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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(2): e264-e275, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV face challenges to their wellbeing and antiretroviral therapy adherence and have poor treatment outcomes. We aimed to evaluate a peer-led differentiated service delivery intervention on HIV clinical and psychosocial outcomes among adolescents with HIV in Zimbabwe. METHODS: 16 public primary care facilities (clusters) in two rural districts in Zimbabwe (Bindura and Shamva) were randomly assigned (1:1) to provide enhanced HIV care support (the Zvandiri intervention group) or standard HIV care (the control group) to adolescents (aged 13-19 years) with HIV. Eligible clinics had at least 20 adolescents in pre-ART or ART registers and were geographically separated by at least 10 km to minimise contamination. Adolescents were eligible for inclusion if they were living with HIV, registered for HIV care at one of the trial clinics, and either starting or already on ART. Exclusion criteria were being too physically unwell to attend clinic (bedridden), psychotic, or unable to give informed assent or consent. Adolescents with HIV at all clinics received adherence support through adult counsellors. At intervention clinics, adolescents with HIV were assigned a community adolescent treatment supporter, attended a monthly support group, and received text messages, calls, home visits, and clinic-based counselling. Implementation intensity was differentiated according to each adolescent's HIV vulnerability, which was reassessed every 3 months. Caregivers were invited to a support group. The primary outcome was the proportion of adolescents who had died or had a viral load of at least 1000 copies per µL after 96 weeks. In-depth qualitative data were collected and analysed thematically. The trial is registered with Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201609001767322. FINDINGS: Between Aug 15, 2016, and March 31, 2017, 500 adolescents with HIV were enrolled, of whom four were excluded after group assignment owing to testing HIV negative. Of the remaining 496 adolescents, 212 were recruited at Zvandiri intervention sites and 284 at control sites. At enrolment, the median age was 15 years (IQR 14-17), 52% of adolescents were female, 81% were orphans, and 47% had a viral load of at least 1000 copies per µL. 479 (97%) had primary outcome data at endline, including 28 who died. At 96 weeks, 52 (25%) of 209 adolescents in the Zvandiri intervention group and 97 (36%) of 270 adolescents in the control group had an HIV viral load of at least 1000 copies per µL or had died (adjusted prevalence ratio 0·58, 95% CI 0·36-0·94; p=0·03). Qualitative data suggested that the multiple intervention components acted synergistically to improve the relational context in which adolescents with HIV live, supporting their improved adherence. No adverse events were judged to be related to study procedures. Severe adverse events were 28 deaths (17 in the Zvandiri intervention group, 11 in the control group) and 57 admissions to hospital (20 in the Zvandiri intervention group, 37 in the control group). INTERPRETATION: Peer-supported community-based differentiated service delivery can substantially improve HIV virological suppression in adolescents with HIV and should be scaled up to reduce their high rates of morbidity and mortality. FUNDING: Positive Action for Adolescents Program, ViiV Healthcare.

2.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 8-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since therapeutic hypothermia became standard care for neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), even fewer infants die or have disability at 18-month assessment than in the clinical trials. However, longer term follow-up of apparently unimpaired children is lacking. We investigated the cognitive, motor and behavioural performances of survivors without cerebral palsy (CP) cooled for HIE, in comparison with matched non-HIE control children at 6-8 years. DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: 29 case children without CP, cooled in 2008-2010 and 20 age-matched, sex-matched and social class-matched term-born controls. MEASURES: Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, Fourth UK Edition, Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (MABC-2) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. RESULTS: Cases compared with controls had significantly lower mean (SD) full-scale IQ (91 [10.37]vs105[13.41]; mean difference (MD): -13.62, 95% CI -20.53 to -6.71) and total MABC-2 scores (7.9 [3.26]vs10.2[2.86]; MD: -2.12, 95% CI -3.93 to -0.3). Mean differences were significant between cases and controls for verbal comprehension (-8.8, 95% CI -14.25 to -3.34), perceptual reasoning (-13.9, 95% CI-20.78 to -7.09), working memory (-8.2, 95% CI-16.29 to -0.17), processing speed (-11.6, 95% CI-20.69 to -2.47), aiming and catching (-1.6, 95% CI-3.26 to -0.10) and manual dexterity (-2.8, 95% CI-4.64 to -0.85). The case group reported significantly higher median (IQR) total (12 [6.5-13.5] vs 6 [2.25-10], p=0.005) and emotional behavioural difficulties (2 [1-4.5] vs 0.5 [0-2.75], p=0.03) and more case children needed extra support in school (34%vs5%, p=0.02) than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: School-age children without CP cooled for HIE still have reduced cognitive and motor performance and more emotional difficulties than their peers, strongly supporting the need for school-age assessments.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Compreensão , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Destreza Motora , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Reino Unido , Escalas de Wechsler
3.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(12): e25410, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793748

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Across sub-Saharan Africa, selling sex puts young women at high risk of HIV. Some young women who sell sex (YWSS) may self-identify as sex workers, while others may not, having implications for how to reach them with HIV prevention. We describe characteristics, sexual behaviours and health service use of YWSS in Zimbabwe, comparing women who identified as female sex workers (FSW) and women who did not (non-identifying-YWSS), and explore factors associated with HIV infection. METHODS: We analysed data from respondent-driven sampling (RDS) surveys among YWSS aged 18 to 24 implemented in six sites in Zimbabwe from April to July 2017. RDS was used to enrol YWSS into an impact evaluation of the multi-country DREAMS (Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored and Safe) Partnership, which provides comprehensive HIV prevention programming to adolescent girls and young women. Women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and were offered HIV testing services. We used logistic regression (RDS-II-weighted, normalized by site) to identify factors associated with prevalent HIV infection. RESULTS: Forty-four seeds recruited 2387 YWSS. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 24%; 67% of women identified as FSW. FSW were older and had lower educational attainment than non-identifying-YWSS. While 40% of FSW reported 10+ clients in the previous month, 9% of non-identifying-YWSS did so. FSW were more likely to have accessed HIV-related services, including HIV testing in the last six months (FSW: 70%; non-identifying-YWSS: 60%). Over half of all YWSS described selling sex as their main financial support (FSW: 88%; non-identifying YWSS: 54%). Increasing age, lower educational attainment, younger age of first selling sex and higher number of clients in the previous month were associated with prevalent HIV. CONCLUSIONS: YWSS in Zimbabwe have a high prevalence of HIV, reported high numbers of sexual partners and depend financially on selling sex. Non-identifying-YWSS differed socio-demographically to FSW, yet factors associated with HIV risk were similar for all women. Women not identifying as FSW were less likely to access services, suggesting they should be prioritized for HIV prevention. Network-based recruitment may enhance their inclusion in programmes, like DREAMS, which aim to reach young women at highest-risk with comprehensive health, HIV prevention and social protection services.

4.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(11): 764-776, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673192

RESUMO

Objective: To present findings from implementation and scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing programmes for female sex workers in Malawi and Zimbabwe, 2013-2018. Methods: In Zimbabwe, we carried out formative research to assess the acceptability and accuracy of HIV self-testing. During implementation we evaluated sex workers' preferences for, and feasibility of, distribution of test kits before the programme was scaled-up. In Malawi, we conducted a rapid ethnographic assessment to explore the context and needs of female sex workers and resources available, leading to a workshop to define the distribution approach for test kits. Once distribution was implemented, we conducted a process evaluation and established a system for monitoring social harm. Findings: In Zimbabwe, female sex workers were able to accurately self-test. The preference study helped to refine systems for national scale-up through existing services for female sex workers. The qualitative data helped to identify additional distribution strategies and mediate potential social harm to women. In Malawi, peer distribution of test kits was the preferred strategy. We identified some incidents of social harm among peer distributors and female sex workers, as well as supply-side barriers to implementation which hindered uptake of testing. Conclusion: Involving female sex workers in planning and ongoing implementation of HIV self-testing is essential, along with strategies to mitigate potential harm. Optimal strategies for distribution and post-test support are context-specific and need to consider existing support for female sex workers and levels of trust and cohesion within their communities.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e032705, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601606

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early intervention programmes (EIPs) for infants with neurodevelopmental impairment have been poorly studied especially in low-income settings. We aim to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a group participatory EIP, the 'ABAaNA EIP', for young children with neurodevelopmental impairment in Uganda. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a pilot feasibility, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial comparing the EIP with standard care across two study sites (one urban, one rural) in central Uganda. Eligible infants (n=126, age 6-11 completed months) with neurodevelopmental impairment (defined as a developmental quotient <70 on Griffiths Scales of Mental Development, and, or Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination score <60) will be recruited and randomised to the intervention or standard care arm. Intervention arm families will receive the 10-modular, peer-facilitated, participatory, community-based programme over 6 months. Recruited families will be followed up at 6 and 12 months after recruitment, and assessors will be blinded to the trial allocation. The primary hypothesis is that the ABAaNA EIP is feasible and acceptable when compared with standard care. Primary outcomes of interest are feasibility (number recruited and randomised at baseline) and acceptability (protocol violation of arm allocation and number of sessions attended) and family and child quality of life. Guided by the study aim, the qualitative data analysis will use a data-led thematic framework approach. The findings will inform scalability and sustainability of the programme. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial protocol has been approved by the relevant Ugandan and UK ethics committees. Recruited families will give written informed consent and we will follow international codes for ethics and good clinical practice. Dissemination will be through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and public engagement. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN44380971; protocol version 3.0, 19th February 2018.

7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(5): e001651, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565411

RESUMO

Introduction: HIV-exposed children show signs of developmental delay. We assessed the impact of a pragmatic multicomponent intervention for caregivers of HIV-exposed children aged 0-2 years in Zimbabwe. Methods: We conducted a cluster-randomised trial from 2016 to 2018. Clusters were catchments surrounding clinics, allocated (1:1) to either National HIV guidelines standard of care or standard care plus an 18-session group intervention comprising i) early childhood stimulation (ECS) and parenting training with home visits to reinforce skills and retention in HIV care; ii) economic strengthening. Primary outcomes measured 12 months after baseline (4.5 months postintervention completion) included: i) global child development measured using the Mullen early learning composite score; ii) retention in HIV care. Analysis used mixed effects regression to account for clustering and adjusted minimally for baseline prognostic factors and was by intention to treat. Results: Thirty clusters, 15 in each arm, were randomised. 574 dyads were recruited with 89.5% retained at follow-up. Ninety one of 281 (32.4%) were recorded as having received the complete intervention package, with 161/281 (57.3%) attending ≥14 ECS sessions. There was no evidence of an intervention effect on global child development (intervention mean 88.1 vs standard of care mean 87.6; adjusted mean difference=0.06; 95% CI -2.68 to 2.80; p=0.97) or infant retention in care (proportion of children who had missed their most recent HIV test: intervention 21.8% vs standard of care 16.9%, p=0.18). There was weak evidence that the proportion of caregivers with parental stress was reduced in the intervention arm (adjusted OR (aOR)=0.69; 95% CI 0.45 to 1.05; p=0.08) and stronger evidence that parental distress specifically was reduced (intervention arm 17.4% vs standard of care 29.1% scoring above the cut-off; aOR=0.56; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.89; p=0.01). Conclusion: This multicomponent intervention had no impact on child development outcomes within 4.5 months of completion, but had an impact on parental distress. Maternal mental health remains a high priority. Trial registration number: PACTR201701001387209.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(8): e199818, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461146

RESUMO

Importance: HIV self-testing is a promising approach for increasing awareness of HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Zimbabwe, where HIV prevalence is 13%. Evidence is lacking, however, on the optimal pricing policies and delivery strategies for maximizing the effect of HIV self-testing. Objective: To assess demand for HIV self-testing among adults and priority-population subgroups under alternative pricing and distribution strategies. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial recruited study participants between February 15, 2018, and April 25, 2018, in urban and rural communities in Zimbabwe. A factorial design was used to randomize participants to a combination of self-test price, distribution site, and promotional message. Individuals and their household members had to be at least 16 years old to be eligible for participation. This intention-to-treat population comprised 3996 participants. Interventions: Participants were given a voucher that could be redeemed for an HIV self-test within 1 month at varying prices (US $0-$3) and distribution sites (clinics or pharmacies in urban areas, and retail stores or community health workers in rural areas). Vouchers included randomly assigned promotional messages that emphasized the benefits of HIV testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of participants who obtained self-tests in each trial arm, measured by distributor records. Results: Among the 4000 individuals enrolled, 3996 participants were included. In total, the mean (SD) age was 35 (14.7) years, and most participants (2841 [71.1%]) were female. Self-testing demand was highly price sensitive; 260 participants (32.5%) who were offered free self-tests redeemed their vouchers, compared with 55 participants (6.9%) who were offered self-tests for US $0.50 (odds ratio [OR], 0.14; 95% CI, 0.10-0.19), a reduction in demand of more than 25 percentage points. Demand was below 3% in the $1, $2, and $3 groups, which was statistically significantly lower than the demand in the free distribution group: in pooled analyses, demand was considerably lower among participants in higher-than-$0 price groups compared with the free distribution group (2.8% vs 32.5%; OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.04-0.07). In urban areas, demand was statistically significantly higher with pharmacy-based distribution compared with clinic-based distribution (6.8% vs 2.9%; adjusted OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.74-4.45). Price sensitivity was statistically significantly higher among rural residents, men, and those who had never received testing before. Promotional messages did not influence demand. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that demand for HIV self-testing in Zimbabwe was highly price sensitive, suggesting that free distribution may be essential for promoting testing among high-priority population groups; additionally, pharmacy-based distribution was preferable to clinic-based distribution in urban areas. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03559959.

9.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22 Suppl 4: e25320, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328445

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: UNAIDS' goal of ending AIDS by 2030 is unreachable without better targeting of testing, prevention and care. Female sex workers (FSW) in Zimbabwe are at high risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Here, we report on collated programme and research data from Zimbabwe's national sex work programme. We also assess the potential for wider population impact of FSW programmes by modelling the impact on HIV incidence of eliminating transmission through FSW (i.e. calculate the population attributable fraction of incidence attributable to sex work). METHODS: Descriptive analyses of individual-level programme data collected from FSW between 2009 and June 2018 are triangulated with data collected through 37 respondent driven sampling surveys from 19 sites in Zimbabwe 2011 to 2017. We describe programme coverage, uptake, retention and patterns of sex work behaviour and gaps in service provision. An individual-level stochastic simulation model is used to reconstruct the epidemic and then the incidence compared with the counter-factual trend in incidence from 2010 had transmission through sex work been eliminated from that date. RESULTS: Sisters has reached >67,000 FSW since 2009, increasing attendance as number of sites, programme staff and peer educators were increased. Over 57% of all FSW estimated to be working in Zimbabwe in 2017 (n = 40,000) attended the programme at least once. The proportion of young FSW reached has increased with introduction of the "Young Sisters programme." There are no clear differences in pattern of sex work across settings. Almost all women report condom use with clients at last sex (95%); however, consistent condom use with clients in the last month varies from 52% to 95% by site. Knowledge of HIV-positive status has increased from 48 to 78% between 2011 and 2016, as has prevalence of ART use among diagnosed women (29 to 67%). Although subject to uncertainty, modelling suggests that 70% (90% range: 32%, 93%) of all new infections in Zimbabwe from 2010 are directly or indirectly attributable to transmission via sex work. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to increase coverage and impact of sex work programming through community-led scale-up of evidence-based interventions. Eliminating transmission through commercial sex would likely have a substantial impact on new infections occurring more widely across Zimbabwe.

10.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 162: 239-266, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324313

RESUMO

Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke is a relatively common and serious neurologic disorder that can affect the fetus, the preterm, and the term-born infant. It carries significant long-term disabilities. Herein we describe the current understanding of its etiology, pathophysiology and classification, different presentations, and optimal early management. We discuss the role of different brain imaging modalities in defining the extent of lesions and the impact this has on the prediction of outcomes. In recent years there has been progress in treatments, making early diagnosis and the understanding of likely morbidities imperative. An overview is given of the range of possible outcomes and optimal approaches to follow-up and support for the child and their family in the light of present knowledge.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/congênito , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/congênito , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem , Gravidez , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
AIDS Behav ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256270

RESUMO

Female sex workers (FSW) face structural barriers to HIV-service access, however the effect of their mobility is uncertain. Using cross-sectional data from 2839 FSW in 14 sites in Zimbabwe, we explored the association between mobility (number of trips, distance, duration) in the past 12 months and five HIV-service-access outcomes: exposure to community mobilisation, clinic attendance, HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment initiation, and viral suppression (< 1000 copies per mL). We used modified-Poisson regression, and natural-effects models to estimate how the effect of trip frequency was mediated by distance and duration away. Each additional trip in 12 months was associated with increased community-mobilisation-event attendance (adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12) and attending clinic two-or-more times (adjusted RR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.05). There was little evidence of any other associations, or of mediation. Our findings are consistent with literature that found the effects of mobility to vary by context and outcome. This is the first study to consider many FSW-mobility and HIV-service-access measures together. Future research on mobility and health-related behaviour should use a spectrum of measures.

12.
Health Policy Plan ; 34(5): 337-345, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157368

RESUMO

Targeted HIV interventions for female sex workers (FSW) combine biomedical technologies, behavioural change and community mobilization with the aim of empowering FSW and improving prevention and treatment. Understanding how to deliver combined interventions most effectively in sub-Saharan Africa is critical to the HIV response. The Sisters' Antiretroviral Programme for Prevention of HIV: an Integrated Response (SAPPH-Ire) randomized controlled trial in Zimbabwe tested an intervention to improve FSW engagement with HIV services. After 2 years, results of the trial showed no significant difference between study arms in proportion of FSW with HIV viral load ≥1000 copies/ml as steep declines occurred in both. We present the results of a process evaluation aiming to track the intervention's implementation, assess its feasibility and accessibility, and situate trial results within the national HIV policy context. We conducted a mixed methods study using data from routine programme statistics, qualitative interviews with participants and respondent driven surveys. The intervention proved feasible to deliver and was acceptable to FSW and providers. Intervention clinics saw more new FSW (4082 vs 2754), performed over twice as many HIV tests (2606 vs 1151) and nearly double the number of women were diagnosed with HIV (1042 vs 546). Community mobilization meetings in intervention sites also attracted higher numbers. We identified some gaps in programme fidelity: offering pre-exposure prophylaxis took time to engage FSW, viral load monitoring was not performed, and ratio of peer educators to FSW was lower than intended. During the trial, reaching FSW with HIV testing and treatment became a national priority, leading to increasing attendance at both intervention and control clinics. Throughout Zimbabwe, antiretroviral therapy coverage improved and HIV-stigma declined. Zimbabwe's changing HIV policy context appeared to contribute to positive improvements across the HIV care continuum for all FSW over the course of the trial. More intense community-based interventions for FSW may be needed to make further gains.

13.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 14(5): 401-408, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219886

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the recent evidence regarding strategies for engaging sex workers in HIV prevention and care programs. We searched Pub Med on 19 March 2019 using terms 'Sex Work' And 'HIV infections'. Our search was limited to articles published since 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: Community empowerment approaches where sex workers work collaboratively to address their specific priorities and concerns, including those beyond HIV, are those most likely to meaningfully engage sex workers. Community-driven programs that combine structural, behavioral and biomedical approaches can facilitate improved HIV outcomes by tackling barriers to uptake and retention of services along all steps in the prevention and care cascades. Microplanning, network-based recruitment and mobile-phone interventions can also help reach and support sex workers to mobilize and to engage with a range of services. Sex worker-led groups and initiatives including economic strengthening and community drug refill groups can both build social cohesion and address structural barriers to HIV outcomes including financial insecurity. Interventions which focus narrowly on increasing uptake of specific steps in prevention and care cascades outside the context of broader community empowerment responses are likely to be less effective. SUMMARY: Comprehensive, community-driven approaches where sex workers mobilize to address their structural, behavioral and biomedical priorities work across HIV prevention and treatment cascades to increase uptake of and engagement with prevention and care technologies and promote broader health and human rights. These interventions need to be adequately supported and taken to scale.

14.
Neonatology ; 116(3): 227-235, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a new MRI scoring system for preterm non-haemorrhagic white matter injury (WMI), derived from the analysis of the natural evolution of WMI throughout the neonatal period until term-equivalent age, can be used for outcome prediction. METHODS: Eighty-two infants <36 weeks gestation with WMI diagnosed from sequential cranial ultrasound and confirmed on neonatal MRI were retrospectively included. WMI was classified in four grades of severity. Neurodevelopmental data at a median age of 24 months were analysed. RESULTS: In 74 surviving children WMI severity was strongly associated with the presence and severity of cerebral palsy (CP) and other neurodevelopmental impairments (Spearman's rank correlation 0.88, p < 0.001). Only 3 children with grade I WMI (9%) developed CP (all ambulant) and their developmental scores were not different to those from the controls, although they started walking significantly later (p = 0.036). Of the 6 children with grade II, 83% developed CP (mild in most), whereas 91% of the 34 children with grade III had CP (moderate-severe in 76%) and all had some degree of neurodevelopmental impairment. Three children with grade III WMI did not develop CP; their imaging showed, in contrast to children who developed CP, that the cysts did not affect the corticospinal tracts; also, myelin in the posterior limb of the internal capsule appeared normal in 2 children and suboptimal in 1. CONCLUSIONS: This MRI scoring system for preterm WMI can be used to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes. Individualized assessment of the site of lesions and the progression of myelination improves prognostic accuracy.

15.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(1): 24-35, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: "HIV prevention cascades" have been proposed to support programs by identifying gaps in demand for, access to, and capability to adhere to HIV prevention tools, but there are few empirical examples to guide development. We apply a prevention cascade framework to examine prevention coverage and factors associated with condoms and/or PrEP adherence among female sex workers. SETTING: Seven sites across Zimbabwe. METHODS: Seven respondent-driven sampling surveys from the intervention sites of a pragmatic cluster-randomized trial in Zimbabwe in 2016 were analyzed, and 611/1439 women testing HIV-negative included. We operationalized key components of an HIV prevention cascade including demand, supply, and capability to adhere to 2 tools for HIV prevention: condoms and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We used adjusted logistic regression to identify determinants of adherence to condoms and PrEP in turn, examining the effect of adherence to one tool on adherence to the other. RESULTS: There were 343/611, 54.7%, women reporting adherence to condoms and/or PrEP, leaving almost half uncovered. Although women were aware that condoms prevented HIV and reported good access to them, only 45·5% reported full adherence to condom use. For PrEP, a new technology, there were gaps along all 3 domains of demand, supply, and adherence. Alcohol use decreased adherence to PrEP and condoms. Younger and newer entrants to sex work were less likely to take PrEP every day. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevention programming among female sex workers in Zimbabwe could consider increasing awareness of PrEP alongside supply, alcohol use interventions, and approaches to engaging younger women.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Zimbábue
16.
Brain Inj ; 33(7): 894-898, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924691

RESUMO

Objectives: Dorsal-stream functions are vulnerable to early brain injury associated with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) following perinatal asphyxia, even in children not developing cerebral palsy (CP). Since therapeutic hypothermia (TH) became the standard treatment for NE, the incidence of CP is reduced but the impact on dorsal-stream functions is unknown. We aimed to compare dorsal-stream functions in TH-treated survivors of NE, without CP, with those of matched controls. Methods: We administered tests of dorsal-stream function to 29 case children aged 6-to-8 years treated with TH for NE and without CP, and 20 age, sex and social class matched controls. We used the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CPT) 2nd Edition to assess attentiveness, based upon Hit Reaction Time (HRT) percentile score and HRT standard error percentile, the CPT HRT block change measure to assess sustained attention and the NEPSY-II block construction and arrows tests to assess visuo-spatial performance and mental rotation. Results: Case children performed significantly worse than controls on measures of attention and visuo-spatial function. Conclusions: Children given TH treatment for NE can have subtle attention difficulties with slower reaction times and reduced visuo-spatial processing. These findings illustrate the continued vulnerability of dorsal-stream functions following NE despite the use of TH.

17.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22 Suppl 1: e25243, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907498

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV is declining in Africa, and various HIV testing approaches are finding lower positivity rates. In this context, the epidemiological impact and cost-effectiveness of community-based HIV self-testing (CB-HIVST) is unclear. We aimed to assess this in different sub-populations and across scenarios characterized by different adult HIV prevalence and antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The synthesis model was used to address this aim. Three sub-populations were considered for CB-HIVST: (i) women having transactional sex (WTS); (ii) young people (15 to 24 years); and (iii) adult men (25 to 49 years). We assumed uptake of CB-HIVST similar to that reported in epidemiological studies (base case), or assumed people use CB-HIVST only if exposed to risk (condomless sex) since last HIV test. We also considered a five-year time-limited CB-HIVST programme. Cost-effectiveness was defined by an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; cost-per-disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted) below US$500 over a time horizon of 50 years. The efficiency of targeted CB-HIVST was evaluated using the number of additional tests per infection or death averted. RESULTS: In the base case, targeting adult men with CB-HIVST offered the greatest impact, averting 1500 HIV infections and 520 deaths per year in the context of a simulated country with nine million adults, and impact could be enhanced by linkage to voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). However, the approach was only cost-effective if the programme was limited to five years or the undiagnosed prevalence was above 3%. CB-HIVST to WTS was the most cost-effective. The main drivers of cost-effectiveness were the cost of CB-HIVST and the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV. All other CB-HIVST scenarios had an ICER above US$500 per DALY averted. CONCLUSIONS: CB-HIVST showed an important epidemiological impact. To maximize population health within a fixed budget, CB-HIVST needs to be targeted on the basis of the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, sub-population and the overall costs of delivering this testing modality. Linkage to VMMC enhances its cost-effectiveness.

18.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22 Suppl 1: e25255, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907499

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV self-testing (HIVST) is recommended by the World Health Organization in addition to other testing modalities to increase uptake of HIV testing, particularly among harder-to-reach populations. This study provides the first empirical evidence of the costs of door-to-door community-based HIVST distribution in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. METHODS: HIVST kits were distributed door-to-door in 71 sites across Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe from June 2016 to May 2017. Programme expenditures, supplemented by on-site observation and monitoring and evaluation data were used to estimate total economic and unit costs of HIVST distribution, by input and site. Inputs were categorized into start-up, capital and recurrent costs. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were performed to assess the impact of key parameters on unit costs. RESULTS: In total, 152,671, 103,589 and 93,459 HIVST kits were distributed in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe over 12, 11 and 10 months respectively. Across these countries, 43% to 51% of HIVST kits were distributed to men. The average cost per HIVST kit distributed was US$8.15, US$16.42 and US$13.84 in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively, with pronounced intersite variation within countries driven largely by site-level fixed costs. Site-level recurrent costs were 70% to 92% of full costs and 20% to 62% higher than routine HIV testing services (HTS) costs. Personnel costs contributed from 26% to 52% of total costs across countries reflecting differences in remuneration approaches and country GDP. CONCLUSIONS: These early door-to-door community HIVST distribution programmes show large potential, both for reaching untested populations and for substantial economies of scale as HIVST programmes scale-up and mature. From a societal perspective, the costs of HIVST appear similar to conventional HTS, with the higher providers' costs substantially offsetting user costs. Future approaches to minimizing cost and/or maximize testing coverage could include unpaid door-to-door community-led distribution to reach end-users and integrating HIVST into routine clinical services via direct or secondary distribution strategies with lower fixed costs.

19.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22 Suppl 1: e25234, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907514

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Scale-up of HIV self-testing (HIVST) will play a key role in meeting the United Nation's 90-90-90 targets. Delayed re-reading of used HIVST devices has been used by early implementation studies to validate the performance of self-test kits and to estimate HIV positivity among self-testers. We investigated the stability of results on used devices under controlled conditions to assess its potential as a quality assurance approach for HIVST scale-up. METHODS: 444 OraQuick® HIV-1/2 rapid antibody tests were conducted using commercial plasma from two HIV-positive donors and HIV-negative plasma (high-reactive n = 148, weak-reactive n = 148 and non-reactive n = 148) and incubated them for six months under four conditions (combinations of high and low temperatures and humidity). Devices were re-read daily for one week, weekly for one subsequent month and then once a month by independent readers unaware of the previous results. We used multistage transition models to investigate rates of change in device results, and between storage conditions. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: There was a high incidence of device instability. Forty-three (29%) of 148 initially non-reactive results became false weak-reactive results. These changes were observed across all incubation conditions, the earliest on Day 4 (n = 9 kits). No initially HIV-reactive results changed to a non-reactive result. There were no significant associations between storage conditions and hazard of results transition. We observed substantial statistical agreement between independent re-readers over time (agreement range: 0.74 to 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed re-reading of used OraQuick® HIV-1/2 rapid antibody tests is not currently a valid methodological approach to quality assurance and monitoring as we observed a high incidence (29%) of true non-reactive tests changing to false weak-reactive and therefore its use may overestimate true HIV positivity.

20.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22 Suppl 1: e25245, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907515

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New HIV testing strategies are needed to reach the United Nations' 90-90-90 target. HIV self-testing (HIVST) can increase uptake, but users' perspectives on optimal models of distribution and post-test services are uncertain. We used discrete choice experiments (DCEs) to explore the impact of service characteristics on uptake along the testing cascade. METHODS: DCEs are a quantitative survey method that present respondents with repeated choices between packages of service characteristics, and estimate relative strengths of preferences for service characteristics. From June to October 2016, we embedded DCEs within a population-based survey following door-to-door HIVST distribution by community volunteers in two rural Zimbabwean districts: one DCE addressed HIVST distribution preferences; and the other preferences for linkage to confirmatory testing (LCT) following self-testing. Using preference coefficients/utilities, we identified key drivers of uptake for each service and simulated the effect of changes of outreach and static/public clinics' characteristics on LCT. RESULTS: Distribution and LCT DCEs surveyed 296/329 (90.0%) and 496/594 (83.5%) participants; 81.8% and 84.9% had ever-tested, respectively. The strongest distribution preferences were for: (1) free kits - a $1 increase in the kit price was associated with a disutility (U) of -2.017; (2) door-to-door kit delivery (U = +1.029) relative to collection from public/outreach clinic; (3) telephone helpline for pretest support relative to in-person or no support (U = +0.415); (4) distributors from own/local village (U = +0.145) versus those from external communities. Participants who had never HIV tested valued phone helplines more than those previously tested. The strongest LCT preferences were: (1) immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) availability: U = +0.614 and U = +1.052 for public and outreach clinics, respectively; (2) free services: a $1 user fee increase decreased utility at public (U = -0.381) and outreach clinics (U = -0.761); (3) proximity of clinic (U = -0.38 per hour walking). Participants reported willingness to link to either location; but never-testers were more averse to LCT. Simulations showed the importance of availability of ART: ART unavailability at public clinics would reduce LCT by 24%. CONCLUSIONS: Free HIVST distribution by local volunteers and immediately available ART were the strongest relative preferences identified. Accommodating LCT preferences, notably ensuring efficient provision of ART, could facilitate "resistant testers" to test while maximizing uptake of post-test services.

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