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1.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020753

RESUMO

Morbidity and mortality from venous thromboembolism (VTE), which refers to deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), have a substantial effect on the global burden of disease. The field of venous thrombosis research has been dramatically changed over the past 10 years with the improvement of animal models that shed some light on the interaction between inflammation and thrombosis. Important recent advances provided evidence of the implication of the innate immune system in venous thrombosis. In this review, we highlighted the cytokines and chemokines that regulate mechanisms of thrombus formation and resolution. Cytokines are pleiotropic, redundant and multifunctional endogenous mediators orchestrating the inflammatory responses leading to thrombus formation or resolution. The use of experimental models has revealed the pro-thrombotic activity of some cytokines including IFNγ, IL-6, CCL2, IL-17A, IL-9, IL-1ß and TGF-ß. Other cytokines such as IL-10, TNF-α and IL-8 appear to promote thrombus resolution in late phase of venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this review is to bring together the current knowledge regarding the cytokines and chemokines that have been involved in thrombosis formation and resolution. We postulate that an imbalance between pro-thrombotic and anti-thrombotic cytokines/chemokines may be involved in the pathophysiology of VTE. However, in depth basic and clinical research in venous thrombosis is still require to fully understand the precise mechanism of action of these cytokines.

2.
COPD ; 17(1): 7-14, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854207

RESUMO

Our main objective was to demonstrate that, in smoker patients hospitalised for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exacerbation, early initiation of varenicline during 12 weeks, combined with an intensive counselling, is associated with a higher continuous abstainers rate (CAR) at one year as compared to intensive counselling alone. In this multicenter, prospective, double-blind, randomised study, 81 smoking COPD patients hospitalised for an acute exacerbation for at least 24 h were allocated to receive either varenicline (n = 42) or placebo (n = 39) for 12 weeks, in association with an intensive counselling in the 2 groups, and followed up for 40 weeks. The primary outcome was CAR at week 52. Secondary outcomes included CAR at week 12 and 26, partial abstinence rate (PAR) at week 12, 26 and 52, nicotinic substitute consumption and adverse events. At week 52, CAR was not different in placebo and varenicline groups (25.6%). At week 12, CAR was significantly higher in the varenicline group (50%) as compared to placebo group (27%) (p = 0.041). Nicotine consumption was significantly higher at week 52 in the placebo group (55.3%) as compared to the varenicline group (24.4%) (p = 0.005). There was no significant difference in PAR at week 12, 26 and 52; the frequency of adverse events was similar between the two groups. Among active smoker COPD patients with exacerbation, 12-week varenicline associated with intensive counselling for smoking cessation increased the rate of continuous abstainers as compared to placebo. However, benefit was not maintained after varenicline discontinuation.Clinical Trials Registration: URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: NCT01694732.

3.
COPD ; 16(3-4): 266-271, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581920

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently associated with a reduced functional exercise capacity. This parameter is usually evaluated using 6-minute walking test (6MWT). New tools appear regularly. The aim of this study was to validate the 3-minute step test (3MStepT) and to compare 3MStepT and 6MWT in stable patients with COPD as a tool to quantify the functional exercise capacity. Patients with COPD admitted for a pulmonary rehabilitation program in a dedicated center were recruited and randomly performed both tests: 6MWT and 3MStepT. A training test was performed systematically before each test. Walking distance and number of repetitions (3MStepT) were measured. Cardiorespiratory parameters, dyspnea and lower limb fatigue (Borg) were recorded pre and post the tests. Fifty patients with COPD (FEV1: 45.2 ± 18.3) were included. 6MWT (423.6 ± 96.3 m) was strongly correlated with 3MStepT (62.1 ± 18.0; r = 0.780; p < 0.001). Heart rate and SpO2 were significantly different at the end of the 6MWT and 3MStepT (respectively, 106.2 ± 16.3 vs. 112.9 ± 13.4bpm, p = 0.002; 87.6 ± 5.4 vs. 89.6 ± 5.3bpm, p = 0.001). Lower limb fatigue was significantly higher after the 3MStepT (2.5 ± 2.6 vs. 3.4 ± 2.4, p = 0.01). The 3MStepT is an alternative to the 6MWT to estimate functional exercise capacity in stable patients with COPD but cardiorespiratory adaptation and lower limb fatigue are not similar between these tests.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The clinical process for the diagnosis of intra-abdominal lesion due to blunt abdominal trauma in children is not consistent. The goal of the present study was to assess the efficiency of our institutional procedure to manage hemodynamically stable pediatric patients with benign abdominal trauma and to select patients who need a radiological examination in an emergency pediatric department. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study from June 2008 to June 2010 in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatric patients with benign abdominal trauma and with stable hemodynamic parameters were included in the study. We conducted first clinical examination and clinical laboratory assessment for blood count, platelet count, hematocrit, serum glutamo-oxalacétique transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), lipase and urine. A second clinical examination was performed 2 h later. Patients with biological abnormalities and/or with persistent pain underwent a computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen. Our main criterion for judging was the presence of intra-abdominal lesion as revealed by the scan, which was considered as the gold standard. At the second clinical examination, patients without pain and with normal results for clinical laboratory assessment were sent home. A telephone call was made to the children 48 h after the visit to the hospital emergency department. The secondary criterion for judging was the absence of complication in children who did not undergo the scan. RESULTS: A total of 111 children were included. Seventy-five children underwent the complete procedure. Thirty-four scans were performed. The scan revealed that 22 patients had an intra-abdominal lesion. Multivariate analysis indicated that SGOT higher than 34 IU/L and the persistence of pain for more than 2 h from the initial evaluation of trauma favored the development of intra-abdominal lesion. On the basis of these two criteria, we developed a predictive diagnostic score for post-traumatic intra-abdominal injuries with a high negative predictive value. For children who were sent home without a radiological examination, no complications were observed at 48 h after the visit to the emergency department. CONCLUSION: The present protocol is a good approach to identify children at risk for intra-abdominal lesion who need a radiological examination and those who do not require any complementary examinations. The predictive diagnostic score could help young hospital doctors to assess blunt abdominal trauma.

6.
BMJ ; 366: l4363, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of a first recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) event after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment in patients with a first episode of unprovoked VTE, and the cumulative incidence for recurrent VTE up to 10 years. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (from inception to 15 March 2019). STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies reporting symptomatic recurrent VTE after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment in patients with a first unprovoked VTE event who had completed at least three months of treatment. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two investigators independently screened studies, extracted data, and appraised risk of bias. Data clarifications were sought from authors of eligible studies. Recurrent VTE events and person years of follow-up after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment were used to calculate rates for individual studies, and data were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Sex and site of initial VTE were investigated as potential sources of between study heterogeneity. RESULTS: 18 studies involving 7515 patients were included in the analysis. The pooled rate of recurrent VTE per 100 person years after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment was 10.3 events (95% confidence interval 8.6 to 12.1) in the first year, 6.3 (5.1 to 7.7) in the second year, 3.8 events/year (95% confidence interval 3.2 to 4.5) in years 3-5, and 3.1 events/year (1.7 to 4.9) in years 6-10. The cumulative incidence for recurrent VTE was 16% (95% confidence interval 13% to 19%) at 2 years, 25% (21% to 29%) at 5 years, and 36% (28% to 45%) at 10 years. The pooled rate of recurrent VTE per 100 person years in the first year was 11.9 events (9.6 to 14.4) for men and 8.9 events (6.8 to 11.3) for women, with a cumulative incidence for recurrent VTE of 41% (28% to 56%) and 29% (20% to 38%), respectively, at 10 years. Compared to patients with isolated pulmonary embolism, the rate of recurrent VTE was higher in patients with proximal deep vein thrombosis (rate ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.7) and in patients with pulmonary embolism plus deep vein thrombosis (1.5, 1.1 to 1.9). In patients with distal deep vein thrombosis, the pooled rate of recurrent VTE per 100 person years was 1.9 events (95% confidence interval 0.5 to 4.3) in the first year after anticoagulation had stopped. The case fatality rate for recurrent VTE was 4% (95% confidence interval 2% to 6%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a first episode of unprovoked VTE who completed at least three months of anticoagulant treatment, the risk of recurrent VTE was 10% in the first year after treatment, 16% at two years, 25% at five years, and 36% at 10 years, with 4% of recurrent VTE events resulting in death. These estimates should inform clinical practice guidelines, enhance confidence in counselling patients of their prognosis, and help guide decision making about long term management of unprovoked VTE. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017056309.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa , Suspensão de Tratamento , Humanos , Recidiva , Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/fisiopatologia
7.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 3(3): 364-371, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294323

RESUMO

Introduction: VTE-BLEED is a validated score for identification of patients at increased risk of major bleeding during extended anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is unknown whether VTE-BLEED high-risk patients also have an increased risk for recurrent VTE, which would limit the potential usefulness of the score. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled PADIS-PE trial that randomized patients with a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism (PE) initially treated during 6 months to receive an additional 18-month of warfarin vs. placebo. The primary outcome of this analysis was recurrent VTE during 2-year follow-up after anticoagulant discontinuation, that is, after the initial 6-month treatment in the placebo arm and after 24 months of anticoagulation in the active treatment arm. This rate, adjusted for study treatment allocation, was compared between patients in the high- vs. low-risk VTE-BLEED group. Results: In complete case analysis (n = 308; 82.4% of total population), 89 (28.9%) patients were classified as high risk; 44 VTE events occurred after anticoagulant discontinuation during 668 patient-years. The cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE was 16.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0%-26.1%; 14 events) and 14.6% (95% CI, 10.4%-20.3%; 30 events) in the high-risk and low-risk VTE-BLEED groups, respectively, for an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.62-2.19). Conclusion: In this study, patients with unprovoked PE classified at high risk of major bleeding by VTE-BLEED did not have a higher incidence of recurrent VTE after cessation of anticoagulant therapy, supporting the potential yield of the score for making management decisions on the optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy.

8.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(9): 1489-1497, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify risk factors for residual pulmonary vascular obstruction after a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: Analyses were based on data from the double-blind randomized "PADIS-PE" trial that included 371 patients with a first unprovoked PE initially treated during 6 uninterrupted months; all patients underwent baseline ventilation-perfusion lung scanning at inclusion (i.e., after 6 months of anticoagulation). Each patient's pulmonary vascular obstruction indexes (PVOIs) at PE diagnosis and at inclusion were centrally assessed. RESULTS: Among the 371 included patients, residual PVOI was available in 356 patients, and 150 (42.1%) patients had PVOI ≥ 5%. At multivariable analysis, age > 65 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58-5.00), PVOI ≥ 25% at PE diagnosis (OR, 3.53, 95% CI, 1.94-6.41), elevated factor VIII (OR, 3.89, 95% CI, 1.41-10.8), and chronic respiratory disease (OR, 2.18, 95% CI, 1.11-4.26) were independent predictors for residual PVOI ≥ 5%. Patients with ≥ 1 of these factors represented 94.5% (123 patients) of all patients with residual PVOI ≥ 5%. CONCLUSION: Six months after a first unprovoked PE, age > 65 years, PVOI ≥ 25% at PE diagnosis, elevated factor VIII, or chronic respiratory disease were found to be independent predictors for residual pulmonary vascular obstruction. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: NCT00740883.

9.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(11): 756-763, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060047

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with increased risk for ischemic stroke, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The authors hypothesized that paradoxical embolism through patent foramen ovale (PFO) should be the main mechanism. Objective: To determine the frequency of recent ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic PE according to whether PFO was detected. Design: Prospective cohort study with masked assessment of stroke outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01216423). Setting: 4 French hospital centers. Participants: 361 consecutive patients with symptomatic acute PE from 13 November 2009 through 21 December 2015. Intervention: Systematic contrast transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 7 days after enrollment. Measurements: Recent symptomatic or silent ischemic stroke was diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination and cerebral MRI showing a hypersignal on the trace diffusion-weighted image with reduction or pseudonormalization of apparent diffusion coefficient. Results: Contrast TTE was conclusive in 324 of 361 patients and showed PFO in 43 patients (13%). The median age was 66 years (interquartile range, 54 to 77 years). In total, 51% of patients (145/284) had associated deep venous thrombosis, 91% (279/306) had cardiovascular risk factors, and 10% (16/151) presented with arrhythmia (no difference between PFO and non-PFO groups). Cerebral MRI was conclusive in 315 patients. Recent ischemic stroke was more frequent in the PFO group than in the non-PFO group (9 of 42 patients [21.4%] vs. 15 of 273 patients [5.5%]; difference in proportions, 15.9 percentage points [95% CI, 4.7 to 30.7 percentage points]). Limitation: Because of inconclusive contrast TTE or MRI, 46 patients were excluded from analysis. Conclusion: Frequency of recent ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic PE was higher in patients with PFO than in those without PFO. This finding supports the hypothesis that paradoxical embolism is an important mechanism of ischemic stroke in patients with PFO. Primary Funding Source: French Ministry of Health.

10.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(20): 1713-1720, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116676

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pulmonary embolism is incidentally diagnosed in up to 5% of patients with cancer on routine imaging scans. The clinical relevance and optimal therapy for incidental pulmonary embolism, particularly distal clots, is unclear. The aim of the current study was to assess current treatment strategies and the long-term clinical outcomes of incidentally detected pulmonary embolism in patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an international, prospective, observational cohort study between October 22, 2012, and December 31, 2017. Unselected adults with active cancer and a recent diagnosis of incidental pulmonary embolism were eligible. Outcomes were recurrent venous thromboembolism, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality during 12 months of follow-up. Outcome events were centrally adjudicated. RESULTS: A total of 695 patients were included. Mean age was 66 years and 58% of patients were male. Most frequent cancer types were colorectal (21%) and lung cancer (15%). Anticoagulant therapy was initiated in 675 patients (97%), of whom 600 (89%) were treated with low-molecular-weight heparin. Recurrent venous thromboembolism occurred in 41 patients (12-month cumulative incidence, 6.0%; 95% CI, 4.4% to 8.1%), major bleeding in 39 patients (12-month cumulative incidence, 5.7%; 95% CI, 4.1% to 7.7%), and 283 patients died (12-month cumulative incidence, 43%; 95% CI, 39% to 46%). The 12-month incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism was 6.4% in those with subsegmental pulmonary embolism compared with 6.0% in those with more proximal pulmonary embolism (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.37 to 2.9; P = .93). CONCLUSION: In patients with cancer with incidental pulmonary embolism, risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism is significant despite anticoagulant treatment. Patients with subsegmental pulmonary embolism seemed to have a risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism comparable to that of patients with more proximal clots.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 380(12): 1139-1149, 2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism is one of the leading causes of maternal death in the Western world. Because of the low specificity and sensitivity of the d-dimer test, all pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolism undergo computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography or ventilation-perfusion scanning, both of which involve radiation exposure to the mother and fetus. Whether a pregnancy-adapted algorithm could be used to safely avoid diagnostic imaging in pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolism is unknown. METHODS: In a prospective study involving pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolism, we assessed three criteria from the YEARS algorithm (clinical signs of deep-vein thrombosis, hemoptysis, and pulmonary embolism as the most likely diagnosis) and measured the d-dimer level. Pulmonary embolism was ruled out if none of the three criteria were met and the d-dimer level was less than 1000 ng per milliliter or if one or more of the three criteria were met and the d-dimer level was less than 500 ng per milliliter. Adaptation of the YEARS algorithm for pregnant women involved compression ultrasonography for women with symptoms of deep-vein thrombosis; if the results were positive (i.e., a clot was present), CT pulmonary angiography was not performed. All patients in whom pulmonary embolism had not been ruled out underwent CT pulmonary angiography. The primary outcome was the incidence of venous thromboembolism at 3 months. The secondary outcome was the proportion of patients in whom CT pulmonary angiography was not indicated to safely rule out pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: A total of 510 women were screened, of whom 12 (2.4%) were excluded. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 20 patients (4.0%) at baseline. During follow-up, popliteal deep-vein thrombosis was diagnosed in 1 patient (0.21%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 1.2); no patient had pulmonary embolism. CT pulmonary angiography was not indicated, and thus was avoided, in 195 patients (39%; 95% CI, 35 to 44). The efficiency of the algorithm was highest during the first trimester of pregnancy and lowest during the third trimester; CT pulmonary angiography was avoided in 65% of patients who began the study in the first trimester and in 32% who began the study in the third trimester. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary embolism was safely ruled out by the pregnancy-adapted YEARS diagnostic algorithm across all trimesters of pregnancy. CT pulmonary angiography was avoided in 32 to 65% of patients. (Funded by Leiden University Medical Center and 17 other participating hospitals; Artemis Netherlands Trial Register number, NL5726.).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Hemoptise , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico
12.
Nucl Med Commun ; 40(6): 576-582, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Following the implementation of single-photon emission computed tomography ventilation/perfusion (SPECT V/Q) in our department, we previously carried out an observational study over the period 2011-2013 that showed the safety of SPECT V/Q to rule out pulmonary embolism (PE). However, PE prevalence (28%) was high compared with some studies. Our hypothesis was that the use of SPECT V/Q may be responsible for an overdiagnosis of PE, especially at the implementation phase of the test. The aim was to carry out a time trend analysis of the evolution over the years of PE diagnosis with SPECT V/Q. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate the time trend of SPECT V/Q results, the conclusions of all SPECT V/Q scans performed for a suspected acute PE in our department from April 2011 to December 2016 were collected. To confirm the safety of a diagnostic management on the basis of SPECT V/Q to rule out PE, a retrospective observational study of the outcome of patients assessed with SPECT V/Q for suspected acute PE was carried out during the period 2014-2016. SPECT V/Q was interpreted using a diagnostic cutoff of one segmental or two subsegmental mismatches. The final diagnostic conclusion was established by the physician responsible for patient care. The safety of SPECT V/Q was assessed by monitoring the risk of thromboembolic events during the 3-month follow-up period in patients left untreated on the basis of a negative SPECT V/Q. RESULTS: Over the period 2011-2016, an average 16% (95% confidence interval: 10-22%) annual reduction in the proportion of positive SPECT V/Q results was observed. The percentage of positive SPECT V/Q results was 25.3% over the period 2011-2013 compared with 16.3% in 2014-2016 (P<0.0001). Out of the 696 patients analyzed over the period 2014-2016, the SPECT V/Q was positive, indeterminate, and negative in 118, 3, and 575 patients, respectively. The 3-month thromboembolic risk in patients in whom PE was deemed absent according to the SPECT V/Q was 3/543=0.55% (95% confidence interval 0.19-1.61). CONCLUSION: A continuous decrease in the annual proportion of positive SPECT V/Q results was mainly observed while maintaining the safety of the test to rule out PE. Explanatory factors include the introduction of a combined SPECT/CT scan, increased experience and familiarity with the test, and an increased awareness of the risks and consequences of overdiagnosing PE.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Relação Ventilação-Perfusão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(3): 346-351, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Some previous studies have suggested a high prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ECOPD). The SLICE trial aims to assess the efficacy and safety of an active strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of PE (vs usual care) in patients hospitalized because of ECOPD. METHODS: SLICE is a phase III, prospective, international, multicenter, randomized, open-label, and parallel-group trial. A total of 746 patients hospitalized because of ECOPD will be randomized in a 1:1 fashion to receive either an active strategy for the diagnosis and anticoagulant treatment of PE or usual care (ie, standard care without any diagnostic test for diagnosing PE). The primary outcome is a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal (recurrent) venous thromboembolism (VTE), or readmission for ECOPD within 90 days after enrollment. Secondary outcomes are (a) death from any cause within 90 days after enrollment, (b) non-fatal (recurrent) VTE within 90 days after enrollment, (c) readmission within 90 days after enrollment, and (d) length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Enrollment started in September 2014 and is expected to proceed until 2020. Median age of the first 443 patients was 71 years (interquartile range, 64-78), and 26% were female. CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter trial will determine the value of detecting PEs in patients with ECOPD. This has implications for COPD patient morbidity and mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02238639.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(3): 490-495, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685873

RESUMO

Patients with two unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) events could be at high risk for cancer diagnosis and may therefore benefit from extended cancer screening strategies. However, accurate data on the incidence of cancer in this population is lacking. In a prospective cohort study, we followed-up with all patients who experienced two unprovoked symptomatic VTE events that occurred in less than 2 years apart. We estimated the 1-year incidence rate of cancer following the second unprovoked VTE event using the Kaplan-Meier method. Potential predictors for cancer diagnosis were assessed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Between May 2000 and December 2013, we included 197 patients with two episodes of symptomatic unprovoked VTE that occurred in less than 2 years apart. Their mean age was 66.2 ± 16.3 years, and 122 (51.8%) were male. Seventeen patients were diagnosed with cancer during the year following the second episode of unprovoked VTE, corresponding to a cumulative incidence rate of 9.19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.81-14.37). The 1-year cumulative incidence rate of cancer was 35.88% (95% CI: 19.75-59.25) in patients with VTE recurrence on anticoagulation, 5.51% (95% CI: 2.9-10.32) among patients with a second episode of unprovoked VTE occurring after stopping anticoagulation and 1.15% (95% CI: 0.16-7.88) when time elapsed between the first and recurrent VTE was > 1 year. Our study suggests that the incidence of cancer in patients with a second episode of unprovoked VTE that occurs off anticoagulation, or > 1 year after the first event, is similar to that of patients with a first unprovoked VTE event.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico
15.
Haematologica ; 104(7): 1493-1501, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606789

RESUMO

The optimal duration of anticoagulation after a first episode of unprovoked deep-vein thrombosis is uncertain. We aimed to assess the benefits and risks of an additional 18 months of treatment with warfarin versus placebo, after an initial 6 months of anticoagulation for a first unprovoked proximal deep-vein thrombosis. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing an additional 18 months of warfarin with placebo in patients with a unprovoked proximal deep-vein thrombosis initially treated for 6 months (treatment period: 18 months; follow up after treatment period: 24 months). The primary outcome was the composite of recurrent venous thromboembolism or major bleeding at 18 months. Secondary outcomes were the composite at 42 months, as well as each component of the composite, and death unrelated to pulmonary embolism or major bleeding, at 18 and 42 months. All outcomes were centrally adjudicated. A total of 104 patients, enrolled between July 2007 and October 2013 were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis; no patient was lost to follow-up. During the 18-month treatment period, the primary outcome occurred in none of the 50 patients in the warfarin group and in 16 out of 54 patients (cumulative risk, 29.6%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.09; P<0.001). During the entire 42-month study period, the composite outcome occurred in 14 patients (cumulative risk, 36.8%) in the warfarin group and 17 patients (cumulative risk, 31.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.35-1.46). In conclusion, after a first unprovoked proximal deep-vein thrombosis initially treated for 6 months, an additional 18 months of warfarin therapy reduced the composite of recurrent venous thrombosis and major bleeding compared to placebo. However, this benefit was not maintained after stopping anticoagulation. Clinical registration: this trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00740493.

16.
Haematologica ; 104(1): 176-188, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115658

RESUMO

Differences between computed tomography pulmonary angiography and ventilation-perfusion lung scanning in pregnant patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism are not well-known, leading to ongoing debate on which test to choose. We searched in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases and identified all relevant articles and abstracts published up to October 1, 2017. We assessed diagnostic efficiency, frequency of non-diagnostic results and maternal and fetal exposure to radiation exposure. We included 13 studies for the diagnostic efficiency analysis, 30 for the analysis of non-diagnostic results and 22 for the radiation exposure analysis. The pooled rate of false negative test results was 0% for both imaging strategies with overlapping confidence intervals. The pooled rates of non-diagnostic results with computed tomography pulmonary angiography and ventilation-perfusion lung scans were 12% (95% confidence interval: 8-17) and 14% (95% confidence interval: 10-18), respectively. Reported maternal and fetal radiation exposure doses were well below the safety threshold, but could not be compared between the two diagnostic methods given the lack of high quality data. Both imaging tests seem equally safe to rule out pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. We found no significant differences in efficiency and radiation exposures between computed tomography pulmonary angiography and ventilation-perfusion lung scanning although direct comparisons were not possible.

18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(7): 772-778, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564950

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Symptoms and functional limitation are frequently reported by survivors of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). However, current guidelines provide no specific recommendations on which patients should be followed after acute PE, when follow-up should be performed, and which tests it should include. Definition and classification of late PE sequelae are evolving, and their predictors remain to be determined. METHODS: In a post hoc analysis of the Pulmonary Embolism Thrombolysis (PEITHO) trial, we focused on 219 survivors of acute intermediate-risk PE with clinical and echocardiographic follow-up 6 months after randomisation as well as over the long term (median, 3 years after acute PE). The primary outcome was a composite of (1) confirmed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) or (2) 'post-PE impairment' (PPEI), defined by echocardiographic findings indicating an intermediate or high probability of pulmonary hypertension along with New York Heart Association functional class II-IV. RESULTS: Confirmed CTEPH or PPEI occurred in 29 (13.2%) patients, (6 with CTEPH and 23 with PPEI). A history of chronic heart failure at baseline and incomplete or absent recovery of echocardiographic parameters at 6 months predicted CTEPH or PPEI at long-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: CTEPH or PPEI occurs in almost one out of seven patients after acute intermediate-risk PE. Six-month echocardiographic follow-up may be useful for timely detection of late sequelae.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Tenecteplase/uso terapêutico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The preOVNI study was a randomized, controlled, open-label study that investigated whether preoperative noninvasive ventilation (NIV) could reduce postoperative complications after lung cancer surgery. METHODS: Adult patients with planned lung cancer resection and with at least 1 cardiac or respiratory comorbidity were included and randomly assigned to preoperative NIV (at least 7 days and 4 h/day) or no NIV. The primary endpoint was the rate of postoperative protocol-defined complications. RESULTS: Three hundred patients were included. In the NIV group, the median NIV duration was 8 days. No difference of postoperative complication rates was evidenced: 42.6% in NIV group and 44.8% in no-NIV group (P = .75). The rate of pneumonia was greater in no-NIV group compared with the NIV group, but statistical significance was not achieved (28.0 vs 37.7%, respectively; P = .08). The type of surgery (open or minimally invasive) did not impact these results after multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: No benefit was evidenced for preoperative NIV before lung cancer surgery. Further studies should determine the optimal perioperative management to decrease the rate of postoperative complications.

20.
BMJ Open ; 8(11): e023939, 2018 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with a first, unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE), the optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy (AT) is controversial due to tightly balanced risks and benefits of indefinite anticoagulation. The objective of this study is to assess among patients with a first acute pulmonary embolism (PE) who received ≥3 months of AT and thereafter had a planar lung scan, whether residual pulmonary vascular obstruction (RPVO) is associated with VTE recurrence after discontinuation of AT. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review with a meta-analysis of individual participant data of contemporary studies evaluating the prognostic significance of RPVO in patients with a first acute PE. We will search from inception to 24 January 2018, PubMed, Medline, Embase and Cochrane's Central Registry for Randomized Controlled Trials, CENTRAL for randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. Two reviewers will conduct all screening and data collection independently. The methodological quality and risk of bias of eligible studies will be carefully and rigorously assessed using the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies of Interventions tool. The primary objective will be to assess the relationship between RPVO on ventilation-perfusion scan after completion of at least 3 months of AT after an acute PE event, and the risk of an objectively confirmed symptomatic recurrent VTE (including deep vein thrombosis or PE) or death due to PE. The secondary objectives will include the assessment of the optimal RPVO cut-off and the risk of recurrent VTE, as well as the relationship between the relative change in RPVO between PE diagnosis and at discontinuation of AT (≥3 months) and risk of recurrent VTE. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study of secondary data does not require ethics approval. It will be presented internationally and published in the peer-reviewed literature. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017081080.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Veias Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/complicações , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Veias Pulmonares/patologia , Recidiva , Projetos de Pesquisa , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Cintilografia de Ventilação/Perfusão , Conduta Expectante
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