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1.
Crit Rev Immunol ; 41(1): 41-67, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822524

RESUMO

The field of cell therapy is leading a paradigm shift in drug development. The recent convergence of several fields, including immunology, genetics, and synthetic biology, now allows for the introduction of artificial receptors and the design of entire genetic circuitries to finely program the behavior of injected cells. A prime example of these next-generation living drugs comes in the form of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), which have already demonstrated definitive evidence of therapeutic efficacy against some hematological malignancies. However, several obstacles still restrict the antitumor efficacy of and impair the widespread use of CAR-T cells. Critical challenges include limited persistence and antitumor activity in vivo, antigen escape, scarcity of suitable single markers for targeting, and therapy-related toxicity. Nevertheless, intense research activity in this field has resulted in a plethora of creative solutions to address each of these limitations. In this review, we provide a comprehensive snapshot of the current strategies used to enhance the therapeutic efficacy, applicability, and safety of genetically engineered immune cells to treat cancer.

2.
Transfus Apher Sci ; : 103135, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The correct determination of D antigen could help to avoid alloimmunization in pregnant women and patients receiving blood transfusions. However, there are limitations in the identification of D variants as the partial and weak D phenotypes make the determination of D antigen a great challenge in the transfusion routine.' STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The molecular characterization of D variants was performed on blood donors from southeastern Brazil with atypical D typing. Furthermore, the serological profile of all RHD variant alleles identified was analyzed using different Anti-D clones. The prevalence of RHD alleles and genotypes found was compared with those described in other countries and in other regions from Brazil. RESULTS: Atypical serologic D typing occurred in 0.79 % of blood donors. The majority of RHD variant alleles (88 %) were first characterized by multiplex PCR and PCR-SSP as RHD*weak partial 4 (47 %), followed by RHD*weak D type 3 (29.9 %), RHD*weak D type 2 (3.9 %) and RHD*weak D type 1 (3.1 %). Genomic DNA sequencing characterized the RHD*weak partial 4 variants found in RHD*DAR1.2 (weak 4.2.2) (22 %), RHD*DAR3 (weak 4.0.1) (2.4 %), RHD*DAR3.1 (weak 4.0) (22 %) and RHD*DAR4 (weak 4.1) (0.8 %). RHD variant alleles associated with partial D, such as, RHD*DAU-4 (1.6 %), RHD*DAU-5 (2.4 %), RHD*DAU-6 (1.6 %), RHD* DIII type 8 (1.6 %), RHD*DVII (3.9 %) and RHD* DMH (0.8 %) were also observed. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of RHD variant alleles observed in this cohort differ from those found in other populations, including Brazilians from other regions. RHD allele distribution in specific regions should be considered for implementation of algorithms and genotyping strategies aiming at a more effective and safe transfusion.

3.
Transfus Apher Sci ; : 103106, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726974

RESUMO

The virome composition of blood units deferred due to symptomatic disease of the donors reported after blood donation may reveal novel or unsuspected viral agents which may have impact in the area of hemotherapy. The objective of this study was to compare the virome of blood donations obtained from two distantly located blood collecting institutions in the Saqo Paulo State and deferred from use due to post donation illness reports (PDIR). Plasma samples with PDIR due to different symptoms were collected in two cities of the Sao Paulo State (Sao Paulo city, 28 samples and Ribeirao Preto city, 11 samples). The samples were assembled in pools and sequenced in Illumina NextSeq 550 sequencer. The obtained raw sequencing data was analyzed using bioinformatic pipeline aiming viral identification. Phylogenetic classification of the most important contigs was also performed. The virome composition of the plasma samples obtained in both cities was different. This was more pronounced for some specific anellovirus types and the human pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1) which were exclusively found among donations obtained from the city of Sao Paulo. On the other hand, in PDIR samples from Ribeirao Preto, Dengue -2 reads were more abundant compared to commensal viral representatives. The obtained virome findings show that the differential viral abundance is related to geographic localization and specific disease endemicity. The virome of PDIR samples may be used to more profoundly analyze the hypothetic transfusion threats in a given location.

4.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e2639, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: With the declining numbers of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, social distancing measures have gradually been lifted. However, the risk of a surge in the number of cases cannot be overlooked. Even with the adoption of nonpharmaceutical interventions, such as restrictions on mass gatherings, wearing of masks, and complete or partial closure of schools, other public health measures may help control the epidemic. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the contact tracing of symptomatic individuals on the COVID-19 epidemic regardless of the use of diagnostic testing. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model that includes isolation of symptomatic individuals and tracing of contacts to assess the effects of the contact tracing of symptomatic individuals on the COVID-19 epidemic in the state of São Paulo. RESULTS: For a selection efficacy (proportion of isolated contacts who are infected) of 80%, cases and deaths may be reduced by 80% after 60 days when 5000 symptomatic individuals are isolated per day, each of them together with 10 contacts. On the other hand, for a selection efficacy of 20%, the number of cases and deaths may be reduced by approximately 40% and 50%, respectively, compared with the scenario in which no contact-tracing strategy is implemented. CONCLUSION: Contact tracing of symptomatic individuals may potentially be an alternative strategy when the number of diagnostic tests available is not sufficient for massive testing.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Brasil/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos
6.
Epidemiol. Infect., in press, abr. 2021
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-3658

RESUMO

In this paper we present a method do estimate the risk of reopening schools illustrated with the case of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The model showed that, although no death of children would result from the reopening of the schools in the three cities analyzed, the risk of asymptomatic and symptomatic cases and secondary cases among teacher, school staff and relatives of the children is not negligible. Although the epidemic hit different regions with different intensity, our model shows that, for regions where the incidence profile is similar to the cities analysed, the risk of reopening schools is still too high. This in spite of the fact that incidence in these cities were declining in the period of time considered. Therefore, although we cannot extend the result for the entire country, the overall conclusion is valid for regions with declining incidence and it is even more valid for regions where incidence is increasing. We assumed a very conservative level of infection transmissibility of children of just 10% as that of adults. In spite of this very low level of transmissibility assumed, the number of secondary cases caused by infected children among teachers, school staff a relatives varied from 2 to 85. It is therefore too soon to have any degree of confidence that reopening school before the advent of a vaccine is the right decision to take. The purpose of our model and simulations is to provide a method to estimate the risk of schools reopening, although we are sure it could be applied as a guide to public health strategies.

7.
Clinicis, v. 76, :e2639, mar. 2021
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-3649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: With the declining numbers of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, social distancing measures have gradually been lifted. However, the risk of a surge in the number of cases cannot be overlooked. Even with the adoption of nonpharmaceutical interventions, such as restrictions on mass gatherings, wearing of masks, and complete or partial closure of schools, other public health measures may help control the epidemic. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the contact tracing of symptomatic individuals on the COVID-19 epidemic regardless of the use of diagnostic testing. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model that includes isolation of symptomatic individuals and tracing of contacts to assess the effects of the contact tracing of symptomatic individuals on the COVID-19 epidemic in the state of São Paulo. RESULTS: For a selection efficacy (proportion of isolated contacts who are infected) of 80%, cases and deaths may be reduced by 80% after 60 days when 5000 symptomatic individuals are isolated per day, each of them together with 10 contacts. On the other hand, for a selection efficacy of 20%, the number of cases and deaths may be reduced by approximately 40% and 50%, respectively, compared with the scenario in which no contact-tracing strategy is implemented. CONCLUSION: Contact tracing of symptomatic individuals may potentially be an alternative strategy when the number of diagnostic tests available is not sufficient for massive testing.

8.
Infect. Dis. Model., v. 6, p. 46-55, 2021
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-3358

RESUMO

Testing for detecting the infection by SARS-CoV-2 is the bridge between the lockdown and the opening of society. In this paper we modelled and simulated a test-trace-and-quarantine strategy to control the COVID-19 outbreak in the State of São Paulo, Brasil. The State of São Paulo failed to adopt an effective social distancing strategy, reaching at most 59% in late March and started to relax the measures in late June, dropping to 41% in 08 August. Therefore, São Paulo relies heavily on a massive testing strategy in the attempt to control the epidemic. Two alternative strategies combined with economic evaluations were simulated. One strategy included indiscriminately testing the entire population of the State, reaching more than 40 million people at a maximum cost of 2.25 billion USD, that would reduce the total number of cases by the end of 2020 by 90%. The second strategy investigated testing only symptomatic cases and their immediate contacts – this strategy reached a maximum cost of 150 million USD but also reduced the number of cases by 90%. The conclusion is that if the State of São Paulo had decided to adopt the simulated strategy on April the 1st, it would have been possible to reduce the total number of cases by 90% at a cost of 2.25 billion US dollars for the indiscriminate strategy but at a much smaller cost of 125 million US dollars for the selective testing of symptomatic cases and their contacts.

9.
Cancer Lett ; 501: 114-123, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383153

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying the propensity of melanomas to metastasize are not completely understood. We hypothesized that melanoma cells are capable of promptly activating an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like profile in response to stroma-derived factors. Thus, we investigated the role of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a cell population considered as a precursor of tumor stroma, on the activation of an EMT-like profile and acquisition of metastatic traits in melanoma cells. After subcutaneous co-injection with mouse B16 melanoma cells, MSCs occupied perivascular sites within tumors and enhanced B16 metastasis to the lungs. In vitro, MSCs' secretome activated an EMT-like profile in B16 cells, reducing their avidity to fibronectin, and increasing their motility and invasiveness. These effects were abrogated upon blocking of MET phosphorylation in B16 cells using small molecule inhibitors. MSCs also activated an EMT-like profile in human melanoma cells from different stages of progression. Activation of EMT in human cells was associated with increased levels of p-STAT1 and p-STAT3. In conclusion, both mouse and human melanoma cells are equipped to activate an EMT-like program and acquire metastatic traits through the activation of distinct pathways by MSCs' secretome.

10.
Clinics ; 76: e2639, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: With the declining numbers of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, social distancing measures have gradually been lifted. However, the risk of a surge in the number of cases cannot be overlooked. Even with the adoption of nonpharmaceutical interventions, such as restrictions on mass gatherings, wearing of masks, and complete or partial closure of schools, other public health measures may help control the epidemic. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the contact tracing of symptomatic individuals on the COVID-19 epidemic regardless of the use of diagnostic testing. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model that includes isolation of symptomatic individuals and tracing of contacts to assess the effects of the contact tracing of symptomatic individuals on the COVID-19 epidemic in the state of São Paulo. RESULTS: For a selection efficacy (proportion of isolated contacts who are infected) of 80%, cases and deaths may be reduced by 80% after 60 days when 5000 symptomatic individuals are isolated per day, each of them together with 10 contacts. On the other hand, for a selection efficacy of 20%, the number of cases and deaths may be reduced by approximately 40% and 50%, respectively, compared with the scenario in which no contact-tracing strategy is implemented. CONCLUSION: Contact tracing of symptomatic individuals may potentially be an alternative strategy when the number of diagnostic tests available is not sufficient for massive testing.

11.
Exp Cell Res ; 399(1): 112434, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340494

RESUMO

It has been suggested that the bone marrow microenvironment harbors two distinct populations of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), one with a perivascular location and other present in the endosteum. A better understanding of the biology of these MSC subsets has been pursued in order to refine its clinical application. However, most comparative characterizations of mouse MSC have been performed in normoxia. This can result in misleading interpretations since mouse MSC subsets with low/defective p53 activity are known to be selected during culture in normoxia. Here, we report a comprehensive in vitro characterization of mouse MSC isolated from bone marrow (BM-MSC) and compact bone (CB-MSC) expanded and assayed under hypoxia for their morphology, clonogenic efficiency and differentiation capacity. We found that, under hypoxia, compact bone is richer in absolute numbers of MSC and isolation of MSC from compact bone is associated with a reduced risk of hematopoietic cell carryover. In addition, CB-MSC have higher in vitro osteogenic capacity than BM-MSC, while adipogenic differentiation potential is similar. These findings reinforce the hypothesis of the existence of MSC in bone marrow and compact bone representing functionally distinct cell populations and highlight the compact bone as an efficient source of murine MSC under physiological oxygen concentrations.

12.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop recombinant factor IX (FIX) variants with augmented clotting activity. RESULTS: We generated three new variants, FIX-YKALW, FIX-ALL and FIX-LLW, expressed in SK-Hep-1 cells and characterized in vitro and in vivo. FIX-YKALW showed the highest antigen expression level among the variants (2.17 µg-mL), followed by FIX-LLW (1.5 µg-mL) and FIX-ALL (0.9 µg-mL). The expression level of FIX variants was two-five fold lower than FIX-wild-type (FIX-WT) (4.37 µg-mL). However, the biological activities of FIX variants were 15-31 times greater than FIX-WT in the chromogenic assay. Moreover, the new variants FIX-YKALW, FIX-LLW and FIX-ALL also presented higher specific activity than FIX-WT (17, 20 and 29-fold higher, respectively). FIX variants demonstrated a better clotting time than FIX-WT. In hemophilia B mice, we observed that FIX-YKALW promoted hemostatic protection. CONCLUSION: We have developed three improved FIX proteins with potential for use in protein replacement therapy for hemophilia B.

13.
Blood Transfus ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-donation illness can be described as appearance of clinical symptoms in blood donors after donation. The consequent call back of the donor to report these symptoms to the blood collection institution is considered a post-donation illness report (PDIR). The most suitable way to examine whether PDIR is related to infection is to apply next-generation sequencing (NGS) and viral metagenomics. Investigation into a PDIR can reveal its importance for transfusion safety and help elaborate strategies for donor education in order to prevent the transfusion transmission of infections which are not routinely tested by the blood collection services. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We applied NGS and viral metagenomics on blood donations which were deferred due to a PDIR. Thirty-three PDIR donations obtained in the Blood Center of Ribeirão Preto, Southeast Brazil, were evaluated. Sequencing was performed using Illumina NextSeq 550 (Illumina Inc, San Diego, CA, USA) equipment and the reads obtained for each sample were analysed by specific bioinformatic pipeline for the classification and discovery of emerging viruses. The identified viral agents by metagenomics were directly confirmed by molecular methods. RESULTS: In all PDIR donations, we found abundant reads of commensal viruses belonging to the Anelloviridae family as well as human pegivirus-1. However, we were also able to identify blood donations positive for clinically important viruses like dengue serotype-2 (DENV-2) of the Asian-American genotype and parvovirus B19 (B19V). Both viruses were also confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, detecting DENV-2 RNA in a significant number of cases (7 samples, 21.2%), compared to B19V which was confirmed in 1 case (3.0%). DISCUSSION: Our study applies for the first time viral metagenomics to evaluate the significance of PDIRs. We confirm the crucial importance of the donor providing a timely PDIR for the prevention of transfusion transmission of viral infections which are not routinely tested in the blood banks worldwide.

16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104563, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971251

RESUMO

Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is a common human skin pathogen, shows high seroprevalence and is considered the etiologic agent of Merkel cell carcinoma. However, studies which detect MCPyV DNA in blood products may reveal the importance of this virus for the transfusion medicine. In this study we analyzed by viral metagenomics 36 plasma samples obtained from blood donors positive for the common blood transmitted infections from the city of Macapá (Brazilian Amazon). The generated raw data were were analyzed through a specific bioinformatics pipeline aimed at discovery of emerging viruses. The genomes of interest were analyzed phylogeographically and phylogenetically. MCPyV complete genome was recovered from one HBV-positive pool with high coverage (~ 223×) indicating acute viremia or reactivated infection. Interestingly, the phylogeographic position of the identified strain suggests its ancestry compared to MCPyV isolate from Colombian Amazon which hypothesizes that viral dissemination in the Amazon may have originated from Brazil. In conclusion, this study brings information for the genetic relationships of MCPyV isolated from blood donors from the Brazilian Amazon and demonstrates the possible phylogeographic behavior of our strain in relation to the other findings. We also demonstrated a strong evidence of viremic MCPyV phase in blood donations, however, more studies are necessary in order to understand the MCPyV impact on transfusion therapy.

17.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895900

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) constitute a heterogeneous population of stromal cells with immunomodulatory and regenerative properties that support their therapeutic use. MSCs isolated from many tissue sources replicate vigorously in vitro and maintain their main biological properties allowing their widespread clinical application. To date, most MSC-based preclinical and clinical trials targeted immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. Nevertheless, MSCs have antiviral properties and have been used in the treatment of various viral infections in the last years. Here, we revised in detail the biological properties of MSCs and their preclinical and clinical applications in viral diseases, including the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19). Notably, rapidly increasing numbers of MSC-based therapies for COVID-19 have recently been reported. MSCs are theoretically capable of reducing inflammation and promote lung regeneration in severe COVID-19 patients. We critically discuss the rationale, advantages and disadvantages of MSC-based therapies for viral infections and also specifically for COVID-19 and point out some directions in this field. Finally, we argue that MSC-based therapy may be a promising therapeutic strategy for severe COVID-19 and other emergent respiratory tract viral infections, beyond the viral infection diseases in which MSCs have already been clinically applied. Graphical Abstract.

20.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 247, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have enormous potential in developmental biology studies and in cellular therapies. Although extensively studied and characterized in human and murine models, iPSCs from animals other than mice lack reproducible results. METHODS: Herein, we describe the generation of robust iPSCs from equine and bovine cells through lentiviral transduction of murine or human transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc and from human and murine cells using similar protocols, even when different supplementations were used. The iPSCs were analyzed regarding morphology, gene and protein expression of pluripotency factors, alkaline phosphatase detection, and spontaneous and induced differentiation. RESULTS: Although embryonic-derived stem cells are yet not well characterized in domestic animals, generation of iPS cells from these species is possible through similar protocols used for mouse or human cells, enabling the use of pluripotent cells from large animals for basic or applied purposes. Herein, we also infer that bovine iPS (biPSCs) exhibit similarity to mouse iPSCs (miPSCs), whereas equine iPSs (eiPSCs) to human (hiPSCs). CONCLUSIONS: The generation of reproducible protocols in different animal species will provide an informative tool for producing in vitro autologous pluripotent cells from domestic animals. These cells will create new opportunities in animal breeding through transgenic technology and will support a new era of translational medicine with large animal models.

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