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1.
Bone ; : 115175, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790847

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Osteoporosis is a major public health burden with significant economic costs. However, the correlates of bone health in Hispanic children are understudied. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at multiple skeletal sites in Hispanic children. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional genome-wide linkage analysis, genome-wide and exome-wide association analysis of BMD and BMC. The Viva La Familia Study is a family-based cohort with a total of 1030 Hispanic children (4-19 years old at baseline) conducted in Houston, TX. BMD and BMC were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Significant heritability were observed for BMC and BMD at multiple skeletal sites ranging between 44 and 68% (P < 2.8 × 10-9). Significant evidence for linkage was found for BMD of pelvis and left leg on chromosome 7p14, lumbar spine on 20q13 and left rib on 6p21, and BMC of pelvis on chromosome 20q12 and total body on 14q22-23 (logarithm of odds score > 3). We found genome-wide significant association between BMC of right arm and rs762920 at PVALB (P = 4.6 × 10-8), and between pelvis BMD and rs7000615 at PTK2B (P = 7.4 × 10-8). Exome-wide association analysis revealed novel association of variants at MEGF10 and ABRAXAS2 with left arm and lumber spine BMC, respectively (P < 9 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel loci associated with BMC and BMD in Hispanic children, with strongest evidence for PTK2B. The findings provide better understanding of bone genetics and shed light on biological mechanisms underlying BMD and BMC variation.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4957, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673082

RESUMO

In many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare and frequently associated with confounding social factors. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients (FROH) for >1.4 million individuals, we show that FROH is significantly associated (p < 0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. These changes are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants associated with inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. The effect on fertility is striking: FROH equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. Finally, the effects of FROH are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in FROH is independent of all environmental confounding.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(19): 3327-3338, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504550

RESUMO

Although hundreds of genome-wide association studies-implicated loci have been reported for adult obesity-related traits, less is known about the genetics specific for early-onset obesity and with only a few studies conducted in non-European populations to date. Searching for additional genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, we performed a trans-ancestral meta-analysis of 30 studies consisting of up to 13 005 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI) achieved 2-18 years old) and 15 599 controls (consistently <50th percentile of BMI) of European, African, North/South American and East Asian ancestry. Suggestive loci were taken forward for replication in a sample of 1888 cases and 4689 controls from seven cohorts of European and North/South American ancestry. In addition to observing 18 previously implicated BMI or obesity loci, for both early and late onset, we uncovered one completely novel locus in this trans-ancestral analysis (nearest gene, METTL15). The variant was nominally associated with only the European subgroup analysis but had a consistent direction of effect in other ethnicities. We then utilized trans-ancestral Bayesian analysis to narrow down the location of the probable causal variant at each genome-wide significant signal. Of all the fine-mapped loci, we were able to narrow down the causative variant at four known loci to fewer than 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (FAIM2, GNPDA2, MC4R and SEC16B loci). In conclusion, an ethnically diverse setting has enabled us to both identify an additional pediatric obesity locus and further fine-map existing loci.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 804-814, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043758

RESUMO

Birth weight variation is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors, and has been reproducibly associated with future cardio-metabolic health outcomes. In expanded genome-wide association analyses of own birth weight (n = 321,223) and offspring birth weight (n = 230,069 mothers), we identified 190 independent association signals (129 of which are novel). We used structural equation modeling to decompose the contributions of direct fetal and indirect maternal genetic effects, then applied Mendelian randomization to illuminate causal pathways. For example, both indirect maternal and direct fetal genetic effects drive the observational relationship between lower birth weight and higher later blood pressure: maternal blood pressure-raising alleles reduce offspring birth weight, but only direct fetal effects of these alleles, once inherited, increase later offspring blood pressure. Using maternal birth weight-lowering genotypes to proxy for an adverse intrauterine environment provided no evidence that it causally raises offspring blood pressure, indicating that the inverse birth weight-blood pressure association is attributable to genetic effects, and not to intrauterine programming.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Troca Materno-Fetal/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
5.
Bone ; 121: 221-226, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711642

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, a low frequency variant (rs1800012) within the first intron of the type I collagen alpha 1 (COLIA1) gene has been implicated in lower areal BMD (aBMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. This association is particularly strong in postmenopausal women, in whom net bone loss arises in the context of high bone turnover. High bone turnover also accompanies childhood linear growth; however, the role of rs1800012 in this stage of net bone accretion is less well understood. Thus, we assessed the association between rs1800012 and aBMD and bone mineral content (BMC) Z-scores for the 1/3 distal radius, lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck total body less head in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study, a mixed-longitudinal cohort of children and adolescents (total n = 804 girls and 771 boys; n = 19 girls and 22 boys with the TT genotype). Mixed effects modeling, stratified by sex, was used to test for associations between rs1800012 and aBMD or BMC Z-scores and for pubertal stage interactions. Separately, SITAR growth modeling of aBMD and BMC in subjects with longitudinal data reduced the complex longitudinal bone accrual curves into three parameters representing a-size, b-timing, and c-velocity. We tested for differences in these three parameters by rs1800012 genotype using t-tests. Girls with the TT genotype had significantly lower aBMD and BMC Z-scores prior to puberty completion (e.g. spine aBMD-Z P-interaction = 1.0 × 10-6), but this association was attenuated post-puberty. SITAR models revealed that TT girls began pubertal bone accrual later (b-timing; e.g. total hip BMC, P = 0.03). BMC and aBMD Z-scores also increased across puberty in TT homozygous boys. Our data, along with previous findings in post-menopausal women, suggest that rs1800012 principally affects female bone density during periods of high turnover. Insights into the genetics of bone gain and loss may be masked during the relatively quiescent state in mid-adulthood, and discovery efforts should focus on early and late life.

7.
Nat Genet ; 50(12): 1753, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397339

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, the text was incorrect in the first paragraph of the 'Remaining challenges' section. The first two sentences appeared as "Even though this current study substantially increases the number of loci associated with T2D, only approximately 18% of the genetic component of T2D risk is explained by the total complement of genetic variants uncovered genome wide in Mahajan et al.6. Interestingly, only a small proportion of that heritability was explained by low-frequency or rare variants (~1.1%), thus potentially indicating that many more of these variants still remain to be characterized in even larger sample sizes." However, they should have read "Even though this current study substantially increases the number of loci associated with T2D, only a proportion of the genetic component of T2D risk is explained by the total complement of genetic variants uncovered genome wide in Mahajan et al.6. Interestingly, only a relatively small proportion of that heritability was explained by low-frequency or rare variants, thus potentially indicating that many more of these variants still remain to be characterized in even larger sample sizes." The text has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the paper.

8.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1499-1500, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297970
9.
Diabetes Care ; 41(11): 2396-2403, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) shares clinical features with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes; however, there is ongoing debate regarding the precise definition of LADA. Understanding its genetic basis is one potential strategy to gain insight into appropriate classification of this diabetes subtype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed the first genome-wide association study of LADA in case subjects of European ancestry versus population control subjects (n = 2,634 vs. 5,947) and compared against both case subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 2,454 vs. 968) and type 2 diabetes (n = 2,779 vs. 10,396). RESULTS: The leading genetic signals were principally shared with type 1 diabetes, although we observed positive genetic correlations genome-wide with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we observed a novel independent signal at the known type 1 diabetes locus harboring PFKFB3, encoding a regulator of glycolysis and insulin signaling in type 2 diabetes and inflammation and autophagy in autoimmune disease, as well as an attenuation of key type 1-associated HLA haplotype frequencies in LADA, suggesting that these are factors that distinguish childhood-onset type 1 diabetes from adult autoimmune diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the need for further investigations of the genetic factors that distinguish forms of autoimmune diabetes as well as more precise classification strategies.

10.
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 278, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in genes of the leptinergic-melanocortinergic system influence both body weight and height. Because short normal stature (SNS) is characterized by reduced body height, delayed maturation and leanness, allelic variation of genes in this pathway are hypothesized to affect this common condition. METHODS: We analyzed the coding regions of LEP, MC4R, MRAP2 and BDNF in 185 children with SNS (height < 5th percentile) to search for non-synonymous and frameshift variants. For association studies (two-sided χ2-tests) population-based data sets (ExAC, EVS and KORA) were used. Cyclic AMP accumulation, cell surface expression, central expression and MAP kinase activation were assayed in vitro to determine the functional implications of identified variants. RESULTS: We detected eleven variants predicted to be protein-altering, four in MC4R, four in BDNF, and three in MRAP2. No variants were found in LEP. In vitro analysis implied reduced function for the MC4R variant p.Met215Ile. Loss-of-function is contrary to expectations based on obesity studies, and thus does not support that this variant is relevant for SNS. The minor SNP alleles at MC4R p.Val103Ile and BDNF p.Val66Met were nominally associated with SNS. CONCLUSION: Taken together, although genes of the leptinergic-melanocortinergic system are important for normal growth, our data do not support the involvement of rare mutations in LEP, MC4R, MRAP2 or BDNF in short normal stature.

11.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 29(9): 638-650, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041834

RESUMO

Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is characterized by the presence of islet autoantibodies and initial insulin independence, which can lead to misdiagnosis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). As such, understanding the genetic etiology of LADA could aid in more accurate diagnosis. However, there is ongoing debate regarding the exact definition of LADA, so understanding its impact in different populations when contrasted with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and T2D is one potential strategy to gain insight into its etiology. Unfortunately, the lack of consistent and thorough autoantibody screening around the world has hampered well-powered genetic studies of LADA. This review highlights recent genetic and epidemiological studies of LADA in diverse populations as well as the importance of autoantibody screening in facilitating future research.

12.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(5): 977-986, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465475

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine if replacing time spent in high- and low-impact physical activity (PA) predicts changes in pediatric bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC). METHODS: We analyzed data from the longitudinal Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (N = 2337 with up to seven visits). The participants were age 5-19 yr at baseline, 51.2% were female, and 80.6% were nonblack. Spine, total hip, and femoral neck areal BMD and total body less head (TBLH) BMC Z-scores were calculated. Hours per day spent in high- and low-impact PA were self-reported. Standard covariate-adjusted (partition model) and time allocation-sensitive isotemporal substitution modeling frameworks were applied to linear mixed models. Statistical interactions with sex, self-reported ancestry, age, and bone fragility genetic scores (percentage of areal BMD-lowering alleles carried) were tested. RESULTS: In standard models, high-impact PA was positively associated with bone Z-score at all four skeletal sites (e.g., TBLH-BMC Z-score: beta = 0.05, P = 2.0 × 10), whereas low-impact PA was not associated with any of the bone Z-scores. In isotemporal substitution models, replacing 1 h·d of low- for high-impact PA was associated with higher bone Z-scores (e.g., TBLH-BMC Z-score: beta = 0.06, P = 2.9 × 10). Conversely, replacing 1 h·d of high- for low-impact PA was associated with lower bone Z-scores (e.g., TBLH-BMC Z-score: beta = -0.06, P = 2.9 × 10). The substitution associations were similar for each sex and ancestry group, and for those with higher and lower genetic scores for bone fragility (P-interactions > 0.05), but increased in strength among the older adolescents (P-age interactions < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Time-sensitive models suggest that replacing low-impact PA for high-impact PA would be beneficial for the growing skeleton in the majority of children.

13.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(5): 812-821, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240982

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a complex disease with developmental origins. It is therefore important to understand the genetic contribution to pediatric areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Individual skeletal site phenotyping has been primarily used to identify pediatric aBMD loci. However, this approach is limited because there is a degree of aBMD discordance across skeletal sites. We therefore applied a novel multidimensional phenotyping approach to further understand the genetic regulation of pediatric aBMD. Our sample comprised a prospective, longitudinal cohort of 1293 children of European ancestry (52% female; up to seven annual measurements). Principal components analysis was applied to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived aBMD Z-scores for total hip, femoral neck, spine, and distal radius to generate multidimensional aBMD phenotypes (ie, principal component scores). We tested the association between a genetic score (percentage of bone lowering alleles at 63 loci) and each principal component. We also performed a genomewide association study (GWAS) using the multiethnic baseline data (n = 1885) to identify novel loci associated with these principal components. The first component (PC1) reflected a concordant phenotypic model of the skeleton (eg, higher loading score = higher BMD across all sites). In contrast, PC2 was discordant for distal radius versus spine and hip aBMD, and PC3 was discordant for spine versus distal radius and hip aBMD. The genetic score was associated with PC1 (beta = -0.05, p = 3.9 × 10-10 ), but was not associated with discordant PC2 or PC3. Our GWAS discovered variation near CPED1 that associated with PC2 (rs67991850, p = 2.5 × 10-11 ) and near RAB11FIP5 (rs58649746, p = 4.8 × 10-9 ) that associated with PC3. In conclusion, an established bone fragility genetic summary score was associated with a concordant skeletal phenotype, but not discordant skeletal phenotypes. Novel associations were observed for the discordant multidimensional skeletal phenotypes that provide new biological insights into the developing skeleton. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

14.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(3): 430-436, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29068475

RESUMO

Later puberty associates with lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and both are risk factors for osteoporosis. However, the association between puberty timing-associated genetic variants and aBMD during development, and the causal relationship between puberty timing and aBMD, remain uncharacterized. We constructed sex-specific polygenic risk scores (GRS) consisting of 333 genetic variants associated with later puberty in European-descent children in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (BMDCS), consisting of a longitudinal cohort with up to seven assessments (n = 933) and a cross-sectional cohort (n = 486). These GRS were tested for associations with age- and sex-specific aBMD Z-scores at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), total hip, and distal radius, accounting for clinical covariates using sex-stratified linear mixed models. The causal relationship between puberty timing and aBMD was tested in the BMDCS and in publicly available adult data (GEFOS consortium) using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). The puberty-delaying GRS was associated with later puberty and lower LS-aBMD in the BMDCS in both sexes (combined beta ± SE = -0.078 ± 0.024; p = 0.0010). In the MR framework, the puberty-delaying genetic instrument also supported a causal association with lower LS-aBMD and FN-aBMD in adults of both sexes. Our results suggest that pubertal timing is causal for diminished aBMD in a skeletal site- and sex-specific manner that tracks throughout life, potentially impacting later risk for osteoporosis, which should be tested in future studies. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(2): 227-238, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757204

RESUMO

Vitamin D insufficiency is common, correctable, and influenced by genetic factors, and it has been associated with risk of several diseases. We sought to identify low-frequency genetic variants that strongly increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and tested their effect on risk of multiple sclerosis, a disease influenced by low vitamin D concentrations. We used whole-genome sequencing data from 2,619 individuals through the UK10K program and deep-imputation data from 39,655 individuals genotyped genome-wide. Meta-analysis of the summary statistics from 19 cohorts identified in CYP2R1 the low-frequency (minor allele frequency = 2.5%) synonymous coding variant g.14900931G>A (p.Asp120Asp) (rs117913124[A]), which conferred a large effect on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (-0.43 SD of standardized natural log-transformed 25OHD per A allele; p value = 1.5 × 10-88). The effect on 25OHD was four times larger and independent of the effect of a previously described common variant near CYP2R1. By analyzing 8,711 individuals, we showed that heterozygote carriers of this low-frequency variant have an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78-2.78, p = 1.26 × 10-12). Individuals carrying one copy of this variant also had increased odds of multiple sclerosis (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.19-1.64, p = 2.63 × 10-5) in a sample of 5,927 case and 5,599 control subjects. In conclusion, we describe a low-frequency CYP2R1 coding variant that exerts the largest effect upon 25OHD levels identified to date in the general European population and implicates vitamin D in the etiology of multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/etiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
16.
JAMA Pediatr ; 171(9): e171769, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28672287

RESUMO

Importance: Prevention of osteoporosis in adulthood begins with optimizing bone health in early life. The longitudinal association between growth and bone accretion during childhood is not fully understood. Objectives: To assess the acquisition of whole-body (WB) and skeletal site-specific bone mineral content (BMC) relative to linear growth in a healthy, diverse, longitudinal cohort of children, adolescents, and young adults and to test for differences related to sex and African American race. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a mixed longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 years at 5 US clinical centers. Participants were healthy children, adolescents, and young adults. The study dates were July 2002 through March 2010. The dates of the analysis were June through December 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Anthropometrics, BMC, and body composition via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The superimposition by translation and rotation (SITAR) analysis method was used to define the mean trajectories for height, WB lean soft tissue, appendicular lean soft tissue, and WB and skeletal site-specific BMC acquisition and to measure the age and magnitude of peak velocity for each parameter. The SITAR modeling was performed separately by sex and self-reported race. Results: Among 2014 healthy children, adolescents, and young adults (1022 [50.7%] female and 479 [23.8%] African American) aged 5 to 19 years at study entry, the mean age of peak height velocity was 13.1 years (95% CI, 13.0-13.2 years) in African American boys vs 13.4 years (95% CI, 13.3-13.4 years) in non-African American boys (difference, -0.3 years; 95% CI, -0.4 to -0.1 years) and 11.0 years (95% CI, 10.8-11.1 years) in African American girls vs 11.6 years (95% CI, 11.5-11.6 years) in non-African American girls (difference, -0.6 years; 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.5 years). Age of peak acquisition of WB BMC was 14.0 years (95% CI, 13.8-14.1 years) in African American boys vs 14.0 years (95% CI, 13.9-14.1 years) in non-African American boys (difference, -0.0 years; 95% CI, -0.2 to 0.2 years) and 12.1 years (95% CI, 12.0-12.3 years) in African American girls vs 12.4 years (95% CI, 12.3-12.5 years) in non-African American girls (difference, -0.3 years; 95% CI, -0.4 to -0.1 years). At age 7 years, children had acquired 69.5% to 74.5% of maximal observed height but only 29.6% to 38.1% of maximal observed WB BMC. Adolescents gained 32.7% to 35.8% of maximal observed WB BMC during the 2 years before and 2 years after peak height velocity. Another 6.9% to 10.7% of maximal observed WB BMC occurred after linear growth had ceased. In the group at highest risk for fracture, non-African American boys, peak fracture incidence occurred approximately 1 year before peak height velocity. Conclusions and Relevance: In this longitudinal study, height gains substantially outpaced gains in BMC during childhood, which could contribute to fracture risk. A significant proportion of bone is accrued after adult height is achieved. Therefore, late adolescence represents a potentially underrecognized window of opportunity to optimize bone mass.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Med ; 15(1): 88, 2017 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28438156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In adulthood, autoimmune diabetes can present as non-insulin-requiring diabetes, termed as 'latent autoimmune diabetes in adults' (LADA). In this study, we investigated established type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic loci in a large cohort of LADA cases to assess where LADA is situated relative to these two well-characterized, classic forms of diabetes. METHODS: We tested the association of T1D and T2D GWAS-implicated loci in 978 LADA cases and 1057 non-diabetic controls of European ancestry using a linear mixed model. We then compared the associations of T1D and T2D loci between LADA and T1D and T2D cases, respectively. We quantified the difference in genetic risk between each given disease at each locus, and also calculated genetic risk scores to quantify how genetic liability to T1D and T2D distinguished LADA cases from controls. RESULTS: Overall, our results showed that LADA is genetically more similar to T1D, with the exception of an association at the T2D HNF1A locus. Several T1D loci were associated with LADA, including the major histocompatibility complex region, as well as at PTPN22, SH2B3, and INS. Contrary to previous studies, the key T2D risk allele at TCF7L2 (rs7903146-T) had a significantly lower frequency in LADA cases, suggesting that this locus does not play a role in LADA etiology. When constrained on antibody status, the similarity between LADA and T1D became more apparent; however, the HNF1A and TCF7L2 observations persisted. CONCLUSION: LADA is genetically closer to T1D than T2D, although the genetic load of T1D risk alleles is less than childhood-onset T1D, particularly at the major histocompatibility complex region, potentially accounting for the later disease onset. Our results show that the genetic spectrum of T1D extends into adult-onset diabetes, where it can clinically masquerade as T2D. Furthermore, T2D genetic risk plays a small role in LADA, with a degree of evidence for the HNF1A locus, highlighting the potential for genetic risk scores to contribute towards defining diabetes subtypes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/genética
18.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(6): 1274-1281, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28181694

RESUMO

Failure to achieve optimal bone mineral accretion during childhood and adolescence results in subsequent suboptimal peak bone mass, contributing to osteoporosis risk later in life. To identify novel genetic factors that influence pediatric bone mass at discrete skeletal sites, we performed a sex-stratified genomewide association study of areal bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the 1/3 distal radius, spine, total hip, and femoral neck in a cohort of 933 healthy European American children. We took forward signals with p < 5 × 10-5 and minor allele frequency (MAF) >5% into an independent cohort of 486 European American children in search of replication. In doing so, we identified five loci that achieved genome wide significance in the combined cohorts (nearest genes: CPED1, IZUMO3, RBFOX1, SPBT, and TBPL2), of which the last four were novel and two were sex-specific (SPTB in females and IZUMO3 in males), with all of them yielding associations that were particularly strong at a specific skeletal site. Annotation of potential regulatory function, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) effects and pathway analyses identified several potential target genes at these associated loci. This study highlights the importance of sex-stratified analyses at discrete skeletal sites during the critical period of bone accrual, and identifies novel loci for further functional follow-up to pinpoint key genes and better understand the regulation of bone development in children. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Espectrina/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(1): 115-124, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27419386

RESUMO

More rapid skeletal maturation in African-American (AA) children is recognized and generally attributed to an increased prevalence of obesity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of population ancestry on relative skeletal maturation in healthy, non-obese children and adolescents, accounting for body composition and sexual maturation. To do this, we leveraged a multiethnic, mixed-longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 years (The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study and its ancillary cohort) conducted at five US clinical centers. Participants included 1592 children, skeletally immature (45% females, 19% AA) who were aged 5 to 17 years at study entry. The primary outcome measure was relative skeletal maturation as assessed by hand-wrist radiograph. Additional covariates measured included anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and Tanner stage of sexual maturation. Using mixed effects longitudinal models, without covariates, advancement in relative skeletal maturation was noted in self-reported AA girls (∼0.33 years, p < 0.001) and boys (∼0.43 years, p < 0.001). Boys and girls of all ancestry groups showed independent positive associations of height, lean mass, fat mass, and puberty with relative skeletal maturation. The effect of ancestry was attenuated but persistent after accounting for covariates: for girls, 0.19 years (ancestry by self-report, p = 0.02) or 0.29 years (ancestry by admixture, p = 0.004); and for boys, 0.20 years (ancestry by self-report, p = 0.004), or 0.29 years (ancestry by admixture, p = 0.004). In summary, we conclude that advancement in relative skeletal maturation was associated with AA ancestry in healthy, non-obese children, independent of growth, body composition, and puberty. Further research into the mechanisms underlying this observation may provide insights into the regulation of skeletal maturation. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Distribuição por Idade , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Maturidade Sexual , Adulto Jovem
20.
Bonekey Rep ; 5: 823, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27579163

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is one of the most common chronic forms of disability in postmenopausal women and represents a major health burden around the world. Bone fragility is affected by bone mineral density (BMD), and, one of the most important factors in preventing osteoporosis is optimizing peak bone mass, which is achieved during growth in childhood and adolescence. BMD is a complex trait resulting from environmental and genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies have discovered robust genetic signals influencing BMD in adults, and similar studies have also been conducted to investigate the genetics of BMD in the pediatric setting. These latter studies have revealed that many adult osteoporosis-related loci also regulate BMD during growth. These investigations have the potential to profoundly impact public health and will allow for the eventual development of effective interventions for the prevention of osteoporosis.

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