and 53 reported patients with a heterozygous pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in FOXG1. We grouped patients according to type and location of the variant. Statistical analysis of molecular and clinical data was performed using Fisher's exact test and a nonparametric multivariate test.ResultsAmong the 30 new patients, we identified 19 novel FOXG1 variants. Among the total group of 83 patients, there were 54 variants: 20 frameshift (37%), 17 missense (31%), 15 nonsense (28%), and 2 in-frame variants (4%). Frameshift and nonsense variants are distributed over all FOXG1 protein domains; missense variants cluster within the conserved forkhead domain. We found a higher phenotypic variability than previously described. Genotype-phenotype association revealed significant differences in psychomotor development and neurological features between FOXG1 genotype groups. More severe phenotypes were associated with truncating FOXG1 variants in the N-terminal domain and the forkhead domain (except conserved site 1) and milder phenotypes with missense variants in the forkhead conserved site 1.ConclusionsThese data may serve for improved interpretation of new FOXG1 sequence variants and well-founded genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(1): 225-230, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27683074

RESUMO

Isolated defects of the mitochondrial respiratory complex II (succinate dehydrogenase, SDH) are rare, accounting for approximately 2% of all respiratory chain deficiency diagnoses. Here, we report clinical and molecular investigations of three family members with a heterozygous mutation in the large flavoprotein subunit SDHA previously described to cause complex II deficiency. The index patient presented with bilateral optic atrophy and ocular movement disorder, a progressive polyneuropathy, psychiatric involvement, and cardiomyopathy. Two of his children presented with cardiomyopathy and methylglutaconic aciduria in early childhood. The daughter deceased at the age of 7 months due to cardiac insufficiency. The 30-year old son presents with cardiomyopathy and developed bilateral optic atrophy in adulthood. Of the four nuclear encoded proteins composing complex II (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD) and currently known assembly factors SDHAF1 and SDHAF2 mainly recessively inherited mutations have been described in SDHA, SDHB, SDHD, and SDHAF1 to be causative for mitochondrial disease phenotypes. This is the second report presenting autosomal dominant inheritance of a SDHA mutation.© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/deficiência , Mutação , Fenótipo , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Biomarcadores , Códon , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Genes Mitocondriais , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Conformação Proteica , Succinato Desidrogenase/química
10.
Neurology ; 86(23): 2171-8, 2016 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27164704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the phenotypic spectrum caused by mutations in GRIN1 encoding the NMDA receptor subunit GluN1 and to investigate their underlying functional pathophysiology. METHODS: We collected molecular and clinical data from several diagnostic and research cohorts. Functional consequences of GRIN1 mutations were investigated in Xenopus laevis oocytes. RESULTS: We identified heterozygous de novo GRIN1 mutations in 14 individuals and reviewed the phenotypes of all 9 previously reported patients. These 23 individuals presented with a distinct phenotype of profound developmental delay, severe intellectual disability with absent speech, muscular hypotonia, hyperkinetic movement disorder, oculogyric crises, cortical blindness, generalized cerebral atrophy, and epilepsy. Mutations cluster within transmembrane segments and result in loss of channel function of varying severity with a dominant-negative effect. In addition, we describe 2 homozygous GRIN1 mutations (1 missense, 1 truncation), each segregating with severe neurodevelopmental phenotypes in consanguineous families. CONCLUSIONS: De novo GRIN1 mutations are associated with severe intellectual disability with cortical visual impairment as well as oculomotor and movement disorders being discriminating phenotypic features. Loss of NMDA receptor function appears to be the underlying disease mechanism. The identification of both heterozygous and homozygous mutations blurs the borders of dominant and recessive inheritance of GRIN1-associated disorders.


Assuntos
Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Consanguinidade , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/metabolismo , Oócitos , Fenótipo , Convulsões/genética , Convulsões/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis
11.
Neurology ; 86(10): 954-62, 2016 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26865513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To give a comprehensive overview of the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of STXBP1 encephalopathy (STXBP1-E) by systematically reviewing newly diagnosed and previously reported patients. METHODS: We recruited newly diagnosed patients with STXBP1 mutations through an international network of clinicians and geneticists. Furthermore, we performed a systematic literature search to review the phenotypes of all previously reported patients. RESULTS: We describe the phenotypic features of 147 patients with STXBP1-E including 45 previously unreported patients with 33 novel STXBP1 mutations. All patients have intellectual disability (ID), which is mostly severe to profound (88%). Ninety-five percent of patients have epilepsy. While one-third of patients presented with Ohtahara syndrome (21%) or West syndrome (9.5%), the majority has a nonsyndromic early-onset epilepsy and encephalopathy (53%) with epileptic spasms or tonic seizures as main seizure type. We found no correlation between severity of seizures and severity of ID or between mutation type and seizure characteristics or cognitive outcome. Neurologic comorbidities including autistic features and movement disorders are frequent. We also report 2 previously unreported adult patients with prominent extrapyramidal features. CONCLUSION: De novo STXBP1 mutations are among the most frequent causes of epilepsy and encephalopathy. Most patients have severe to profound ID with little correlation among seizure onset, seizure severity, and the degree of ID. Accordingly, we hypothesize that seizure severity and ID present 2 independent dimensions of the STXBP1-E phenotype. STXBP1-E may be conceptualized as a complex neurodevelopmental disorder rather than a primary epileptic encephalopathy.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Proteínas Munc18/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Med Genet ; 57(9): 520-3, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24932903

RESUMO

We report two patients with microdeletions in chromosomal subdomain 15q26.1 encompassing only two genes, CHD2 and RGMA. Both patients present a distinct phenotype with intellectual disability, epilepsy, behavioral issues, truncal obesity, scoliosis and facial dysmorphism. CHD2 haploinsufficiency is known to cause intellectual disability and epilepsy, RGMA haploinsufficiency might explain truncal obesity with onset around puberty observed in our two patients.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Obesidade/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Facies , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Epilepsia ; 53(12): 2128-34, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23016767

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sodium channel gene aberrations are associated with a wide range of seizure disorders, particularly Dravet syndrome. They usually consist of missense or truncating gene mutations or deletions. Duplications involving multiple genes encoding for different sodium channels are not widely known. This article summarizes the clinical, radiologic, and genetic features of patients with 2q24 duplication involving the sodium channel gene cluster. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature and report of two cases. KEY FINDINGS: Nine individuals with 2q24 duplication involving the sodium channel gene cluster are described (seven female, two male). All presented with severe seizures refractory to anticonvulsant drugs. Seizure onset was in the neonatal period in eight patients with SCN1A-involvement, in infancy in one patient with SCN2A and SCN3A, but no SCN1A involvement. Seizure activity decreased and eventually stopped at 5-20 months of age. Seizures recurred at the age of 3 years in the patient with SCN2A and SCN3A, but no SCN1A involvement. Eight patients had a poor neurodevelopmental outcome despite seizure freedom. SIGNIFICANCE: This article describes a distinct seizure disorder associated with a duplication of the sodium gene cluster on 2q24 described in otherwise healthy neonates and infants with severe, anticonvulsant refractory seizures and poor developmental outcome despite seizure freedom occurring at the age of 5-20 months.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
14.
Epilepsia ; 53(8): 1387-98, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22612257

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Epilepsies have a highly heterogeneous background with a strong genetic contribution. The variety of unspecific and overlapping syndromic and nonsyndromic phenotypes often hampers a clear clinical diagnosis and prevents straightforward genetic testing. Knowing the genetic basis of a patient's epilepsy can be valuable not only for diagnosis but also for guiding treatment and estimating recurrence risks. METHODS: To overcome these diagnostic restrictions, we composed a panel of genes for Next Generation Sequencing containing the most relevant epilepsy genes and covering the most relevant epilepsy phenotypes known so far. With this method, 265 genes were analyzed per patient in a single step. We evaluated this panel on a pilot cohort of 33 index patients with concise epilepsy phenotypes or with a severe but unspecific seizure disorder covering both sporadic and familial cases. KEY FINDINGS: We identified presumed disease-causing mutations in 16 of 33 patients comprising sequence alterations in frequently as well as in less commonly affected genes. The detected aberrations encompassed known and unknown point mutations (SCN1A p.R222X, p. E289V, p.379R, p.R393H; SCN2A p.V208E; STXBP1 p.R122X; KCNJ10 p.L68P, p.I129V; KCTD7 p.L108M; KCNQ3 p.P574S; ARHGEF9 p.R290H; SMS p.F58L; TPP1 p.Q278R, p.Q422H; MFSD8 p.T294K), a putative splice site mutation (SCN1A c.693A> p.T/P231P) and small deletions (SCN1A p.F1330Lfs3X [1 bp]; MFSD8 p.A138Dfs10X [7 bp]). All mutations have been confirmed by conventional Sanger sequencing and, where possible, validated by parental testing and segregation analysis. In three patients with either Dravet syndrome or myoclonic epilepsy, we detected SCN1A mutations (p.R222X, p.P231P, p.R393H), even though other laboratories had previously excluded aberrations of this gene by Sanger sequencing or high-resolution melting analysis. SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed a fast and cost-efficient diagnostic screening method to analyze the genetic basis of epilepsies. We were able to detect mutations in patients with clear and with unspecific epilepsy phenotypes, to uncover the genetic basis of many so far unresolved cases with epilepsy including mutation detection in cases in which previous conventional methods yielded falsely negative results. Our approach thus proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool that may contribute to collecting information on both common and unknown epileptic disorders and in delineating associated phenotypes of less frequently mutated genes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
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