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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(8): 786-794, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We undertook a study to determine the impact of Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) and X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) and their therapies upon the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients and their families. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We undertook a survey of patients and their families, who self-identified as having either WAS or XLT. We assessed the PedsQL™ 4.0, the parent proxy form, and the family impact module. These results were compared with normative data from previously published reports. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients (29 patients completed both the PedsQL™ 4.0 and the parent proxy form; 21 completed only the PedsQL™ 4.0; and 18 completed only the parent proxy form) were included. In contrast to patient-reported outcomes, parents of patients who had a bone marrow transplant (BMT) reported that their children had better QOL scores compared with those who did not (82.6 vs. 73.3, p = 0.023). The QOL of patients vs. previously published normative data showed decreases in patient scores for psychosocial health (72.62 vs. 86.58, p = < 0.001), emotional functioning (69.91 vs. 82.64, p = < 0.001), social functioning (77.55 vs. 91.56, p = < 0.001), and school functioning (70.46 vs. 85.67, p = < 0.001). The family impact study revealed deficits in emotional, social, and cognitive functioning, communication, and worry. CONCLUSION: These results show that patients with WAS/XLT are significantly impacted with respect to QOL. BMT offered a better QOL for patients according to parents, but not as reported by the patients. Future studies should incorporate QOL to provide more data and a better understanding of outcomes for long-term survivors and decision-making regarding BMT.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2271-2278, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caregivers of children with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) experience significant psychological distress during their child's hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) process. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to understand caregiver challenges and identify areas for health care system-level improvements to enhance caregiver well-being. METHODS: In this mixed-methods study caregivers of children with PIDs were contacted in August to November 2017 through online and electronic mailing lists of rare disease consortiums and foundations. Caregivers were invited to participate in an online survey assessing sociodemographic variables, the child's medical characteristics, psychosocial support use, and the World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index. Open-ended questions about health care system improvements were included. Descriptive statistics and linear multivariate regression analyses were conducted. A modified content analysis method was used to code responses and identify emergent themes. RESULTS: Among the 80 caregiver respondents, caregivers had a median age of 34 years (range, 23-62 years) and were predominantly female, white, and married with male children given a diagnosis of severe combined immune deficiency. In the adjusted regression model lower caregiver well-being was significantly associated with lower household income and medical complications. Challenges during HCT include maintaining relationships with partners and the child's healthy sibling or siblings, managing self-care, and coping with feelings of uncertainty. Caregivers suggested several organizational-level solutions to enhance psychosocial support, including respite services, online connections to other PID caregivers, and bedside mental health services. CONCLUSIONS: Certain high-risk subpopulations of caregivers might need more targeted psychosocial support to reduce the long-term effect of the HCT experience on their well-being. Caregivers suggested several organizational-level solutions for provision of this support.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 380(16): 1525-1534, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) often fails to reconstitute immunity associated with T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells when matched sibling donors are unavailable unless high-dose chemotherapy is given. In previous studies, autologous gene therapy with γ-retroviral vectors failed to reconstitute B-cell and NK-cell immunity and was complicated by vector-related leukemia. METHODS: We performed a dual-center, phase 1-2 safety and efficacy study of a lentiviral vector to transfer IL2RG complementary DNA to bone marrow stem cells after low-exposure, targeted busulfan conditioning in eight infants with newly diagnosed SCID-X1. RESULTS: Eight infants with SCID-X1 were followed for a median of 16.4 months. Bone marrow harvest, busulfan conditioning, and cell infusion had no unexpected side effects. In seven infants, the numbers of CD3+, CD4+, and naive CD4+ T cells and NK cells normalized by 3 to 4 months after infusion and were accompanied by vector marking in T cells, B cells, NK cells, myeloid cells, and bone marrow progenitors. The eighth infant had an insufficient T-cell count initially, but T cells developed in this infant after a boost of gene-corrected cells without busulfan conditioning. Previous infections cleared in all infants, and all continued to grow normally. IgM levels normalized in seven of the eight infants, of whom four discontinued intravenous immune globulin supplementation; three of these four infants had a response to vaccines. Vector insertion-site analysis was performed in seven infants and showed polyclonal patterns without clonal dominance in all seven. CONCLUSIONS: Lentiviral vector gene therapy combined with low-exposure, targeted busulfan conditioning in infants with newly diagnosed SCID-X1 had low-grade acute toxic effects and resulted in multilineage engraftment of transduced cells, reconstitution of functional T cells and B cells, and normalization of NK-cell counts during a median follow-up of 16 months. (Funded by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities and others; LVXSCID-ND ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01512888.).


Assuntos
Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Lentivirus , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/terapia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/sangue , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactente , Células Matadoras Naturais , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Linfócitos T , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/imunologia
5.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(7): 1355-1362, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876930

RESUMO

After allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), the minimal myeloid chimerism required for full T and B cell reconstitution in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with low-exposure busulfan (cumulative area under the curve, 30 mg·hr/L) in 10 SCID patients undergoing either first or repeat HCT from unrelated or haploidentical donors. The median busulfan dose required to achieve this exposure was 5.9 mg/kg (range, 4.8 to 9.1). With a median follow-up of 4.5 years all patients survived, with 1 requiring an additional HCT. Donor myeloid chimerism was generally >90% at 1 month post-HCT, but in most patients it fell during the next 3 months, such that 1-year median myeloid chimerism was 14% (range, 2% to 100%). Six of 10 patients had full T and B cell reconstitution, despite myeloid chimerism as low as 3%. Three patients have not recovered B cell function at over 2 years post-HCT, 2 of them in the setting of treatment with rituximab for post-HCT autoimmunity. Low-exposure busulfan was well tolerated and achieved sufficient myeloid chimerism for full immune reconstitution in over 50% of patients. However, other factors beyond busulfan exposure may also play critical roles in determining long-term myeloid chimerism and full T and B cell reconstitution.

6.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was instituted in California in 2010. In the ensuing 6.5 years, 3 252 156 infants in the state had DNA from dried blood spots assayed for T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Abnormal TREC results were followed-up with liquid blood testing for T-cell abnormalities. We report the performance of the SCID screening program and the outcomes of infants who were identified. METHODS: Data that were reviewed and analyzed included demographics, nursery summaries, TREC and lymphocyte flow-cytometry values, and available follow-up, including clinical and genetic diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: Infants with clinically significant T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) were successfully identified at a rate of 1 in 15 300 births. Of these, 50 cases of SCID, or 1 in 65 000 births (95% confidence interval 1 in 51 000-1 in 90 000) were found. Prompt treatment led to 94% survival. Infants with non-SCID TCL were also identified, diagnosed and managed, including 4 with complete DiGeorge syndrome who received thymus transplants. Although no cases of typical SCID are known to have been missed, 2 infants with delayed-onset leaky SCID had normal neonatal TREC screens but came to clinical attention at 7 and 23 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based TREC testing, although unable to detect immune defects in which T cells are present at birth, is effective for identifying SCID and clinically important TCL with high sensitivity and specificity. The experience in California supports the rapid, widespread adoption of SCID newborn screening.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/sangue , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/epidemiologia
7.
Palliat Support Care ; : 1-6, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Caregivers for patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are susceptible to significant psychosocial distress. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe psychosocial support services offered and used by caregivers of pediatric primary immune deficiency (PID) during HCT at 35 hospitals across North America. METHOD: Caregivers of pediatric patients with PID were recruited by e-mail to participate in an anonymous 140-question survey instrument between April and May 2016 (N = 171).ResultOf those meeting inclusion criteria (53%), family counseling services were only offered to fewer than half of caregivers (42%). Of the survey participants not offered counseling services, the majority desired family counseling (70%) and sibling counseling (73%). That said, when offered counseling, utilization rates were low, with 22% of caregivers using family counseling and none using sibling counseling.Significance of resultsThese results indicate the need to offer and tailor counseling services for families throughout the HCT process. Further research should focus on reducing barriers to utilization of counseling services such as offering bedside counseling services, online modalities, and/or financial assistance.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(4): 1041-1051, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170128

RESUMO

This manuscript reviews selected topics in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) published in 2017. These include (1) the role of follicular T cells in the differentiation of B cells and development of optimal antibody responses; (2) impaired nuclear factor κB subunit 1 signaling in the pathogenesis of common variable immunodeficiency, revealing an association between impaired B-cell maturation and development of inflammatory conditions; (3) autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations in patients with PIDDs in T- and B-cell deficiencies, as well as in neutrophil disorders; (4) newly described gene defects causing PIDDs, including exostosin-like 3 (EXTL3), TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3 [A20]), actin-related protein 2/3 complex-subunit 1B (ARPC1B), v-Rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA), hypoxia upregulated 1 (HYOU1), BTB domain and CNC homolog 2 (BACH2), CD70, and CD55; (5) use of rapamycin and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor leniolisib to reduce autoimmunity and regulate B-cell function in the activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome; (6) improved outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in the last decade, with an overall 2-year survival of 90% in part caused by early diagnosis through implementation of universal newborn screening; (7) demonstration of the efficacy of lentiviral vector-mediated gene therapy for patients with adenosine deaminase-deficient SCID; (8) the promise of gene editing for PIDDs using CRISPR/Cas9 and zinc finger nuclease technology for SCID and chronic granulomatous disease; and (9) the efficacy of thymus transplantation in Europe, although associated with an unexpected high incidence of autoimmunity. The remarkable progress in the understanding and management of PIDDs reflects the current interest in this area and continues to improve the care of immunodeficient patients.

10.
Blood Adv ; 2(15): 1828-1832, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061307

RESUMO

DNA ligase 4 deficiency (LIG4-SCID) causes lymphopenia (T-B-NK+) and a radiosensitive SCID (RS-SCID) phenotype. We demonstrate, for the first time, flow cytometric-based kinetic analysis of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) in lymphocyte subsets, especially NK cells, for the assessment of LIG4-SCID. Measurement of phosphorylated (p) ATM, SMC1, and H2AX (γH2AX) was performed by flow cytometry to assess DNA repair defects in a 3-year-old girl. Functional assessment (phosphorylation) was measured in T and NK cells (B cells were absent) before irradiation (background control) or after low-dose (2Gy) irradiation (1 and 24 hours). We observed maximal γH2AX at 1 hour postirradiation, with dephosphorylation at 24 hours postirradiation in healthy control patients. The patient showed normal frequencies (percentage) of T cells and NK cells for γH2AX, but increased levels of γH2AX compared with control patients at 1 hour postirradiation. At 24 hours postirradiation, there was a lack of dephosphorylation in a substantial proportion of lymphocytes (with differences observed between T and NK cells) compared with healthy control patients. Although there was dephosphorylation of γH2AX at 24 hours in patient lymphocytes compared with 1 hour, the amount remained elevated at 24 hours compared with in control patients. The data from pATM and pSMC1 were uninformative. Flow-based kinetic analysis of γH2AX is a useful marker for the diagnosis of LIG4-SCID.

12.
Am J Transplant ; 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900661

RESUMO

Tolerance induction through simultaneous hematopoietic stem cell and renal transplantation has shown promising results, but it is hampered by the toxicity of preconditioning therapies and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Moreover, renal function has never been compared to conventionally transplanted patients, thus, whether donor-specific tolerance results in improved outcomes remains unanswered. We collected follow-up data of published cases of renal transplantations after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the same donor and compared patient and transplant kidney survival as well as function with caliper-matched living-donor renal transplantations from the Austrian dialysis and transplant registry. Overall, 22 tolerant and 20 control patients were included (median observation period 10 years [range 11 months to 26 years]). In the tolerant group, no renal allograft loss was reported, whereas 3 were lost in the control group. Median creatinine levels were 85 µmol/l (interquartile range [IQR] 72-99) in the tolerant cohort and 118 µmol/l (IQR 99-143) in the control group. Mixed linear-model showed around 29% lower average creatinine levels throughout follow-up in the tolerant group (P < .01). Our data clearly show stable renal graft function without long-term immunosuppression for many years, suggesting permanent donor-specific tolerance. Thus sequential transplantation might be an alternative approach for future studies targeting tolerance induction in renal allograft recipients.

13.
Blood ; 131(26): 2967-2977, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728406

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) typically results in donor T-cell engraftment and function in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), but humoral immunity, particularly when using donors other than matched siblings, is variable. B-cell function after HSCT for SCID depends on the genetic cause, the use of pre-HSCT conditioning, and whether donor B-cell chimerism is achieved. Patients with defects in IL2RG or JAK3 undergoing HSCT without conditioning often have poor B-cell function post-HSCT, perhaps as a result of impairment of IL-21 signaling in host-derived B cells. To investigate the effect of pre-HSCT conditioning on B-cell function, and the relationship of in vitro B-cell function to clinical humoral immune status, we analyzed 48 patients with IL2RG/JAK3 SCID who were older than 2 years after HSCT with donors other than matched siblings. T follicular helper cells (TFH) developed in these patients with kinetics similar to healthy young children; thus, poor B-cell function could not be attributed to a failure of TFH development. In vitro differentiation of B cells into plasmablasts and immunoglobulin secretion in response to IL-21 strongly correlated with the use of conditioning, donor B-cell engraftment, freedom from immunoglobulin replacement, and response to tetanus vaccine. Patients receiving immunoglobulin replacement who had normal serum immunoglobulin M showed poor response to IL-21 in vitro, similar to those with low serum IgM. In vitro response of B cells to IL-21 may predict clinically relevant humoral immune function in patients with IL2RG/JAK3 SCID after HSCT.

14.
Am J Hematol ; 93(2): 169-178, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047161

RESUMO

CD34+ cell selection minimizes graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after haploidentical donor stem cell transplant but is associated with slow immune recovery and infections. We report a Phase I/II study of prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) followed by methotrexate (MTX) GVHD prophylaxis after CD34-selected haploidentical donor transplant. A prophylactic DLI was given between day +30 and +42. Rituximab was given with DLI for the last 10 patients. The goal of the study was to determine a DLI dose that would result in a CD4+ cell count > 100/µL at Day +120 in ≥ 66% of patients with ≤ 33% grade II-III, ≤ 17% grade III, and no grade IV acute GVHD by Day +180. Thirty-five patients with malignant (n = 25) or nonmalignant disease (n = 10) were treated after CD34-selected haploidentical donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant. The DLI dose of 5 × 104 /kg met the CD4/GVHD goal with 67% of patients having CD4+ cells > 100/µL and 11% grade II-IV acute GVHD. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 16%. Fatal viral and fungal infections occurred in 11%. The 2 year estimated overall survival was 69% and the relapse rate was 14% for patients in remission at transplant. There was no effect of NK alloreactivity on relapse. Nine of ten patients at the target DLI dose cohort of 5 × 104 /kg are alive with median follow-up of 18 mos (range 6-29). Delayed prophylactic DLI and MTX was associated with promising outcomes at the target DLI dose. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov, # NCT01027702.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(1): 322-328.e10, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare DNA breakage repair disorders predispose to infection and lymphoreticular malignancies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative, but coadministered chemotherapy or radiotherapy is damaging because of systemic radiosensitivity. We collected HCT outcome data for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XRCC4-like factor (Cernunnos-XLF) deficiency, and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). METHODS: Data from 38 centers worldwide, including indication, donor, conditioning regimen, graft-versus-host disease, and outcome, were analyzed. Conditioning was classified as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) if it contained radiotherapy or alkylators and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) if no alkylators and/or 150 mg/m2 fludarabine or less and 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or less were used. RESULTS: Fifty-five new, 14 updated, and 18 previously published patients were analyzed. Median age at HCT was 48 months (range, 1.5-552 months). Twenty-nine patients underwent transplantation for infection, 21 had malignancy, 13 had bone marrow failure, 13 received pre-emptive transplantation, 5 had multiple indications, and 6 had no information. Twenty-two received MAC, 59 received RIC, and 4 were infused; information was unavailable for 2 patients. Seventy-three of 77 patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XLF deficiency, or Nijmegen breakage syndrome received conditioning. Survival was 53 (69%) of 77 and was worse for those receiving MAC than for those receiving RIC (P = .006). Most deaths occurred early after transplantation, suggesting poor tolerance of conditioning. Survival in patients with AT was 25%. Forty-one (49%) of 83 patients experienced acute GvHD, which was less frequent in those receiving RIC compared with those receiving MAC (26/56 [46%] vs 12/21 [57%], P = .45). Median follow-up was 35 months (range, 2-168 months). No secondary malignancies were reported during 15 years of follow-up. Growth and developmental delay remained after HCT; immune-mediated complications resolved. CONCLUSION: RIC HCT resolves DNA repair disorder-associated immunodeficiency. Long-term follow-up is required for secondary malignancy surveillance. Routine HCT for AT is not recommended.

16.
Blood ; 130(25): 2718-2727, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021228

RESUMO

The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is enrolling children with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) to a prospective natural history study. We analyzed patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from 2010 to 2014, including 68 patients with typical SCID and 32 with leaky SCID, Omenn syndrome, or reticular dysgenesis. Most (59%) patients were diagnosed by newborn screening or family history. The 2-year overall survival was 90%, but was 95% for those who were infection-free at HCT vs 81% for those with active infection (P = .009). Other factors, including the diagnosis of typical vs leaky SCID/Omenn syndrome, diagnosis via family history or newborn screening, use of preparative chemotherapy, or the type of donor used, did not impact survival. Although 1-year post-HCT median CD4 counts and freedom from IV immunoglobulin were improved after the use of preparative chemotherapy, other immunologic reconstitution parameters were not affected, and the potential for late sequelae in extremely young infants requires additional evaluation. After a T-cell-replete graft, landmark analysis at day +100 post-HCT revealed that CD3 < 300 cells/µL, CD8 < 50 cells/µL, CD45RA < 10%, or a restricted Vß T-cell receptor repertoire (<13 of 24 families) were associated with the need for a second HCT or death. In the modern era, active infection continues to pose the greatest threat to survival for SCID patients. Although newborn screening has been effective in diagnosing SCID patients early in life, there is an urgent need to identify validated approaches through prospective trials to ensure that patients proceed to HCT infection free. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01186913.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Reconstituição Imune , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Reconstituição Imune/genética , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecção/etiologia , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/complicações , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Doadores de Tecidos
17.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am ; 31(5): 809-822, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895849

RESUMO

Successful gene therapy for genetic disorders requires marrow niches to be opened to varying degrees to engraft gene-corrected hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). For example, in severe combined immunodeficiency, relatively limited chimerism is necessary for both T- and B-cell immune reconstitution, whereas for inborn errors of metabolism maximal donor chimerism is the goal. Currently, alkylating chemotherapy is used for this purpose. Significant pharmacokinetic variability exists in drug clearance in children less than 12 years old. Thus, pharmacokinetic monitoring is needed to achieve the targeted exposure goal for busulfan.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Terapia Genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Terapia Genética/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoglobinopatias/genética , Hemoglobinopatias/terapia , Humanos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/terapia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Transdução Genética , Transgenes , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Autólogo
18.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 13(11): 1029-1040, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28918671

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Newborn screening has led to a better understanding of the prevalence of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) overall and in terms of specific genotypes. Survival has improved following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) with the best outcomes seen following use of a matched sibling donor. However, questions remain regarding the optimal alternative donor source, appropriate use of conditioning and the impact of these decisions on immune reconstitution and other late morbidities. Areas covered: The currently available literature reporting late effects after HCT for SCID and use of alternative therapies including enzyme replacement, alternative donors and gene therapy are reviewed. A literature search was performed on Pubmed and ClinicalTrials.gov using key words 'Severe Combined Immunodeficiency', 'SCID', 'hematopoietic stem cell transplant', 'conditioning', 'gene therapy', 'SCID newborn screening', 'TREC' and 'late effects'. Expert commentary: Newborn screening has dramatically changed the clinical presentation of newborn SCID. While the majority of patients with SCID survive HCT, data regarding late effects in these patients is limited and additional studies focused on genotype specific late effects are needed. Prospective studies aimed at minimizing the use of alkylating agents and reducing late effects beyond survival are needed. Gene therapy is being developed and will likely become a more commonly used treatment that will require separate consideration of survival and late effects.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Prova Pericial , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(10): 1701-1713, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28684371

RESUMO

A prospective multicenter study was conducted to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of fludarabine plasma (f-ara-a) and intracellular triphosphate (f-ara-ATP) in children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and receiving fludarabine with conditioning. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected over the course of therapy for quantitation of f-ara-a and f-ara-ATP. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to develop the PK model, including identification of covariates impacting drug disposition. Data from a total of 133 children (median age, 5 years; range, .2 to 17.9) undergoing HCT for a variety of malignant and nonmalignant disorders were available for PK-PD modeling. The implementation of allometric scaling of PK parameters alone was insufficient to describe drug clearance, particularly in very young children. Renal impairment was predicted to increase drug exposure across all ages. The rate of f-ara-a entry into PBMCs (expressed in pmoles per million cells) decreased over the course of therapy, resulting in 78% lower f-ara-ATP after the fourth dose (1.7 pmoles/million cells [range, .2 to 7.2]) compared with first dose (7.9 pmoles/million cells [range, .7 to 18.2]). The overall incidence of treatment-related mortality (TRM) was low at 3% and 8% at days 60 and 360, respectively, and no association with f-ara-a exposure and TRM was found. In the setting of malignancy, disease-free survival was highest at 1 year after HCT in subjects achieving a systemic f-ara-a cumulative area under the curve (cAUC) greater than 15 mg*hour/L compared to patients with a cAUC less than 15 mg*hour/L (82.6% versus 52.8% P = .04). These results suggest that individualized model-based dosing of fludarabine in infants and young children may reduce morbidity and mortality through improved rates of disease-free survival and limiting drug-related toxicity. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01316549.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Arabinonucleotídeos , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Medicina de Precisão , Estudos Prospectivos , Transplantados , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/farmacocinética , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Vidarabina/toxicidade
20.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(8): 1229-1240, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28479164

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is effectively treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), with overall survival approaching 90% in contemporary reports. However, survivors are at risk for developing late complications because of the variable durability of high-quality immune function, underlying genotype of SCID, comorbidities due to infections in the pretransplantation and post-transplantation periods, and use of conditioning before transplantation. An international group of transplantation experts was convened in 2016 to review the current knowledge of late effects seen in SCID patients after HCT and to develop recommendations for screening and monitoring for late effects. This report provides recommendations for screening and management of pediatric and adult SCID patients treated with HCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia
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