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1.
Biomolecules ; 9(9)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505888

RESUMO

Anacardium plants are native to the American tropical regions, and Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew tree) is the most recognized species of the genus. These species contain rich secondary metabolites in their leaf and shoot powder, fruits and other parts that have shown diverse applications. This review describes the habitat and cultivation of Anacardium species, phytochemical and nutritional composition, and their industrial food applications. Besides, we also discuss the secondary metabolites present in Anacardium plants which display great antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. These make the use of Anacardium species in the food industry an interesting approach to the development of green foods.

2.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(10): 1438-1444, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385784

RESUMO

Introduction. Combretum leprosum (Combretaceae) is commonly found in the Northeast Region of Brazil and is known for several bioactivities, including antimicrobial ones. Because of increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance, natural products from several plants have been studied as putative adjuvants to antibiotic activity, including products from C. leprosum. Aims. This study was carried out to investigate the structural properties, bactericidal activity and antibiotic modifying action of the lupane triterpene 3ß,6ß,16ß-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (CLF1) isolated from C. leprosum Mart. leaves.Methods. The CLF1 was evaluated by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method and the antibacterial activity of this compound was assayed alone and in association with antibiotics by microdilution assay.Results. Spectroscopic studies confirmed the molecular structure of the CLF1 and permitted assignment of the main infrared bands of this natural product. Microbiological assays showed that this lupane triterpene possesses antibacterial action with clinical relevance against Staphylococcus aureus. The CLF1 triterpene increased antimicrobial activity against the multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli 06 strain when associated with the antibiotics gentamicin and amikacin. Synergistic effects were observed against the S. aureus 10 strain in the presence of the CLF1 triterpene with the antibiotic gentamicin.Conclusion. In conclusion, the CLF1 compound may be useful in the development of antibacterial drugs against the aforementioned bacteria.

3.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 27(17): 3797-3804, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320212

RESUMO

Thiazol and thiazolidinedione derivatives are known in the literature for presenting several biological activities, such as anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, antifungal and antimicrobial activity. With this in mind, this study reports on the synthesis and antibacterial activity of thiazole (NJ) and thiazolidinedione (NW) derivatives, as well as their effects in association with norfloxacin, against NorA efflux pumps in the Staphylococcus aureus 1199B (SA-1199B) strain. Among the 14 compounds evaluated, 9 were found to potentiate norfloxacin activity, with 4 compounds from the NJ series promoting a threefold norfloxacin MIC reduction. Molecular docking assays were used to confirm the binding mode of most active compounds. In the in silico study, the efficiency of the interaction of NJ series compounds with the NorA pump were evaluated. Derivatives from both series did not show considerable intrinsic antibacterial activity (MIC > 1024 µg/mL) against any of the tested strains. However, the NJ16 and NJ17 compounds, when associated with norfloxacin, reduced the MIC of this drug threefold and inhibited NorA pumps in the 1199B strain. Moreover, some NW (05, 10, 18, 19 and 21) and NJ compounds (16, 17, 18 and 20) presented low to moderate cytotoxicity against normal cells. Molecular docking studies supported the potent in vitro inhibitory activity of NJ16 and NJ17, which showed NJ16 and NJ17 possessed more favorable binding energies of -9.03 Kcal/mol and -9.34 Kcal/mol, respectively. In addition, NJ16 showed different types of interactions involved in complex stabilization. In conclusion, NJ16 and NJ17, in combination with norfloxacin, were able to completely restore the antibacterial activity of norfloxacin against S. aureus SA-1199B, the norA-overexpressing strain, with low cytotoxicity in normal cells.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174689

RESUMO

Phytochemical prospecting was performed by HPLC-DAD. The Inhibitory Concentration of 50% of mortality the microorganisms (IC50) was determined and a cell viability curve was obtained. Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) was determined by subculture in Sabourad Dextrose Agar. The effect of the combination extract/fluconazole was verified by microdilution, with the extracts in subinhibitory concentrations (MFC/16). Caffeic acid was the major compound of both extracts, representing 6.08% in the aqueous extract and 7.62% in the ethanolic extract. The extracts showed a fungistatic effect (MFC ≥ 16,384 µg/mL). The IC50 results demonstrated that the combination of the extracts with fluconazole were more significant than the products tested alone, with values from 4.9 to 34.8 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract/fluconazole and 5 to 84.7 µg/mL for the aqueous extract/fluconazole. The potentiating effect of fluconazole action was observed against C. albicans and C. tropicalis. In C. krusei the aqueous extract had an antagonistic effect.

5.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110559, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176927

RESUMO

The family Piperaceae is known for presenting in its species flavoring, healing and antimicrobial properties among others. The objective of the present study was: to study the chemical profile of the essential oil of Piper rivinoides (EOPR); to analyze its anti-bacterial and antifungal potential, as well as to evaluate the antifungal and antibiotic-modifying capacity. The chemical constituents were identified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID), allowing the identification of 7 constituents of a total of 86.99%. E-Isoelemicin was identified as the main constituent of petroleum (40.81%). Clinically relevant MIC results were obtained against fungi in which the inhibitory concentration remained <256 µg/mL, as for Candida albicans 4127 (217.6 µg/mL). The association of EOPR with an antifungal showed a high synergistic affinity against the strains of C. tropicalis 40042 and 4262. We concluded that no intrinsic EOPR activity was observed at any concentrations tested against bacteria. However, EOPR associated with Gentamicin acted synergistically against S. aureus 10 and Escherichia coli 06, but with Erythromycin there was a synergistic effect against Escherichia coli 06, and antagonism with norfloxacin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Piper/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/análise , Antifúngicos/química , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(5)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126036

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Natural products such as essential oils with antioxidant potential can reduce the level of oxidative stress and prevent the oxidation of biomolecules. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant potential of Lantana montevidensis leaf essential oil (EOLM) in chemical and biological models using Drosophila melanogaster. Materials and methods: in addition, the chemical components of the oil were identified and quantified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the percentage compositions were obtained from electronic integration measurements using flame ionization detection (FID). Results: our results demonstrated that EOLM is rich in terpenes with Germacrene-D (31.27%) and ß-caryophyllene (28.15%) as the major components. EOLM (0.12-0.48 g/mL) was ineffective in scavenging DPPH radical, and chelating Fe(II), but showed reducing activity at 0.24 g/mL and 0.48 g/mL. In in vivo studies, exposure of D. melanogaster to EOLM (0.12-0.48 g/mL) for 5 h resulted in 10% mortality; no change in oxidative stress parameters such as total thiol, non-protein thiol, and malondialdehyde contents, in comparison to control (p > 0.05). Conclusions: taken together, our results indicate EOLM may not be toxic at the concentrations tested, and thus may not be suitable for the development of new botanical insecticides, such as fumigants or spray-type control agents against Drosophila melanogaster.

7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 233: 87-93, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592980

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Northeast Brazilian ethnoveterinary studies associated with the medicinal use of zootherapies have shown that ruminants' body fat such as sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus) and cows (Bos taurus) are used in diseases affecting domestic animals. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the fixed oils from these ruminants in isolation and in association with antibiotics. RESULTS: Ovis aries (OFOA), Capra hircus (OFCH) and Bos taurus (OFBT) fixed oils were extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus with hexane as the solvent. Through the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) the methyl esters from the ruminants' fixed oils were obtained and the fatty acids present in these oils were indirectly determined. The OFOA, OFCH and OFBT antibacterial and antibiotic modifying activities against standard and multi-resistant bacterial strains were carried out using the broth microdilution test. The fixed oils from these species did not present antibacterial activity when tested in isolation, obtaining Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) values ≥ 1024 µg/mL. However, when associated with antibiotics, OFBT and OFCH showed a synergistic activity for the Amicacin, Amoxicillin, Norfloxacin and Oxytetracycline antibiotics. CONCLUSION: The OFOA promoted a synergistic action for the same antibiotics with the exception of Norfloxacin.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Óleos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Cabras , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos/química , Ovinos
8.
Molecules ; 23(11)2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388858

RESUMO

Tagetes (marigold) is native to America, and its cultivation currently extends to other countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Many species of this genus, such as T. minuta, T. erecta, T. patula, and T. tenuifolia, are cultivated as ornamental plants and studied for their medicinal properties on the basis of their use in folk medicine. Different parts of the Tagetes species are used as remedies to treat various health problems, including dental, stomach, intestinal, emotional, and nervous disorders, as well as muscular pain, across the world. Furthermore, these plants are studied in the field of agriculture for their fungicidal, bactericidal, and insecticidal activities. The phytochemical composition of the extracts of different Tagetes species parts are reported in this work. These compounds exhibit antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and enzyme inhibitory properties. Cultivation and the factors affecting the chemical composition of Tagetes species are also covered. In the current work, available literature on Tagetes species in traditional medicine, their application as a food preservative, and their antimicrobial activities are reviewed.

9.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 189: 119-123, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342307

RESUMO

Photooxidative damage affects cellular lipids, proteins and DNA in addition to being involved in the pathobiochemistry of erythema formation, premature skin aging, photodermatoses development and skin cancer. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid esters protect plant tissues against harmful UV-radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the sun protection factor of several Brazilian plant extracts in relation to UVB radiation absorption, which causes skin cancer, and to correlate the findings with their antioxidant activity, as well as with total phenol and flavonoid content. The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging test. The photoprotective effect was evaluated using the methodology developed by Mansur. The antioxidant activity from the extracts showed IC50 values ranging from 4.91 to 132.24 µg/mL when compared to the standard quercetin with an IC50 of 5.01 µg/mL; the phenolic content varied from 3.77 to 57.14 mg GAE/g extract while flavonoid content varied from 1.80 to 5.89 mg EQ/g extract. Almost all extracts showed a potential for UVB radiation absorption in accordance with the ANVISA (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária) technical regulation for cosmetic sunscreens. The extracts with greater sun protection factors were those originating from Lippia microphylla (SPF = 26.82) and Dimorphandra gardneriana (SPF = 20.12). A sun protection factor of 15 or higher contributes to protect the skin, where the presence of sakuranetin flavonoids and quercetin glycosides contribute to this action.

10.
Microbiol Res ; 215: 76-88, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172312

RESUMO

Matricaria is a widespread genus of flowering plants of the family Asteraceae that grow in temperate regions of Europe, Asia, America and Africa. Some of the species are also naturalized in Australia. Some species of this genus such as Chamomiles are recognized medicinal plants and cultivated in several countries for commercial purposes: to obtain its blue essence, as herbal tea, and for pharmaceutical or cosmeceutical uses. The phytochemical composition of Matricaria spp. includes volatile terpenoids (e.g., α-bisabolol, bisabolol oxide A and B, ß-trans-farnesene and chamazulene), sesquiterpene lactones such as matricin, and phenolic compounds (flavonoids, coumarins and phenolic acids). Their essential oil is obtained from the fresh or dried inflorescences by steam distillation, and additionally cohobation of the remaining water. The volatile composition of the essential oil, especially the content of the valuable components α-bisabolol and chamazulene, depends on the plant part, origin and quality of the source, genetic, and environmental factors. Moreover, other parameters, such as season of harvest and methods of extraction, can affect the extraction yield of the essential oils/extracts, their composition and, therefore, their bioactivity. Due to the importance of this genus and particularly M. recutita (M. chamomilla), this review focus on its cultivation, factor affecting essential oils' composition and their role in traditional medicine, as antibacterial agents and finally as food preservatives.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Matricaria/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Azulenos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Fazendas , Flavonoides/química , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Conservantes de Alimentos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Lactonas/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Estações do Ano , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
11.
Phytother Res ; 32(9): 1653-1663, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749084

RESUMO

The genus Echinacea consists of 11 taxa of herbaceous and perennial flowering plants. In particular, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is widely cultivated all over the United States, Canada, and in Europe, exclusively in Germany, for its beauty and reported medicinal properties. Echinacea extracts have been used traditionally as wound healing to improve the immune system and to treat respiratory symptoms caused by bacterial infections. Echinacea extracts have demonstrated antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and to be safe. This survey aims at reviewing the medicinal properties of Echinacea species, their cultivation, chemical composition, and the potential uses of these plants as antioxidant and antibacterial agents in foods and in a clinical context. Moreover, the factors affecting the chemical composition of Echinacea spp. are also covered.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Echinacea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Óleos Voláteis/química , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 119: 122-132, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751075

RESUMO

Psidium guajava L. is a plant widely used for food and in folk medicine all over the world. Studies have shown that guava leaves have antifungal properties. In this study, Flavonoid and Tannic fractions were tested to investigate their chemical composition and antifungal potential in vitro.21 compounds in the two fractions, presenting a higher content of phenolic compounds. The antifungal assays were performed against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei by microdilution to determine the IC50 and the cell viability curve. Minimal Fungicidal Concentration(MFC) and the inhibitory effects of the association of the fractions with Fluconazole, as well as the assays used to verify any morphological changes were performed in microculture chambers based on the concentrations from the microdilution. The IC50 of the isolated fractions and the fractions associated with each other were calculated, varying from 69.29 to 3444.62 µg/mL and the fractions associated with fluconazole varied from 925.56 to 1.57 µg/mL, it was clear that the association of the natural product with the antifungal presented a synergism. The fractions affected pleomorphism capacity and have a potential antifungal activity as they caused fungal inhibition in isolated use, potentiated the action of Fluconazole, reducing its concentration and impeding morphological transition, one of the virulence factors of the genus.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Psidium/química
13.
Food Chem ; 262: 72-77, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751924

RESUMO

This study was carried out to test the essential oil from C. ambrosioides leaves and its main constituent, α-Terpinene, in an antibacterial activity assay. As well, it was evaluated ability reduce resistance to norfloxacin and ethidium bromide was compared the Staphylococcus aureus 1199B whith 1199 wild type strain. The MIC of the C. ambrosioides essential oil and α-Terpinene were determined by microdilution method. The MIC of the essential oil and α-Terpinene presented a value ≥ 1024 µg/mL. However, when associated with antibacterials, the essential oil from C. ambrosioides leaves significantly reduced the MIC of antibiotics and ethidium bromide, characterizing an efflux pump inhibition. The C. ambrosioides essential oil, despite having no direct antibacterial activity against the S. aureus 1199B strain, showed a potentiating action when associated with antibacterial agents, this being attributed to an inhibition of efflux pumps.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Chenopodium ambrosioides/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/antagonistas & inibidores , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Norfloxacino/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 261: 233-239, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739588

RESUMO

The development of fungal resistance to antifungal drugs has been worsening over the years and as a result research on new antifungal agents derived from plants has intensified. Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga) has been studied for its various biological actions. In this study the chemical composition and antifungal effects of the E. uniflora essential oil (EULEO) were investigated against Candida albicans (CA), Candida krusei (CK) and Candida tropicalis (CT) standard strains. The essential oil obtained through hydro-distillation was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). To determine the IC50 of the oil, the cellular viability curve and the inhibitory effects were measured by means of the oil's association with Fluconazole in a broth microdilution assay with spectrophotometric readings. The Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) was determined by solid medium subculture with the aid of a guide plate while the assays used to verify morphological changes emerging from the action of the fractions were performed in microculture chambers at concentrations based on the microdilution. Two major oil constituents stand out from the chemical analysis: selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one (36.37%) and selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one epoxide (27.32%). The concentration that reduced microorganismal growth was ≥8,192 µg/mL while the IC50 varied, this being between 1892.47 and 12491.80 µg/mL (oil), 10.07 - 80.78 µg/mL (fluconazole) and 18.53 - 295.60 µg/mL (fluconazole + oil). The combined activity (fluconazole + oil) resulted in indifference and antagonism. A MFC of the oil in association with fluconazole was recorded at the concentration of 8,192 µg/mL against CA and CK. The oil caused the inhibition of CA and CT morphological transition. In view of the results obtained, additional research is needed to elucidate the activity of the E. uniflora oil over genetic and biochemical processes regarding its effect on Candida spp. virulence.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Eugenia/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Candida/patogenicidade , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 119: 199-205, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680269

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-edematogenic activity of X. americana L. (HEXA) hydroethanolic extract in ear edema models (acute and chronic) induced by croton oil and by different phlogistic agents (arachidonic acid, capsaicin, phenol and histamine), identifying the possible anti-edematogenic mechanism. HEXA demonstrated a significant anti-edematogenic effect at concentrations of 100-500 µg/ear in ear edema induced by croton oil with higher inhibition of edema of 39.37. However, the concentrations of 100 and 200 µg/ear were taken as a standard, demonstrating the effect in the chronic model induced by croton oil with inhibition of 61.62% and 48.74%. In the AA-induced ear edema model, HEXA showed inhibition of: 24.45% and 32.31%; capsaicin inhibition of 72.72% and 47.57%; phenol inhibition of 34% and 20.1%; and histamine inhibition of 31.8% and 21.62%. Then, the results were showed that HEXA demonstrated an anti-edematogenic effect in acute and chronic inflammation models, demonstrating a probable mechanism of action by the inhibition or modulation of key mediators of the inflammatory process. The chemical profile and presence of flavonoids guaranteeing a profile of activity similar to natural drugs that act or modulate the production of mediators of inflammations.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Dermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Olacaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Araquidônico/antagonistas & inibidores , Capsaicina/efeitos adversos , Capsaicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Óleo de Cróton/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Histamina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Fenol/efeitos adversos , Fenol/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 116(Pt B): 86-99, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29614383

RESUMO

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck is extensively cultivated worldwide and one of the most consumed fruits in the world. We evaluated the therapeutic properties of the methanol extract from Citrus sinensis fruit peel (CSMe) in high-fat diet-fed streptozotocin-induced insulin-resistant diabetic rats. Body weight, food intake, and water consumption were analysed. Biochemical and molecular biologic indices, and the expression of insulin receptor-induced signalling molecules were assessed to identify possible mechanisms. In addition, we conducted histology of pancreatic and adipose tissues. UHPLC-MS/MS analysis showed the presence of 17 dietary phenolics at substantial concentrations. High-fat diet-fed streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered CSMe (50 and 100 mg/kg) had reduced fasting blood glucose (56.1% and 55.7%, respectively) and plasma insulin levels (22.9% and 32.7%, respectively) compared with untreated diabetic control rats. CSMe reversed the biochemical abnormalities in diabetic rats, showed cytoprotective activity, and increased the intensity of the positive immunoreactions for insulin in pancreatic islets. CSMe treatment increased the expression of PPARγ in the adipose tissue and signalling molecules GLUT4 and insulin receptor. Our data suggest that CSMe could optimize glucose uptake of adipose tissues through the insulin-dependent signalling cascade mechanism and it should be investigated in the management of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/sangue , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Estreptozocina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Microb Pathog ; 115: 175-178, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275130

RESUMO

Diseases caused by bacteria are today one of the great problems of present time. Access to over-the-counter medication, the indiscriminate use of antibacterials and high rates of hospitalization have contributed to the increase in cases. This picture has led to the search for new alternative drugs. Thus, secondary metabolites have been reported as a possible treatment option, being evidenced in many researches to ascertain their combination with existing drugs. This research aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effect and the antibiotic activity modifying action of the catechin compound against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus multiresistant strains. The determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the evaluation of the antimicrobial and potentiating effect were performed by broth microdilution. The MIC obtained forcatechin against all the used strains was indicated as not clinically relevant. The combination of catechin and antibacterial drugs, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive, was synergistic and antagonistic in some drugs. Therefore, phenolic compounds can assist in the fight against infections caused by bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(11): 10353-10361, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28597384

RESUMO

Bioactive phytocompounds are studied by several bioactivities demonstrated, as their cytotoxic effects. The aim of this work was to evaluate the phytochemical profile, the toxic effect using the Drosophila melanogaster animal model and the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect of the Alternanthera brasiliana (EEAB) ethanol extract. The phytochemical profile was performed using HPLC. The cytotoxic effect was evaluated in vivo using D. melanogaster. The anti-inflammatory effect was determined by neurogenic and antiedematogenic assays, and the antimicrobial activity was assayed using a microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the EEAB alone and in association with antibiotics. The main compound identified on the EEAB was luteolin (1.93%). Its cytotoxic effect was demonstrated after 24 h in the concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/mL. The extract demonstrated an antiedematogenic effect, with a reduction of the edema between 35.57 and 64.17%. The MIC of the extract was ≥1.024 µg/mL, thus being considered clinically irrelevant. However, when the EEAB was associated with gentamicin, a synergism against all bacterial strains assayed was observed: Staphylococcus aureus (SA10), Escherichia coli (EC06) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA24). Due to these results, the EEAB demonstrated a low toxicity in vivo and anti-inflammatory and synergistic activities. These are promising results, mainly against microbial pathogens, and the compounds identified can be a source of carbon backbones for the discovery and creation of new drugs.

19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 97: 321-329, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091881

RESUMO

Tocoyena formosa, a small ornamental tree growing in the dry regions of central Brazil, is commonly known as 'genipapo do bravo'. This is a medicinal plant traditionally used as an analgesic for rheumatic pain, lower back pain and myalgia, however its use is carried out without scientific evidence, which thus justifies the development of studies to investigate and prove its therapeutic potential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical profile of Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schlecht.) K. Schum (TFLHE) and the mechanisms involved in its anti-nociceptive effect. The TFLHE revealed the presence of gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, quercetin and luteolin. The TFLHE at doses of 200 and 400mg/kg significantly decreased acetic acid-induced abdominal contortions, the reaction time for the formalin test in both phases and increased the paw withdrawal time in the hot plate thermal stimulus test. The 200mg/kg dose also significantly inhibited the plantar mechanical hyperalgesia intensity induced by formalin within 24h. TREATMENT: with the TFLHE did not cause significant changes in motor performance and coordination in the Rota Rod test. The investigation on the possible mechanism of antinociceptive action of TFLHE indicates the involvement of opioid, glutamatergic, nitric oxide/cGMP and vanilloid systems. It is concluded that the TFLHE has an antinociceptive effect promoted by the aforementioned mechanisms.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Água/farmacologia
20.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 6468593, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671173

RESUMO

Inflammatory diseases result from the body's response to tissue damage, and if the resolution is not adequate or the stimulus persists, there will be progression from acute inflammation to chronic inflammation, leading to the development of cancer and neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. Due to the complexity of events that occur in inflammation associated with the adverse effects of drugs used in clinical practice, it is necessary to search for new biologically active compounds with anti-inflammatory activity. Among natural products, essential oils (EOs) present promising results in preclinical studies, with action in the main mechanisms involved in the pathology of inflammation. The present systematic review summarizes the pharmacological effects of EOs and their compounds in in vitro and in vivo models for inflammation. The research was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, BIREME, Scielo, Open Grey, and Science Direct. Based on the inclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected and discussed in this review. The studies listed revealed a potential activity of EOs and their compounds for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, especially in chronic inflammatory conditions, with the main mechanism involving reduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species associated with an elevation of antioxidant enzymes as well as the reduction of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, this review suggests that EOs and their major compounds are promising tools for the treatment of chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
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