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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031758

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic heart failure reduces quality and quantity of life and is expensive for healthcare systems. Medical treatment relies on guideline-directed therapy, but clinical follow-up and remote management is highly variable and poorly effective. New remote management strategies are needed to maintain clinical stability and avoid hospitalizations for acute decompensation. METHODS AND RESULTS: The CardioMEMS Post-Market Study is a prospective, international, single-arm, multicentre, open-label study (NCT02954341) designed to examine the feasibility of haemodynamic guided heart failure management using a small pressure sensor permanently implanted in the pulmonary artery (PA). Daily uploaded PA pressures will be reviewed weekly to remotely guide medical management of patients with persistent NYHA Class III symptoms at baseline and a hospitalization in the prior 12 months. The study will enrol up to 800 patients from 85 sites across the United Kingdom, Europe, and Australia. The primary safety endpoint will assess device or system-related complications or sensor failures after 2 years of follow-up. Efficacy will be estimated after 1 year of follow-up comparing HF hospitalization rates before and after sensor implantation. Observational endpoints will include mortality, patient, and investigator monitoring compliance, PA pressure changes, quality of life, and several pre-defined subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The CardioMEMS Post-Market Study will investigate the generalizability of remote haemodynamic guided HF management in a number of national settings. The results may support the more widespread implementation of this novel clinical management approach.

2.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 54, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrepancy exists amongst studies investigating the effect of comorbid heart failure (HF) on the morbidity and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. METHODS: MEDLINE and Embase were searched using a pre-specified search strategy for studies comparing hospitalisation, rehospitalisation, and mortality of COPD patients with and without HF. Studies must have reported crude and/or adjusted rate ratios, risk ratios, odds ratios (OR), or hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS: Twenty-eight publications, reporting 55 effect estimates, were identified that compared COPD patients with HF with those without HF. One study reported on all-cause hospitalisation (1 rate ratio). Two studies reported on COPD-related hospitalisation (1 rate ratio, 2 OR). One study reported on COPD- or cardiovascular-related hospitalisation (4 HR). One study reported on 90-day all-cause rehospitalisation (1 risk ratio). One study reported on 3-year all-cause rehospitalisation (2 HR). Four studies reported on 30-day COPD-related rehospitalisation (1 risk ratio; 5 OR). Two studies reported on 1-year COPD-related rehospitalisation (1 risk ratio; 1 HR). One study reported on 3-year COPD-related rehospitalisation (2 HR). Eighteen studies reported on all-cause mortality (1 risk ratio; 4 OR; 24 HR). Five studies reported on all-cause inpatient mortality (1 risk ratio; 4 OR). Meta-analyses of hospitalisation and rehospitalisation were not possible due to insufficient data for all individual effect measures. Meta-analysis of studies requiring spirometry for the diagnosis of COPD found that risk of all-cause mortality was 1.61 (pooled HR; 95%CI: 1.38, 1.83) higher in patients with HF than in those without HF. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review, we investigated the effect of HF comorbidity on hospitalisation and mortality of COPD patients. There is substantial evidence that HF comorbidity increases COPD-related rehospitalisation and all-cause mortality of COPD patients. The effect of HF comorbidity may differ depending on COPD phenotype, HF type, or HF severity and should be the topic of future research.

3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951323

RESUMO

AIMS: The Treatment of Sleep-Disordered Breathing with Predominant Central Sleep Apnoea by Adaptive Servo Ventilation in Patients with Heart Failure trial investigated the effects of adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) (vs. control) on outcomes of 1325 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and central sleep apnoea (CSA). The primary outcome (a composite of all-cause death or unplanned HF hospitalization) did not differ between the two groups. However, all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality were higher in the ASV group. Circulating biomarkers may help in better ascertain patients' risk, and this is the first study applying a large set of circulating biomarkers in patients with both HFrEF and CSA. METHODS AND RESULTS: Circulating protein-biomarkers (n = 276) ontologically involved in CV pathways, were studied in 749 (57% of the trial population) patients (biomarker substudy), to investigate their association with the study outcomes (primary outcome, CV death and all-cause death). The mean age was 69 ± 10 years, and > 90% were male. The groups (ASV vs. control and biomarker substudy vs. no biomarker) were well balanced. The "best" clinical prognostic model included male sex, systolic blood pressure < 120 mmHg, diabetes, loop diuretic, cardiac device, 6-min walking test distance, and N-terminal pro BNP as the strongest prognosticators. On top of the "best" clinical prognostic model, the biomarkers that significantly improved both the discrimination (c-index) and the net reclassification index (NRI) of the model were soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 for the primary outcome; neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 3 (Notch-3) for CV-death and all-cause death; and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) for all-cause death only. CONCLUSIONS: We studied 276 circulating biomarkers in patients with HFrEF and central sleep apnoea; of these biomarkers, three added significant prognostic information on top of the best clinical model: soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (primary outcome), Notch-3 (CV and all-cause death), and GDF-15 (all-cause death).

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908129

RESUMO

AIMS: Studies of remote monitoring (RM) in heart failure (HF) speculate that patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) derive the greatest benefit. We compared the impact of RM vs. usual care on clinical outcomes for patients with and without AF enrolled in the Remote Management of Heart Failure Using Implanted Electronic Devices (REM-HF) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rhythm status was available for 1561 patients (94.6%). Three categories were defined based on total AF duration during the first year of follow-up: (i) no AF (n = 1211, 77.6%), (ii) paroxysmal AF (≥6 min to ≤7 days; n = 92, 5.9%), and (iii) persistent/permanent AF (>7 days; n = 258, 16.5%). Clinical activity, mortality, and hospitalisation rates were compared between treatment strategies for each group. RM resulted in a greater volume of clinical activity in patients with any AF, vs. no AF, with the highest per-patient intervention required for patients with persistent/permanent AF. During 2.8 ± 0.8 years of follow-up, RM was not associated with a reduction in all-cause or cardiovascular mortality for patients with AF. However, in patients with persistent/permanent AF, RM conferred an increased risk of recurrent cardiovascular [hazard ratio (HR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.85, P = 0.018] and HF-related (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.14-3.69, P = 0.016) hospitalisations. CONCLUSION: In patients with HF and a cardiac implanted electronic device, RM generated greater clinical activity for patients with AF, with no associated reduction in mortality, and conversely, greater risk of cardiovascular hospitalisation amongst patients with persistent/permanent AF. RM strategies may vary in their capability to guide HF management; modified approaches may be needed to improve outcomes for HF patients with AF.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 300: 237-244, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease often co-exist and are both leading causes of death worldwide. Published data have previously suggested trends toward improved survival for patients taking long-acting ß agonists combined with inhaled corticosteroids (LABA-ICS) through beneficial actions on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We sought to explore this in a real-world setting. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal propensity score-matched cohort study was conducted in the United Kingdom, 1998-2015. Patients were identified from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) which is linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality records. All patients had a validated diagnosis of COPD and were at high risk for cardiovascular events (history of myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral arterial disease). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The treatment group was composed of 2687 new users of LABA-ICS with COPD and comparisons were made in a control population of 2687 COPD patients prescribed LABAs alone. At three years follow-up death occurred in 358 (13.3%) patients in the treatment group and 427 (15.9%) patients in the control group. The use of LABA-ICS was modestly associated with improved survival compared to use of LABAs (hazard ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.71-0.95, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with COPD with either established cardiovascular disease or at high risk of an index cardiovascular event, LABA-ICS inhaled therapy, compared with LABAs alone, was associated with a significantly improved survival.

6.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784904

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The SERVE-HF trial included patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with sleep-disordered breathing, randomly assigned to treatment with Adaptive-Servo Ventilation (ASV) or control. The primary outcome was the first event of death from any cause, lifesaving cardiovascular intervention, or unplanned hospitalization for worsening heart failure. A subgroup analysis of the SERVE-HF trial suggested that patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) < 20% (low CSR) experienced a beneficial effect from ASV, whereas in patients with CSR ≥ 20% ASV might have been harmful. Identifying the proteomic signatures and the underlying mechanistic pathways expressed in patients with CSR could help generating hypothesis for future research. METHODS: Using a large set of circulating protein-biomarkers (n = 276, available in 749 patients; 57% of the SERVE-HF population) we sought to investigate the proteins associated with CSR and to study the underlying mechanisms that these circulating proteins might represent. RESULTS: The mean age was 69 ± 10 years and > 90% were male. Patients with CSR < 20% (n = 139) had less apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) events per hour and less oxygen desaturation. Patients with CSR < 20% might have experienced a beneficial effect of ASV treatment (primary outcome HR [95% CI] = 0.55 [0.34-0.88]; p = 0.012), whereas those with CSR ≥ 20% might have experienced a detrimental effect of ASV treatment (primary outcome HR [95% CI] = 1.39 [1.09-1.76]; p = 0.008); p for interaction = 0.001. Of the 276 studied biomarkers, 8 were associated with CSR (after adjustment and with a FDR1%-corrected p value). For example, higher PAR-1 and ITGB2 levels were associated with higher odds of having CSR < 20%, whereas higher LOX-1 levels were associated with higher odds of CSR ≥ 20%. Signalling, metabolic, haemostatic and immunologic pathways underlie the expression of these biomarkers. CONCLUSION: We identified proteomic signatures that may represent underlying mechanistic pathways associated with patterns of CSR in HFrEF. These hypothesis-generating findings require further investigation towards better understanding of CSR in HFrEF. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: PAR-1 proteinase-activated receptor 1, ADM adrenomedullin, HSP-27 heat shock protein-27, ITGB2 integrin beta 2, GLO1 glyoxalase 1, ENRAGE/S100A12 S100 calcium-binding protein A12, LOX-1 lectin-like LDL receptor 1, ADAM-TS13 disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member13 also known as von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease.

7.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807773

RESUMO

AIMS: In the COMPASS trial, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily (bid) plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 100 mg once daily (od) performed better than ASA 100 mg od alone in reducing the rate of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD). A Markov model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban plus ASA vs. ASA alone over a lifetime horizon, from the UK National Health System perspective. METHODS AND RESULTS: The base case analysis assumed that patients entered the model in the event-free health state, with the possibility to experience ≤2 events, transitioning every three-month cycle, through acute and post-acute health states of MI, ischaemic stroke (IS), or intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), and death. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life years-all discounted at 3.5%-and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted, as well as scenario analyses. In the model, patients on rivaroxaban plus ASA lived for an average of 14.0 years with no IS/MI/ICH, and gained 9.7 QALYs at a cost of £13 947, while those receiving ASA alone lived for an average of 12.7 years and gained 9.3 QALYs at a cost of £8126. The ICER was £16 360 per QALY. This treatment was cost-effective in 98% of 5000 iterations at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30 000 per QALY. CONCLUSION: This Markov model suggests that rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bid plus ASA is a cost-effective alternative to ASA alone in patients with chronic CAD or PAD.

8.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 24: 100424, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763438

RESUMO

In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the prevalence of moderate-to-severe sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) ranges between 21% and 72% and observational studies have demonstrated that SDB reduces the efficacy of rhythm control strategies, while treatment with continuous positive airway pressure lowers the rate of AF recurrence. Currently, the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour (apnea-hypopnea-index, AHI) determined during a single overnight sleep study is clinically used to assess the severity of SDB. However, recent studies suggest that SDB-severity in an individual patient is not stable over time but exhibits a considerable night-to-night variability which cannot be detected by only one overnight sleep assessment. Nightly SDB-severity assessment rather than the single-night diagnosis by one overnight sleep study may better reflect the exposure to SDB-related factors and yield a superior metric to determine SDB-severity in the management of AF. In this review we discuss mechanisms of night-to-night SDB variability, arrhythmogenic consequences of night-to-night SDB variability, strategies for longitudinal assessment of nightly SDB-severity and clinical implications for screening and management of SDB in AF patients.

9.
Open Heart ; 6(2): e001086, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673388

RESUMO

Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a growing problem internationally and a recognised cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The London borough of Hounslow has a lower than expected prevalence of AF, suggesting poor detection and associated undertreatment. To improve AF diagnosis and management, a quality improvement (QI) initiative was set up in 48 general practices in Hounslow. We aimed to study whether there was evidence of a change in AF diagnosis and management in Hounslow following implementation of interventions in this QI initiative. Methods: Using the general practice information system (SystmOne), data were retrospectively collected for 415 626 patients, who were actively registered at a Hounslow practice between 1 January 2011 and 31 August 2018. Process, outcome and balancing measures were analysed using statistical process control and interrupted time series regression methods. The baseline period was from 1 January 2011 to 30 September 2014 and the intervention period was from 1 October 2014 to 31 August 2018. Results: When comparing the baseline to the intervention period, (1) the rate of new AF diagnoses increased by 27% (relative risk 1.27; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.52; p<0.01); (2) ECG tests done for patients aged 60 and above increased; (3) CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED risk assessments within 30 days of AF diagnosis increased from 1.7% to 19% and 0.2% to 8.1%, respectively; (4) among those at higher risk of stroke, anticoagulation prescription within 30 days of AF diagnosis increased from 31% to 63% while prescription of antiplatelet monotherapy within the same time period decreased from 17% to 7.1%; and (5) average CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED risk scores did not change. Conclusion: Implementation of interventions in the Hounslow QI initiative coincided with improved AF diagnosis and management. Areas with perceived underdetection of AF should consider similar interventions and methodology.

11.
Br J Gen Pract ; 69(687): e697-e705, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of evidence-based guidelines supporting the identification of heart failure (HF) in primary care, the proportion of patients diagnosed in this setting remains low. Understanding variation in patients' routes to diagnosis will better inform HF management. AIM: To identify the factors associated with variation in patients' routes to HF diagnosis in primary care. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective cohort study of 13 897 patients diagnosed with HF between 1 January 2010 and 31 March 2013 in English primary care. METHOD: This study used primary care electronic health records to identify routes to HF diagnosis, defined using the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, and adherence to the NICE-recommended guidelines. Multilevel logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with the recommended route to HF diagnosis, and funnel plots were used to visualise variation between practices. RESULTS: Few patients (7%, n = 976) followed the recommended route to HF diagnosis. Adherence to guidelines was significantly associated with younger age (P = 0.001), lower deprivation level (P = 0.007), HF diagnosis source (P<0.001), not having chronic pulmonary disease (P<0.001), receiving further consultation for symptom(s) suggestive of HF (P<0.001), and presenting with breathlessness (P<0.001). Route to diagnosis also varied significantly between GP practices (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The significant association of certain patient characteristics with route to HF diagnosis and the variation between GP practices raises concerns about equitable HF management. Further studies should investigate reasons for this variation to improve the diagnosis of HF in primary care. However, these must consider the complexities of a patient group often affected by frailty and multiple comorbidities.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 40(28): 2283-2284, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327009
14.
Cardiovasc Res ; 115(11): e113-e114, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166587
15.
Card Fail Rev ; 5(2): 86-92, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179018

RESUMO

Technological advances have enabled increasingly sophisticated attempts to remotely monitor heart failure. This should allow earlier identification of decompensation, better adherence to lifestyle changes and medication and interventions (such as diuretic dosage changes) that reduce the need for hospitalisation. This review discusses telemonitoring approaches in heart failure, and the evidence for their impact. It is not difficult to collect data remotely, but converting more data into better decision-making that improves the outcome of care is challenging. Policy-makers and technology companies are enthusiastic about the potential of digital technologies to transform healthcare and bring expertise to the patient, rather than the other way round, but guideline writers are not yet convinced, due to the lack of consistent findings in randomised trials.

16.
Respirology ; 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Increases in Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) cycle length (CL), lung-to-periphery circulation time (LPCT) and time to peak flow (TTPF) may reflect impaired cardiac function. This retrospective analysis used an automatic algorithm to evaluate baseline CSR-related features and then determined whether these could be used to identify patients with systolic heart failure (HF) who experienced serious adverse events in the Treatment of Sleep-Disordered Breathing with Predominant Central Sleep Apnea by Adaptive Servo Ventilation in Patients with Heart Failure (SERVE-HF) substudy. METHODS: A total of 280 patients had overnight diagnostic polysomnography data available; an automated algorithm was applied to quantify CSR-related features. RESULTS: Median baseline CL, LPCT and TTPF were similar in the control (n = 152) and adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, n = 156) groups. In both groups, CSR-related features were significantly longer in patients who did (n = 129) versus did not (n = 140) experience a primary endpoint event (all-cause death, life-saving cardiovascular intervention or unplanned hospitalization for worsening HF): CL, 61.1 versus 55.1 s (P = 0.002); LPCT, 36.5 versus 31.5 s (P < 0.001); TTPF, 15.20 versus 13.35 s (P < 0.001), respectively. This finding was independent of treatment allocation. CONCLUSION: Patients with systolic HF and central sleep apnoea who experienced serious adverse events had longer CSR CL, LPCT and TTPF. Future studies should examine an independent role for CSR-related features to enable risk stratification in systolic HF.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 844-851, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218825

RESUMO

Lung ultrasound is a useful tool for the assessment of patients with both acute and chronic heart failure, but the use of different image acquisition methods, inconsistent reporting of the technique employed and variable quantification of 'B-lines,' have all made it difficult to compare published reports. We therefore need to ensure that future studies utilizing lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure adopt a standardized approach to reporting the quantification of pulmonary congestion. Strategies to improve patient care by use of lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure have been difficult to develop. In the present document, key aspects of standardization are discussed, including equipment used, number of chest zones assessed, the method of quantifying B-lines, the presence and timing of additional investigations (e.g. natriuretic peptides and echocardiography) and the impact of therapy. This consensus report includes a checklist to provide standardization in the preparation, review and analysis of manuscripts. This will serve as a guide for investigators and clinicians and enhance the quality and transparency of lung ultrasound research.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 921-929, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicians' adherence to guideline-recommended therapy is associated with short-term clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, its impact on longer-term outcomes is poorly documented. Here, we present results from the 18-month follow-up of the QUALIFY registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data at 18 months were available for 6118 ambulatory HFrEF patients from this international prospective observational survey. Adherence was measured as a continuous variable, ranging from 0 to 1, and was assessed for five classes of recommended HF medications and dosages. Most deaths were cardiovascular (CV) (228/394) and HF-related (191/394) and the same was true for unplanned hospitalizations (1175 CV and 861 HF-related hospitalizations, out of a total of 1541). According to univariable analysis, CV and HF deaths were significantly associated with physician adherence to guidelines. In multivariable analysis, HF death was associated with adherence level [subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.99 per 0.1 unit adherence level increase; P = 0.034] as was composite of HF hospitalization or CV death (SHR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94-0.99 per 0.1 unit adherence level increase; P = 0.043), whereas unplanned all-cause, CV or HF hospitalizations were not (all-cause: SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.9-1.02; CV: SHR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.01; and HF: SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96-1.02 per 0.1 unit change in adherence score; P = 0.52, P = 0.2, and P = 0.4, respectively). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that physicians' adherence to guideline-recommended HF therapies is associated with improved outcomes in HFrEF. Practical strategies should be established to improve physicians' adherence to guidelines.

19.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 22: 169-173, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899774

RESUMO

Background: The Ho-Chi-Minh-city Heart Institute in Vietnam took part in the Optimize Heart Failure (OHF) Care Program, designed to improve outcomes following heart failure (HF) hospitalization by increasing patient awareness and optimizing HF treatment. Methods: HF patients hospitalized with left ventricular ejection-fraction (LVEF) <50% were included. Patients received guideline-recommended HF treatment and education. Clinical signs, treatments and outcomes were assessed at admission, discharge, 2 and 6 months (M2, M6). Patients' knowledge and practice were assessed at M6 by telephone survey. Results: 257 patients were included. Between admission and M2 and M6, heart rate decreased significantly, and clinical symptoms improved significantly. LVEF increased significantly from admission to M6. 85% to 99% of patients received education. At M6, 45% to 78% of patients acquired knowledge and adhered to practice regarding diet, exercise, weight control, and detection of worsening symptoms. High use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system inhibitors (91%), mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists (77%) and diuretics (85%) was noted at discharge. Beta-blocker and ivabradine use was less frequent at discharge but increased significantly at M6 (from 33% to 51% and from 9% to 20%, respectively, p < 0.001). There were no in-hospital deaths. Readmission rates at 30 and 60 days after discharge were 8.3% and 12.5%, respectively. Mortality rates at 30 days, 60 days and 6 months were 1.2%, 2.5% and 6.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The OHF Care Program could be implemented in Vietnam without difficulty and was associated with high usage of guideline-recommended drug therapy. Although education was delivered, patient knowledge and practice could be further improved at M6 after discharge.

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