Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 65
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Hum Reprod ; 34(10): 2071-2079, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621862

RESUMO

The use of high-throughput sequencing techniques has allowed the identification of numerous mutations in genes responsible for severe astheno-teratozoospermia due to multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF). However, more than half of the analysed cases remain unresolved suggesting that many yet uncharacterised gene defects account for this phenotype. Based on whole-exome sequencing data from a large cohort of 167 MMAF-affected subjects, we identified two unrelated affected individuals carrying a homozygous deleterious mutation in CFAP70, a gene not previously linked to the MMAF phenotype. One patient had a homozygous splice variant c.1723-1G>T, altering a consensus splice acceptor site of CFAP70 exon 16, and one had a likely deleterious missense variant in exon 3 (p.Phe60Ile). The CFAP70 gene encodes a regulator protein of the outer dynein arms (ODA) strongly expressed in the human testis. In the sperm cells from the patient carrying the splice variant, immunofluorescence (IF) experiments confirmed the absence of the protein in the sperm flagellum. Moreover, IF analysis showed the absence of markers for the ODAs and the central pair complex of the axoneme. Interestingly, whereas CFAP70 staining was present in sperm cells from patients with mutations in the three other MMAF-related genes ARMC2, FSIP2 and CFAP43, we observed an absence of staining in sperm cells from patients mutated in the WDR66 gene, suggesting a possible interaction between two different axonemal components. In conclusion, this work provides the first evidence that loss of CFAP70 function causes MMAF and that ODA-related proteins may be crucial for the assembly and/or stability of the flagellum axoneme in addition to its motility.

2.
Biol Reprod ; 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276578

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Prokineticin 1 (PROK1) quantification in global follicular fluid (FF) has been recently reported as a predictive biomarker of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. It is now necessary to evaluate its clinical usefulness in individual follicles. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical value of PROK1 secretion in individual FF to predict oocyte competence. To determine the impact of follicular size, oocyte maturity and gonadotropin treatments on PROK1 secretion. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study from May 2015 to May 2017 at the University Hospital of Grenoble. PATIENTS: Sixty-nine infertile couples underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF). INTERVENTION(S): Collection of 298 individual FF from 44 women undergoing IVF; 52 individual cumulus cell (CC) samples and 15 CC primary cultures from 25 women undergoing IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Oocyte competence was defined as the ability to sustain embryo development to the blastocyst stage. Follicular size was measured by 2D-sonography. PROK1 concentration was quantified by ELISA assay. RESULTS: PROK1 concentration was correlated to follicular size (r = 0.85, P = 2.2 × 10-16). Normalized PROK1 concentration in FF was predictive of subsequent oocyte competence (AUROC curve = 0.76 [95% CI, 0.69-0.83]; P = 1.7 × 10-9), irrespectively of day-2 embryo morphokinetic parameters. The expression and secretion of PROK1 were increased in FF and CC of mature oocytes (P < 0.01). FSH and hCG up-regulated PROK1 secretion in CC primary cultures (P < 0.01; P < 0.05), probably through the cAMP pathway (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: PROK1 quantification in individual FF could constitute a new predictive biomarker of oocyte competence in addition with embryo morphokinetic parameters.

3.
Clin Genet ; 96(5): 394-401, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292949

RESUMO

Multiple morphological anomalies of the sperm flagella (MMAF syndrome) is a severe male infertility phenotype which has so far been formally linked to the presence of biallelic mutations in nine genes mainly coding for axonemal proteins overexpressed in the sperm flagellum. Homozygous mutations in QRICH2, a gene coding for a protein known to be required for stabilizing proteins involved in sperm flagellum biogenesis, have recently been identified in MMAF patients from two Chinese consanguineous families. Here, in order to better assess the contribution of QRICH2 in the etiology of the MMAF phenotype, we analyzed all QRICH2 variants from whole exome sequencing data of a cohort of 167 MMAF-affected subjects originating from North Africa, Iran, and Europe. We identified a total of 14 potentially deleterious variants in 18 unrelated individuals. Two unrelated subjects, representing 1% of the cohort, carried a homozygous loss-of-function variant: c.3501C>G [p.Tyr1167Ter] and c.4614C>G [p.Tyr1538Ter], thus confirming the implication of QRICH2 in the MMAF phenotype and human male infertility. Sixteen MMAF patients (9.6%) carried a heterozygous QRICH2 potentially deleterious variant. This rate was comparable to what was observed in a control group (15.5%) suggesting that the presence of QRICH2 heterozygous variants is not associated with MMAF syndrome.

5.
Theriogenology ; 131: 113-122, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959437

RESUMO

Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are widely used for both humans and domestic animals. In bovine species, in vitro embryo production is increasingly used and significant efforts are being made to optimize media and culture conditions. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) are lipolytic enzymes that hydrolyze glycerophospholipids to produce free fatty acids and lysophospholipids that have been found to be critical for many biological processes. Mouse group X secreted PLA2 (mGX) is abundant in the male reproductive tract and its use during sperm capacitation has been shown to improve in vitro production of viable embryos in a mouse model. Here, we examined its effect in the bovine species, testing the impact of mGX on the three steps involved in vitro production of preimplantation embryos: oocyte maturation, fertilization and preimplantation development. We found that incubating cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) or gametes with mGX resulted in increased blastocyst hatching and blastocyst production, respectively. The increases of embryo production induced by the phospholipase mGX were not observed for the catalytically inactive mutant H48Q-mGX, suggesting that these effects require the enzymatic activity of mGX. We also tested bGIB, a bovine homolog of mGX. bGIB failed to improve blastocyst production, underlining the high specificity of mGX. In conclusion, the results presented show that the effects of mGX are not restricted to the mouse model and that it is potent in the bovine species as well. This result strengthens the potential of mGX as a "pro-fertility drug" for mammalian reproduction.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/citologia , Bovinos/embriologia , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo X/farmacologia , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fertilização/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Camundongos , Oócitos , Capacitação Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 738-748, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929735

RESUMO

Male infertility is a major concern affecting human reproductive health. Asthenoteratospermia can cause male infertility through reduced motility and abnormal morphology of spermatozoa. Several genes, including DNAH1 and some CFAP family members, are involved in multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF). However, these known genes only account for approximately 60% of human MMAF cases. Here, we conducted further genetic analyses by using whole-exome sequencing in a cohort of 65 Han Chinese men with MMAF. Intriguingly, bi-allelic mutations of TTC21A (tetratricopeptide repeat domain 21A) were identified in three (5%) unrelated, MMAF-affected men, including two with homozygous stop-gain mutations and one with compound heterozygous mutations of TTC21A. Notably, these men consistently presented with MMAF and additional abnormalities of sperm head-tail conjunction. Furthermore, a homozygous TTC21A splicing mutation was identified in two Tunisian cases from an independent MMAF cohort. TTC21A is preferentially expressed in the testis and encodes an intraflagellar transport (IFT)-associated protein that possesses several tetratricopeptide repeat domains that perform functions crucial for ciliary function. To further investigate the potential roles of TTC21A in spermatogenesis, we generated Ttc21a mutant mice by using CRISPR-Cas9 technology and revealed sperm structural defects of the flagella and the connecting piece. Our consistent observations across human populations and in the mouse model strongly support the notion that bi-allelic mutations in TTC21A can induce asthenoteratospermia with defects of the sperm flagella and head-tail conjunction.

7.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(6): 464-470, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) may be isolated or associated with other malformations. The use of chromosome microarray (CMA) can increase the genetic diagnostic yield for CHDs by between 4% and 10%. The objective of this study was to evaluate the value of CMA after the prenatal diagnosis of an isolated CHD. METHODS: In a retrospective, nationwide study performed in France, we collected data on all cases of isolated CHD that had been explored using CMAs in 2015. RESULTS: A total of 239 fetuses were included and 33 copy number variations (CNVs) were reported; 19 were considered to be pathogenic, six were variants of unknown significance, and eight were benign variants. The anomaly detection rate was 10.4% overall but ranged from 0% to 16.7% as a function of the isolated CHD in question. The known CNVs were 22q11.21 deletions (n = 10), 22q11.21 duplications (n = 2), 8p23 deletions (n = 2), an Alagille syndrome (n = 1), and a Kleefstra syndrome (n = 1). CONCLUSION: The additional diagnostic yield was clinically significant (3.1%), even when anomalies in the 22q11.21 region were not taken into account. Hence, patients with a suspected isolated CHD and a normal karyotype must be screened for chromosome anomalies other than 22q11.21 duplications and deletions.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 650-654, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737907

RESUMO

The AMME syndrome defined as the combination of Alport syndrome, intellectual disability, midface hypoplasia, and elliptocytosis (AMME) is known to be a contiguous gene syndrome associated with microdeletions in the region Xq22.3q23. Recently, using exome sequencing, missense pathogenic variants in AMMECR1 have been associated with intellectual disability, midface hypoplasia, and elliptocytosis. In these cases, AMMECR1 gene appears to be responsible for most of the clinical features of the AMME syndrome except for Alport syndrome. In this article, we present two unrelated male patients with short stature, mild intellectual disability or neurodevelopmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, and elliptocytosis harboring small microdeletions identified by array-CGH involving TMEM164 and AMMECR1 genes and SNORD96B small nucleolar RNA for one patient, inherited from their mothers. These original cases further confirm that most specific AMME features are ascribed to AMMECR1 haploinsufficiency. These cases reporting the smallest microdeletions encompassing AMMECR1 gene provide new evidence for involvement of AMMECR1 in the AMME phenotype and permit to discuss a phenotype related to AMMECR1 haploinsufficiency: developmental delay/intellectual deficiency, midface hypoplasia, midline defect, deafness, and short stature.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 331-340, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686508

RESUMO

Male infertility is a major health concern. Among its different causes, multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) induces asthenozoospermia and is one of the most severe forms of qualitative sperm defects. Sperm of affected men display short, coiled, absent, and/or irregular flagella. To date, six genes (DNAH1, CFAP43, CFAP44, CFAP69, FSIP2, and WDR66) have been found to be recurrently associated with MMAF, but more than half of the cases analyzed remain unresolved, suggesting that many yet-uncharacterized gene defects account for this phenotype. Here, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on 168 infertile men who had a typical MMAF phenotype. Five unrelated affected individuals carried a homozygous deleterious mutation in ARMC2, a gene not previously linked to the MMAF phenotype. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 technique, we generated homozygous Armc2 mutant mice, which also presented an MMAF phenotype, thus confirming the involvement of ARMC2 in human MMAF. Immunostaining experiments in AMRC2-mutated individuals and mutant mice evidenced the absence of the axonemal central pair complex (CPC) proteins SPAG6 and SPEF2, whereas the other tested axonemal and peri-axonemal components were present, suggesting that ARMC2 is involved in CPC assembly and/or stability. Overall, we showed that bi-allelic mutations in ARMC2 cause male infertility in humans and mice by inducing a typical MMAF phenotype, indicating that this gene is necessary for sperm flagellum structure and assembly.

11.
Clin Genet ; 94(6): 575-580, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221343

RESUMO

We report findings from a male fetus of 26 weeks' gestational age with severe isolated intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) on amniotic fluid cells revealed a 1.06-Mb duplication in 19q13.42 inherited from the healthy father. This duplication contains 34 genes including ZNF331, a gene encoding a zinc-finger protein specifically imprinted (paternally expressed) in the placenta. Study of the ZNF331 promoter by methylation-specific-multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification showed that the duplicated allele was not methylated in the fetus unlike in the father's genome, suggesting both copies of the ZNF331 gene are expressed in the fetus. The anti-ZNF331 immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that ZNF331 was expressed at higher levels in renal and placental tissues from this fetus compared to controls. Interestingly, ZNF331 expression levels in the placenta have previously been reported to inversely correlate with fetal growth parameters. The original observation presented in this report showed that duplication of ZNF331 could be a novel genetic cause of isolated IUGR and underlines the usefulness of CMA to investigate the genetic causes of isolated severe IUGR.

12.
Hum Reprod ; 33(10): 1973-1984, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137358

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Can whole-exome sequencing (WES) of infertile patients identify new genes responsible for multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF)? SUMMARY ANSWER: WES analysis of 78 infertile men with a MMAF phenotype permitted the identification of four homozygous mutations in the fibrous sheath (FS) interacting protein 2 (FSIP2) gene in four unrelated individuals. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The use of high-throughput sequencing techniques revealed that mutations in the dynein axonemal heavy chain 1 (DNAH1) gene, and in the cilia and flagella associated protein 43 (CFAP43) and 44 (CFAP44) genes account for approximately one-third of MMAF cases thus indicating that other relevant genes await identification. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a retrospective genetics study of 78 patients presenting a MMAF phenotype who were recruited in three fertility clinics between 2008 and 2015. Control sperm samples were obtained from normospermic donors. Allelic frequency for control subjects was derived from large public databases. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: WES was performed for all 78 subjects. All identified variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Relative mRNA expression levels for the selected candidate gene (FSIP2) was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in a panel of normal human and mouse tissues. To characterize the structural and ultrastructural anomalies present in patients' sperm, immunofluorescence (IF) was performed on sperm samples from two subjects with a mutation and one control and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses was performed on sperm samples from one subject with a mutation and one control. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We identified four unrelated patients (4/78, 5.1%) with homozygous loss of function mutations in the FSIP2 gene, which encodes a protein of the sperm FS and is specifically expressed in human and mouse testis. None of these mutations were reported in control sequence databases. TEM analyses showed a complete disorganization of the FS associated with axonemal defects. IF analyses confirmed that the central-pair microtubules and the inner and outer dynein arms of the axoneme were abnormal in all four patients carrying FSIP2 mutations. Importantly, and in contrast to what was observed in patients with MMAF and mutations in other MMAF-related genes (DNAH1, CFAP43 and CFAP44), mutations in FSIP2 led to the absence of A-kinase anchoring protein 4 (AKAP4). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The low number of biological samples and the absence of a reliable anti-FSIP2 antibody prevented the formal demonstration that the FSIP2 protein was absent in sperm from subjects with a FSIP2 mutation. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our findings indicate that FSIP2 is one of the main genes involved in MMAF syndrome. In humans, genes previously associated with a MMAF phenotype encoded axonemal-associated proteins (DNAH1, CFAP43 and CFAP44). We show here that FSIP2, a protein of the sperm FS, is also logically associated with MMAF syndrome as we showed that it is necessary for FS assembly and for the overall axonemal and flagellar biogenesis. As was suggested before in mouse and man, our results also suggest that defects in AKAP4, one of the main proteins interacting with FSIP2, would induce a MMAF phenotype. Finally, this work reinforces the demonstration that WES sequencing is a good strategy to reach a genetic diagnosis for patients with severe male infertility phenotypes. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by the following grants: the 'MAS-Flagella' project financed by the French ANR and the DGOS for the program PRTS 2014 (14-CE15) and the 'Whole genome sequencing of patients with Flagellar Growth Defects (FGD)' project financed by the Fondation Maladies Rares for the program Séquençage à haut débit 2012. The authors have no conflict of interest.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(3): 400-412, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122540

RESUMO

Multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagellum (MMAF) is a severe form of male infertility defined by the presence of a mosaic of anomalies, including short, bent, curled, thick, or absent flagella, resulting from a severe disorganization of the axoneme and of the peri-axonemal structures. Mutations in DNAH1, CFAP43, and CFAP44, three genes encoding axoneme-related proteins, have been described to account for approximately 30% of the MMAF cases reported so far. Here, we searched for pathological copy-number variants in whole-exome sequencing data from a cohort of 78 MMAF-affected subjects to identify additional genes associated with MMAF. In 7 of 78 affected individuals, we identified a homozygous deletion that removes the two penultimate exons of WDR66 (also named CFAP251), a gene coding for an axonemal protein preferentially localized in the testis and described to localize to the calmodulin- and spoke-associated complex at the base of radial spoke 3. Sequence analysis of the breakpoint region revealed in all deleted subjects the presence of a single chimeric SVA (SINE-VNTR-Alu) at the breakpoint site, suggesting that the initial deletion event was potentially mediated by an SVA insertion-recombination mechanism. Study of Trypanosoma WDR66's ortholog (TbWDR66) highlighted high sequence and structural analogy with the human protein and confirmed axonemal localization of the protein. Reproduction of the human deletion in TbWDR66 impaired flagellar movement, thus confirming WDR66 as a gene associated with the MMAF phenotype and highlighting the importance of the WDR66 C-terminal region.

14.
Basic Clin Androl ; 28: 5, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760927

RESUMO

Background: Robertsonian translocations (RobT) are common structural chromosome rearrangements where carriers display a majority of chromosomally balanced spermatozoa from alternate segregation mode. According to some monotony observed in the rates of balanced segregation, is sperm FISH analysis obsolete for RobT carriers? Methods: Retrospective cohort research study on 23 patients analyzed in our center from 2003 to 2017 and compared to the data of 187 patients in literature from 1983 to 2017.Robertsonian translocation carriers were divided in six groups according to the chromosomes involved in the translocation: 9 patients from our center and 107 from literature carrying 45,XY,der(13;14) karyotype, 3 and 35 patients respectively with 45,XY,der(14;21), 5 and 11 patients respectively with 45,XY,der(13;15), 4 and 7 patients respectively with 45,XY,der(14;15), 1 and 4 patients respectively with 45,XY,der(13;22),and 1 and 10 patients respectively with 45,XY,der(14;22). Results: Alternate segregation mode is predominant in our group of Robertsonian translocation carriers with 73.45% ±8.05 of balanced spermatozoa (min 50.92%; max 89.99%). These results are compliant with the data from literature for all translocations types (p > 0.05) and are consistent among the different types of Robertsonian translocations (p > 0.05) except for der(13;15) that exhibit lower balanced spermatozoa rates (p < 0.05 versus der(13;14), der(14;21), (13;21) and der(15;22)). Normozoospermic patients also display a significantly (p < 0.01) higher rate of balanced sperm cells than patients with abnormal seminograms whatever the defect implied. Conclusions: According to the discrepancies observed between der(13;15) and all the other Rob T carriers, the differences observed among patients presenting normal and abnormal sperm parameters and the input in genetical counselling, sperm FISH does not seem obsolete for these patients. Moreover, it seems important to collect more data for rare RobT.

15.
EMBO Mol Med ; 10(5)2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29661911

RESUMO

The genetic causes of oocyte meiotic deficiency (OMD), a form of primary infertility characterised by the production of immature oocytes, remain largely unexplored. Using whole exome sequencing, we found that 26% of a cohort of 23 subjects with OMD harboured the same homozygous nonsense pathogenic mutation in PATL2, a gene encoding a putative RNA-binding protein. Using Patl2 knockout mice, we confirmed that PATL2 deficiency disturbs oocyte maturation, since oocytes and zygotes exhibit morphological and developmental defects, respectively. PATL2's amphibian orthologue is involved in the regulation of oocyte mRNA as a partner of CPEB However, Patl2's expression profile throughout oocyte development in mice, alongside colocalisation experiments with Cpeb1, Msy2 and Ddx6 (three oocyte RNA regulators) suggest an original role for Patl2 in mammals. Accordingly, transcriptomic analysis of oocytes from WT and Patl2-/- animals demonstrated that in the absence of Patl2, expression levels of a select number of highly relevant genes involved in oocyte maturation and early embryonic development are deregulated. In conclusion, PATL2 is a novel actor of mammalian oocyte maturation whose invalidation causes OMD in humans.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 636-648, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606301

RESUMO

The multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) phenotype is among the most severe forms of sperm defects responsible for male infertility. The phenotype is characterized by the presence in the ejaculate of immotile spermatozoa with severe flagellar abnormalities including flagella being short, coiled, absent, and of irregular caliber. Recent studies have demonstrated that MMAF is genetically heterogeneous, and genes thus far associated with MMAF account for only one-third of cases. Here we report the identification of homozygous truncating mutations (one stop-gain and one splicing variant) in CFAP69 of two unrelated individuals by whole-exome sequencing of a cohort of 78 infertile men with MMAF. CFAP69 encodes an evolutionarily conserved protein found at high levels in the testis. Immunostaining experiments in sperm from fertile control individuals showed that CFAP69 localized to the midpiece of the flagellum, and the absence of CFAP69 was confirmed in both individuals carrying CFPA69 mutations. Additionally, we found that sperm from a Cfap69 knockout mouse model recapitulated the MMAF phenotype. Ultrastructural analysis of testicular sperm from the knockout mice showed severe disruption of flagellum structure, but histological analysis of testes from these mice revealed the presence of all stages of the seminiferous epithelium, indicating that the overall progression of spermatogenesis is preserved and that the sperm defects likely arise during spermiogenesis. Together, our data indicate that CFAP69 is necessary for flagellum assembly/stability and that in both humans and mice, biallelic truncating mutations in CFAP69 cause autosomal-recessive MMAF and primary male infertility.

17.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 468: 70-80, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522859

RESUMO

High throughput sequencing (HTS) and CRISPR/Cas9 are two recent technologies that are currently revolutionizing biological and clinical research. Both techniques are complementary as HTS permits to identify new genetic variants and genes involved in various pathologies and CRISPR/Cas9 permits to create animals or cell models to validate the effect of the identified variants, to characterize the pathogeny of the identified variants and the function of the genes of interest and ultimately to provide ways of correcting the molecular defects. We analyzed a cohort of 78 infertile men presenting with multiple morphological anomalies of the sperm flagella (MMAF), a severe form of male infertility. Using whole exome sequencing (WES), homozygous mutations in autosomal candidate genes were identified in 63% of the tested subjects. We decided to produce by CRISPR/cas9 four knock-out (KO) and one knock-in (KI) mouse lines to confirm these results and to increase our understanding of the physiopathology associated with these genetic variations. Overall 31% of the live pups obtained presented a mutational event in one of the targeted regions. All identified events were insertions or deletions localized near the PAM sequence. Surprisingly we observed a high rate of germline mosaicism as 30% of the F1 displayed a different mutation than the parental event characterized on somatic tissue (tail), indicating that CRISPR/Cas9 mutational events kept happening several cell divisions after the injection. Overall, we created mouse models for 5 distinct loci and in each case homozygous animals could be obtained in approximately 6 months. These results demonstrate that the combined use of WES and CRISPR/Cas9 is an efficient and timely strategy to identify and validate mutations responsible for infertility phenotypes in human.

18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 686, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449551

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis defects concern millions of men worldwide, yet the vast majority remains undiagnosed. Here we report men with primary infertility due to multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella with severe disorganization of the sperm axoneme, a microtubule-based structure highly conserved throughout evolution. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on 78 patients allowing the identification of 22 men with bi-allelic mutations in DNAH1 (n = 6), CFAP43 (n = 10), and CFAP44 (n = 6). CRISPR/Cas9 created homozygous CFAP43/44 male mice that were infertile and presented severe flagellar defects confirming the human genetic results. Immunoelectron and stimulated-emission-depletion microscopy performed on CFAP43 and CFAP44 orthologs in Trypanosoma brucei evidenced that both proteins are located between the doublet microtubules 5 and 6 and the paraflagellar rod. Overall, we demonstrate that CFAP43 and CFAP44 have a similar structure with a unique axonemal localization and are necessary to produce functional flagella in species ranging from Trypanosoma to human.


Assuntos
Flagelos/fisiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Proteínas dos Microtúbulos/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Trypanosoma/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Axonema , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Estudos de Coortes , Fertilidade , Flagelos/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(7): 1196-1211, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29365104

RESUMO

Motile cilia and sperm flagella share an extremely conserved microtubule-based cytoskeleton, called the axoneme, which sustains beating and motility of both organelles. Ultra-structural and/or functional defects of this axoneme are well-known to cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a disorder characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, chronic otitis media, situs inversus, male infertility and in most severe cases, hydrocephalus. Only recently, mutations in genes encoding axonemal proteins with preferential expression in the testis were identified in isolated male infertility; in those cases, individuals displayed severe asthenozoospermia due to Multiple Morphological Abnormalities of the sperm Flagella (MMAF) but not PCD features. In this study, we performed genetic investigation of two siblings presenting MMAF without any respiratory PCD features, and we report the identification of the c.2018T > G (p.Leu673Pro) transversion in AK7, encoding an adenylate kinase, expressed in ciliated tissues and testis. By performing transcript and protein analyses of biological samples from individual carrying the transversion, we demonstrate that this mutation leads to the loss of AK7 protein in sperm cells but not in respiratory ciliated cells, although both cell types carry the mutated transcript and no tissue-specific isoforms were detected. This work therefore, supports the notion that proteins shared by both cilia and sperm flagella may have specific properties and/or function in each organelle, in line with the differences in their mode of assembly and organization. Overall, this work identifies a novel genetic cause of asthenozoospermia due to MMAF and suggests that in humans, more deleterious mutations of AK7 might induce PCD.

20.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 32, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263841

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms with heterogeneous degrees of severity, including intellectual disability (ID), absent or delayed speech, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It results from a deletion of the distal part of chromosome 22q13 that in most cases includes the SHANK3 gene. SHANK3 is considered a major gene for PMS, but the factors that modulate the severity of the syndrome remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 85 patients with different 22q13 rearrangements (78 deletions and 7 duplications). We first explored the clinical features associated with PMS, and provide evidence for frequent corpus callosum abnormalities in 28% of 35 patients with brain imaging data. We then mapped several candidate genomic regions at the 22q13 region associated with high risk of clinical features, and suggest a second locus at 22q13 associated with absence of speech. Finally, in some cases, we identified additional clinically relevant copy-number variants (CNVs) at loci associated with ASD, such as 16p11.2 and 15q11q13, which could modulate the severity of the syndrome. We also report an inherited SHANK3 deletion transmitted to five affected daughters by a mother without ID nor ASD, suggesting that some individuals could compensate for such mutations. In summary, we shed light on the genotype-phenotype relationship of patients with PMS, a step towards the identification of compensatory mechanisms for a better prognosis and possibly treatments of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA