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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223337, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA sequencing has been proposed as a means of increasing diagnostic rates in studies of undiagnosed rare inherited disease. Recent studies have reported diagnostic improvements in the range of 7.5-35% by profiling splicing, gene expression quantification and allele specific expression. To-date however, no study has systematically assessed the presence of gene-fusion transcripts in cases of germline disease. Fusion transcripts are routinely identified in cancer studies and are increasingly recognized as having diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic relevance. Isolated reports exist of fusion transcripts being detected in cases of developmental and neurological phenotypes, and thus, systematic application of fusion detection to germline conditions may further increase diagnostic rates. However, current fusion detection methods are unsuited to the investigation of germline disease due to performance biases arising from their development using tumor, cell-line or in-silico data. METHODS: We describe a tailored approach to fusion candidate identification and prioritization in a cohort of 47 undiagnosed, suspected inherited disease patients. We modify an existing fusion transcript detection algorithm by eliminating its cell line-derived filtering steps, and instead, prioritize candidates using a custom workflow that integrates genomic and transcriptomic sequence alignment, biological and technical annotations, customized categorization logic, and phenotypic prioritization. RESULTS: We demonstrate that our approach to fusion transcript identification and prioritization detects genuine fusion events excluded by standard analyses and efficiently removes phenotypically unimportant candidates and false positive events, resulting in a reduced candidate list enriched for events with potential phenotypic relevance. We describe the successful genetic resolution of two previously undiagnosed disease cases through the detection of pathogenic fusion transcripts. Furthermore, we report the experimental validation of five additional cases of fusion transcripts with potential phenotypic relevance. CONCLUSIONS: The approach we describe can be implemented to enable the detection of phenotypically relevant fusion transcripts in studies of rare inherited disease. Fusion transcript detection has the potential to increase diagnostic rates in rare inherited disease and should be included in RNA-based analytical pipelines aimed at genetic diagnosis.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662300

RESUMO

Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I (TRPSI) is a rare disorder that causes distinctive ectodermal, facial, and skeletal features affecting the hair (tricho-), nose (rhino-), fingers and toes (phalangeal), and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. TRPSI is caused by loss of function variants in TRPS1, involved in the regulation of chondrocyte and perichondrium development. Pathogenic variants in TRPS1 include missense mutations and deletions with variable breakpoints, with only a single instance of an intragenic duplication reported to date. Here we report an affected individual presenting with a classic TRPSI phenotype who is heterozygous for a de novo intragenic ~36.3Kbp duplication affecting exons 2-4 of TRPS1 Molecular analysis revealed the duplication to be in direct tandem orientation affecting the splicing of TRPS1 The aberrant transcripts are predicted to produce a truncated TRPS1 missing the nuclear localization signal and the GATA and IKAROS-like zinc-finger domains resulting in functional TRPS1 haploinsufficiency. Our study identifies a novel intragenic tandem duplication of TRPS1 and highlights the importance of molecular characterization of intragenic duplications.

3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(9): 1753-1768, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate experience and feasibility of a precision medicine approach for patients with unexplained cytopenias, defined as low blood counts in one or more cell lineages, persistent for 6 months or longer, in the absence of known nutritional, autoimmune, infectious, toxic, and neoplastic (secondary) causes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were evaluated in our clinic between November 8, 2016, and January 12, 2018. After a thorough evaluation of known causes, family history, and appropriate clinical assays, genomic evaluation was performed in a stepwise manner, through Sanger, targeted, and/or whole-exome sequencing. Variants were analyzed and discussed in a genomics tumor board attended by clinicians, bioinformaticians, and molecular biologists. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients were evaluated in our clinic. After genomic interrogation, they were classified into inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) (n=24, 35%), cytopenias without a known clinical syndrome which included idiopathic and clonal cytopenias of undetermined significance (CCUS) (n=30, 44%), and patients who did not fit into the above two categories ("others," n=14, 21%). A significant family history was found in only 17 (25%) patients (9 IBMFS, 2 CCUS, and 6 others), whereas gene variants were found in 43 (63%) patients (34 [79%] pathogenic including 12 IBMFS, 17 CCUS, and 5 others]. Genomic assessment resulted in a change in clinical management in 17 (25%) patients, as evidenced by changes in decisions with regards to therapeutic interventions (n=8, 47%), donor choice (n=6, 35%), and/or choice of conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n=8, 47%). CONCLUSION: We show clinical utility of a real-world algorithmic precision medicine approach for unexplained cytopenias.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 108-121, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204009

RESUMO

Pediatric acute liver failure (ALF) is life threatening with genetic, immunologic, and environmental etiologies. Approximately half of all cases remain unexplained. Recurrent ALF (RALF) in infants describes repeated episodes of severe liver injury with recovery of hepatic function between crises. We describe bi-allelic RINT1 alterations as the cause of a multisystem disorder including RALF and skeletal abnormalities. Three unrelated individuals with RALF onset ≤3 years of age have splice alterations at the same position (c.1333+1G>A or G>T) in trans with a missense (p.Ala368Thr or p.Leu370Pro) or in-frame deletion (p.Val618_Lys619del) in RINT1. ALF episodes are concomitant with fever/infection and not all individuals have complete normalization of liver function testing between episodes. Liver biopsies revealed nonspecific liver damage including fibrosis, steatosis, or mild increases in Kupffer cells. Skeletal imaging revealed abnormalities affecting the vertebrae and pelvis. Dermal fibroblasts showed splice-variant mediated skipping of exon 9 leading to an out-of-frame product and nonsense-mediated transcript decay. Fibroblasts also revealed decreased RINT1 protein, abnormal Golgi morphology, and impaired autophagic flux compared to control. RINT1 interacts with NBAS, recently implicated in RALF, and UVRAG, to facilitate Golgi-to-ER retrograde vesicle transport. During nutrient depletion or infection, Golgi-to-ER transport is suppressed and autophagy is promoted through UVRAG regulation by mTOR. Aberrant autophagy has been associated with the development of similar skeletal abnormalities and also with liver disease, suggesting that disruption of these RINT1 functions may explain the liver and skeletal findings. Clarifying the pathomechanism underlying this gene-disease relationship may inform therapeutic opportunities.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(8): 1225-1234, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976111

RESUMO

The DOCK3 gene encodes the Dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (DOCK3) protein, which belongs to the family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors and is expressed almost exclusively in the brain and spinal cord. We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to investigate the molecular cause of developmental delay and hypotonia in three unrelated probands. WES identified truncating and splice site variants in Patient 1 and compound heterozygous and homozygous missense variants in Patients 2 and 3, respectively. We studied the effect of the three missense variants in vitro by using site-directed mutagenesis and pull-down assay and show that the induction of Rac1 activation was significantly lower in DOCK3 mutant cells compared with wild type human DOCK3 (P < 0.05). We generated a protein model to further examine the effect of the two missense variants within or adjacent to the DHR-2 domain in DOCK3 and this model supports pathogenicity. Our results support a loss of function mechanism but the data on the patients with missense variants should be cautiously interpreted because of the variability of the phenotypes and limited number of cases. Prior studies have described DOCK3 bi-allelic loss of function variants in two families with ataxia, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Here, we report on three patients with DOCK3-related developmental delay, wide-based or uncoordinated gait, and hypotonia, further supporting DOCK3's role in a neurodevelopmental syndrome and expanding the spectrum of phenotypic and genotypic variability.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 666-678, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343943

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are severe neurodevelopmental disorders often beginning in infancy or early childhood that are characterized by intractable seizures, abundant epileptiform activity on EEG, and developmental impairment or regression. CACNA1E is highly expressed in the central nervous system and encodes the α1-subunit of the voltage-gated CaV2.3 channel, which conducts high voltage-activated R-type calcium currents that initiate synaptic transmission. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we identified de novo CACNA1E variants in 30 individuals with DEE, characterized by refractory infantile-onset seizures, severe hypotonia, and profound developmental impairment, often with congenital contractures, macrocephaly, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and early death. Most of the 14, partially recurring, variants cluster within the cytoplasmic ends of all four S6 segments, which form the presumed CaV2.3 channel activation gate. Functional analysis of several S6 variants revealed consistent gain-of-function effects comprising facilitated voltage-dependent activation and slowed inactivation. Another variant located in the domain II S4-S5 linker results in facilitated activation and increased current density. Five participants achieved seizure freedom on the anti-epileptic drug topiramate, which blocks R-type calcium channels. We establish pathogenic variants in CACNA1E as a cause of DEEs and suggest facilitated R-type calcium currents as a disease mechanism for human epilepsy and developmental disorders.

9.
Front Genet ; 9: 276, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090112

RESUMO

Purpose: Demand is increasing for clinical genomic sequencing to provide diagnoses for patients presenting phenotypes indicative of genetic diseases, but for whom routine genetic testing failed to yield a diagnosis. DNA-based testing using high-throughput technologies often identifies variants with insufficient evidence to determine whether they are disease-causal or benign, leading to categorization as variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Methods: We used molecular modeling and simulation to generate specific hypotheses for the molecular effects of variants in the human glucose transporter, GLUT10 (SLC2A10). Similar to many disease-relevant membrane proteins, no experimentally derived 3D structure exists. An atomic model was generated and used to evaluate multiple variants, including pathogenic, benign, and VUS. Results: These analyses yielded detailed mechanistic data, not currently predictable from sequence, including altered protein stability, charge distribution of ligand binding surfaces, and shifts toward or away from transport-competent conformations. Consideration of the two major conformations of GLUT10 was important as variants have conformation-specific effects. We generated detailed molecular hypotheses for the functional impact of variants in GLUT10 and propose means to determine their pathogenicity. Conclusion: The type of workflow we present here is valuable for increasing the throughput and resolution with which VUS effects can be assessed and interpreted.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1797-1809, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097616

RESUMO

Whole exome sequencing (WES) is utilized in diagnostic odyssey cases to identify the underlying genetic cause associated with complex phenotypes. Recent publications suggest that WES reveals the genetic cause in ~25% of these cases and is most successful when applied to children with neurological disease. The residual 75% of cases remain genetically elusive until more information becomes available in the literature or functional studies are pursued. WES performed on three families with presumed ciliopathy diagnoses, including orofaciodigital (OFD) syndrome, fetal encephalocele, or Joubert-related disorder, identified compound heterozygous variants in C2CD3. Biallelic variants in C2CD3 have previously been associated with ciliopathies, including OFD syndrome type 14 (OFD14; MIM: 615948). As three of the six identified variants were predicted to affect splicing, exon-skipping analysis using either RNA sequencing or PCR-based methods were completed to determine the pathogenicity of these variants, and showed that each of the splicing variants led to a frameshifted protein product. Using these studies in combination with the 2015 ACMG guidelines, each of the six identified variants were classified as either pathogenic or likely pathogenic, and are therefore likely responsible for our patients' phenotypes. Each of the families had a distinct clinical phenotype and severity of disease, extending from lethal to viable. These findings highlight that there is a broad phenotypic spectrum associated with C2CD3-mediated disease and not all patients present with the typical features of OFD14.

11.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(7): 834-839, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976374

RESUMO

Short telomere syndromes (STSs) are accelerated aging syndromes with multisystemic manifestations that present complex management challenges. In this article, we discuss a single-institution experience in diagnosing and managing patients with inherited STSs. In total, we identified 17 patients with short telomeres, defined by flow-fluorescence in-situ hybridization telomere lengths of less than first centile in granulocytes/lymphocytes OR the presence of a characteristic germline pathogenic variant in the context of a highly suggestive clinical phenotype. Genetic variations in the telomere complex were identified in 6 (35%) patients, with 4 being known pathogenic variants involving TERT (n=2), TERC (n=1), and DKC1 (n=1) genes, while 2 were variants of uncertain significance in TERT and RTEL1 genes. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) (n=12 [71%]), unexplained cytopenias (n=5 [29%]), and cirrhosis (n=2 [12%]) were most frequent clinical phenotypes at diagnosis. At median follow-up of 48 (range, 0-316) months, Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival, median (95% CI), was 182 (113, not reached) months. Treatment modalities included lung transplantation for IIP (n=5 [29%]), with 3 patients developing signs of acute cellular rejection (2, grade A2; 1, grade A1); danazol therapy for cytopenias (n=4 [24%]), with only 1 out of 4 patients showing a partial hematologic response; and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for progressive bone marrow failure (n=2), with 1 patient dying from transplant-related complications. In summary, patients with STSs present with diverse clinical manifestations and require a multidisciplinary approach to management, with organ-specific transplantation capable of providing clinical benefit.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802153

RESUMO

Overgrowth syndromes are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by localized or generalized tissue overgrowth and varying degrees of developmental and intellectual disability. An expanding list of genes associated with overgrowth syndromes include the histone methyltransferase genes EZH2 and NSD1, which cause Weaver and Sotos syndrome, respectively, and the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT3A) gene that results in Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS). Here, we describe a 5-year-old female with a paternally inherited pathogenic mutation in EZH2 (c.2050C>T, p.Arg684Cys) and a maternally inherited 505-kb duplication of uncertain significance at 2p23.3 (encompassing five genes, including DNMT3A) who presented with intrauterine growth restriction, slow postnatal growth, short stature, hypotonia, developmental delay, and neuroblastoma diagnosed at the age of 8 mo. Her father had tall stature, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual disability consistent with Weaver syndrome, whereas her mother had short stature, cognitive delays, and chronic nonprogressive leukocytosis. It has been previously shown that EZH2 directly controls DNA methylation through physical association with DNMTs, including DNMT3A, with concomitant H3K27 methylation and CpG promoter methylation leading to repression of EZH2 target genes. Interestingly, NSD1 is involved in H3K36 methylation, a mark associated with transcriptional activation, and exhibits exquisite dosage sensitivity leading to overgrowth when deleted and severe undergrowth when duplicated in vivo. Although there is currently no evidence of dosage effects for DNMT3A, the co-occurrence of a duplication involving this gene and a pathogenic alteration in EZH2 in a patient with severe undergrowth is suggestive of a similar paradigm and further study is warranted.

13.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(3): 307-319, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671115

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We report a female infant identified by newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiencies (NBS SCID) with T cell lymphopenia (TCL). The patient had persistently elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) with IgA deficiency, and elevated IgM. Gene sequencing for a SCID panel was uninformative. We sought to determine the cause of the immunodeficiency in this infant. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on the patient and parents to identify a genetic diagnosis. Based on the WES result, we developed a novel flow cytometric panel for rapid assessment of DNA repair defects using blood samples. We also performed whole transcriptome sequencing (WTS) on fibroblast RNA from the patient and father for abnormal transcript analysis. RESULTS: WES revealed a pathogenic paternally inherited indel in ATM. We used the flow panel to assess several proteins in the DNA repair pathway in lymphocyte subsets. The patient had absent phosphorylation of ATM, resulting in absent or aberrant phosphorylation of downstream proteins, including γH2AX. However, ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive condition, and the abnormal functional data did not correspond with a single ATM variant. WTS revealed in-frame reciprocal fusion transcripts involving ATM and SLC35F2 indicating a chromosome 11 inversion within 11q22.3, of maternal origin. Inversion breakpoints were identified within ATM intron 16 and SLC35F2 intron 7. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel ATM-breaking chromosome 11 inversion in trans with a pathogenic indel (compound heterozygote) resulting in non-functional ATM protein, consistent with a diagnosis of AT. Utilization of several molecular and functional assays allowed successful resolution of this case.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 696-705, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606302

RESUMO

AEBP1 encodes the aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP) that associates with collagens in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and has several roles in development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. ACLP is expressed in bone, the vasculature, and dermal tissues and is involved in fibroblast proliferation and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into collagen-producing cells. Aebp1-/- mice have abnormal, delayed wound repair correlating with defects in fibroblast proliferation. In this study, we describe four individuals from three unrelated families that presented with a unique constellation of clinical findings including joint laxity, redundant and hyperextensible skin, poor wound healing with abnormal scarring, osteoporosis, and other features reminiscent of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Analysis of skin biopsies revealed decreased dermal collagen with abnormal collagen fibrils that were ragged in appearance. Exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in AEBP1 (c.1470delC [p.Asn490_Met495delins(40)] and c.1743C>A [p.Cys581∗]) in the first individual, a homozygous variant (c.1320_1326del [p.Arg440Serfs∗3]) in the second individual, and a homozygous splice site variant (c.1630+1G>A) in two siblings from the third family. We show that ACLP enhances collagen polymerization and binds to several fibrillar collagens via its discoidin domain. These studies support the conclusion that bi-allelic pathogenic variants in AEBP1 are the cause of this autosomal-recessive EDS subtype.

15.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1236-1245, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We delineate the clinical spectrum and describe the histology in arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS), a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by tortuosity of the large and medium-sized arteries, caused by mutations in SLC2A10. METHODS: We retrospectively characterized 40 novel ATS families (50 patients) and reviewed the 52 previously reported patients. We performed histology and electron microscopy (EM) on skin and vascular biopsies and evaluated TGF-ß signaling with immunohistochemistry for pSMAD2 and CTGF. RESULTS: Stenoses, tortuosity, and aneurysm formation are widespread occurrences. Severe but rare vascular complications include early and aggressive aortic root aneurysms, neonatal intracranial bleeding, ischemic stroke, and gastric perforation. Thus far, no reports unequivocally document vascular dissections or ruptures. Of note, diaphragmatic hernia and infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) are frequently observed. Skin and vascular biopsies show fragmented elastic fibers (EF) and increased collagen deposition. EM of skin EF shows a fragmented elastin core and a peripheral mantle of microfibrils of random directionality. Skin and end-stage diseased vascular tissue do not indicate increased TGF-ß signaling. CONCLUSION: Our findings warrant attention for IRDS and diaphragmatic hernia, close monitoring of the aortic root early in life, and extensive vascular imaging afterwards. EM on skin biopsies shows disease-specific abnormalities.

16.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 13: 46-51, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831385

RESUMO

Lysosomal diseases (LD) comprise a group of approximately 60 hereditary conditions caused by progressive accumulation of metabolites due to defects in lysosomal enzymes and degradation pathways, which lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations. The estimated combined incidence of LD is between 1 in 4000 to 1 in 13,000 live births, with recent data from pilot newborn screening studies showing even higher incidence. We aimed to determine the prevalence of the classical LD and other diseases caused by lysosome-related genes in our cohort of diagnostic odyssey patients. The Individualized Medicine Clinic at Mayo Clinic is increasingly utilizing whole exome sequencing (WES) to determine the genetic etiology of undiagnosed Mendelian disease. From September 2012 to April 2017, WES results from 350 patients with unexplained symptoms were reviewed. Disease-causing variants were identified in MYO6, CLN6, LRBA, KCTD7, and ARSB revealing a genetic diagnosis of a LD in 8 individuals from 5 families. Based on our findings, lysosome-related disorders may be collectively common, reaching up to 1.5% prevalence in a cohort of patients with undiagnosed diseases presenting to a genetics clinic.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679693

RESUMO

TGF-ß-related heritable connective tissue disorders are characterized by a similar pattern of cardiovascular defects, including aortic root dilatation, mitral valve prolapse, vascular aneurysms, and vascular dissections and exhibit incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Because of the phenotypic overlap of these disorders, panel-based genetic testing is frequently used to confirm the clinical findings. Unfortunately in many cases, variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) obscure the genetic diagnosis until more information becomes available. Here, we describe and characterize the functional impact of a novel VUS in the TGFBR2 kinase domain (c.1255G>T; p.Val419Leu), in a patient with the clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome spectrum. We assessed the structural and functional consequence of this VUS using molecular modeling, molecular dynamic simulations, and in vitro cell-based assays. A high-quality homology-based model of TGFBR2 was generated and computational mutagenesis followed by refinement and molecular dynamics simulations were used to assess structural and dynamic changes. Relative to wild type, the V419L induced conformational and dynamic changes that may affect ATP binding, increasing the likelihood of adopting an inactive state, and, we hypothesize, alter canonical signaling. Experimentally, we tested this by measuring the canonical TGF-ß signaling pathway activation at two points; V419L significantly delayed SMAD2 phosphorylation by western blot and significantly decreased TGF-ß-induced gene transcription by reporter assays consistent with known pathogenic variants in this gene. Thus, our results establish that the V419L variant leads to aberrant TGF-ß signaling and confirm the diagnosis of Loeys-Dietz syndrome in this patient.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad2/genética , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
18.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 5(3): 269-279, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28546997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We characterized the pharmacogenomics (PGx) results received by diagnostic odyssey patients as secondary findings during clinical whole exome sequencing (WES) testing as a part of their care in Mayo Clinic's Individualized Medicine Clinic to determine the potential benefits and limitations to this cohort. METHODS: WES results on 94 patients included a subset of PGx variants in CYP2C19,CYP2C9, and VKORC1 if identified in the patient. Demographic, phenotypic, and medication usage information was abstracted from patient medical data. A pharmacist interpreted the PGx results in the context of the patients' current medication use and made therapeutic recommendations. RESULTS: The majority was young with a median age of 10 years old, had neurological involvement in the disease presentation (71%), and was currently taking medications (90%). Of the 94 PGx-evaluated patients, 91% had at least one variant allele reported and 20% had potential immediate implications on current medication use. CONCLUSION: Due to the disease complexity and medication needs of diagnostic odyssey patients, there may be immediate benefit obtained from early life PGx testing for many and most will likely find benefit in the future. These results require conscientious interpretation and management to be actionable for all prescribing physicians throughout the lifetime of the patient.

19.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 5(3): 295-302, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28547000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1, MIM# 180901) are the cause of congenital myopathy with fiber-type disproportion, malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 1, central core disease of muscle, multiminicore disease and other congenital myopathies. METHODS: We present a patient with global developmental delay, hypotonia, myopathy, joint hypermobility, and multiple other systemic complaints that were noted early in life. Later she was found to have multiple bone deformities involving her spine, with severe scoliosis that was corrected surgically. She was also diagnosed with ophthalmoplegia, chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure, and hypertension. At 22 years of age she presented to the genetics clinic with a diagnosis of mitochondrial myopathy and underwent whole exome sequencing (WES). RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing revealed two novel compound heterozygous variants in RYR1 (c.7060_7062del, p.Val2354del and c.4485_4500del, p.Tyr1495X). CONCLUSION: Review of her clinical, pathologic, and genetic findings pointed to a diagnosis of a congenital myopathy with fiber-type disproportion.

20.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud ; 3(3): a001743, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487885

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in EBF3 were recently described in three back-to-back publications in association with a novel neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, speech delay, ataxia, and facial dysmorphisms. In this report, we describe an additional patient carrying a de novo missense variant in EBF3 (c.487C>T, p.(Arg163Trp)) that falls within a conserved residue in the zinc knuckle motif of the DNA binding domain. Without a solved structure of the DNA binding domain, we generated a homology-based atomic model and performed molecular dynamics simulations for EBF3, which predicted decreased DNA affinity for p.(Arg163Trp) compared with wild-type protein and control variants. These data are in agreement with previous experimental studies of EBF1 showing the paralogous residue is essential for DNA binding. The conservation and experimental evidence existing for EBF1 and in silico modeling and dynamics simulations to validate comparable behavior of multiple variants in EBF3 demonstrates strong support for the pathogenicity of p.(Arg163Trp). We show that our patient presents with phenotypes consistent with previously reported patients harboring EBF3 variants and expands the phenotypic spectrum of this newly identified disorder with the additional feature of a bicornuate uterus.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Pré-Escolar , DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Mutação/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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