Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 9 de 9
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Chem Phys ; 151(3): 034304, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325947

RESUMO

Kinetic-energy dependent reactions of Th+ with N2 and NO are studied using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. The formation of ThO+ in the reaction of Th+ with NO is observed to be exothermic and barrierless with a reaction efficiency at low energies of 0.91 ± 0.18. Formation of ThN+ in the reactions of Th+ with N2 and NO is endothermic in both cases. The kinetic-energy dependent cross sections for formation of this product ion were evaluated to determine a 0 K bond dissociation energy (BDE) of D0(Th+-N) = 6.51 ± 0.08 eV, the first direct measurement of this BDE. Additionally, the reactions were explored by quantum chemical calculations, including a full Feller-Peterson-Dixon composite approach with correlation contributions up to CCSDTQ for ThN and ThN+, as well as more approximate CCSD(T) calculations where a semiempirical model was used to estimate spin-orbit energy contributions. The ThN+ BDE is found to be larger than those of the transition metal congeners, TiN+ along with estimated values for ZrN+ and HfN+, believed to be a result of the actinide contraction.

2.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(10): 1835-1849, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016605

RESUMO

The reaction of atomic thorium cations with deuterated water as a function of kinetic energy from thermal to 10 eV was studied using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry. At thermal energies, both ThO+ + D2 and DThO+ + D are formed in barrierless exothermic processes and reproduce results in the literature obtained using ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. As the energy is increased, the branching ratio between these two channels changes such that the dominant product changes from ThO+ to DThO+ and back to ThO+, until ThD+ + OD is energetically available and is the dominant product channel. To help understand these experimental results, a variety of theoretical approaches were tried and used to establish a potential energy surface, which compares well with previous theoretical studies. Utilizing the theoretical results, the kinetic energy dependent branching ratio between the ThO+ + D2 and DThO+ + D channels was calculated using both RRKM and phase space theory (PST). The results indicate that consideration of angular momentum conservation (as in PST) and spin-orbit corrected energies are needed to reproduce experimental results quantitatively. The PST modeling also provides relative energies for the two competing transition states that lead to the primary products, for which theory provides reasonable agreement. Graphical Abstract Note: This data is.

3.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(3): 737-749, 2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29244499

RESUMO

Reactions of samarium cations with carbonyl sulfide are examined using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer and a variable temperature selected ion flow tube apparatus. Formation of SmS+ + CO is observed in both instruments with a kinetic energy and temperature dependence demonstrating a barrierless reaction occurring with an efficiency of 26 ± 9%. Formation of SmO+ + CS is also observed at high kinetic energies and exhibits a threshold determined as 2.81 ± 0.32 eV, substantially higher than expected from known thermochemistry. The potential energy surfaces for these reactions along sextet and octet spin surfaces are also examined theoretically at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels. The observed barrier for oxidation is shown to likely correspond to the energy of the crossing between surfaces corresponding to the ground state electronic configuration of Sm+ (8F,4f66s1) and an excited surface having two electrons in the valence space (excluding 4f), which are needed to form the strong SmO+ bond. In contrast, the S-CO bond is activated much more readily because this crossing occurs at much lower energies. This result is attributed to the much weaker S-CO bond energy as well as the ability of sulfur to bind effectively at different angles. Although both reactions are spin-forbidden, evidence for a more efficient spin-allowed process is also observed in the SmS+ + CO cross section.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(18): 11075-11088, 2017 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28435958

RESUMO

The potential energy surface (PES) for the oxidation of samarium cations by carbon dioxide is explored both experimentally and theoretically. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, several reactions are examined as a function of kinetic energy. These include the title reaction as well as its reverse along with the collision-induced dissociation of Sm+(CO2) and OSm+(CO) with Xe. Analysis of the kinetic energy dependent cross sections yields barriers for the forward and reverse oxidation reaction of 1.77 ± 0.11 and 2.04 ± 0.13 eV, respectively, and Sm+-OCO and OSm+-CO bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of 0.42 ± 0.03 and 0.97 ± 0.07 eV, respectively. BDEs for Sm+(CO2)x for x = 2 and 3 are also determined as 0.40 ± 0.13 and 0.48 ± 0.12 eV, respectively. The PESs for the title reaction along the sextet and octet spin surfaces are also examined theoretically at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels using both effective core potential and all-electron basis sets. Reasonable agreement between theory and experiment is obtained for the experimentally characterized intermediates, although all-electron basis sets and spin-orbit effects are needed for quantitative agreement. The observed barrier for oxidation is shown to likely correspond to the energy of the crossing between surfaces corresponding to the ground state electronic configuration of Sm+ (8F,4f66s1) and an excited surface having two electrons in the valence space (excluding 4f), which are needed to form the strong SmO+ bond.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 145(19): 194305, 2016 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27875879

RESUMO

The kinetic-energy dependences of the reactions M+ + CO where M+ = Re+, Os+, and Ir+ are studied using guided ion-beam tandem mass spectrometry. Formation of both MO+ and MC+ was observed in endothermic processes for all three metals. Modeling of the data provides thresholds that yield 0 K bond dissociation energies (BDEs, in eV) of 4.67 ± 0.09 (Re+-O), 4.82 ± 0.14 (Os+-O), 4.25 ± 0.11 (Ir+-O), 5.13 ± 0.12 (Re+-C), 6.14 ± 0.14 (Os+-C), and 6.58 ± 0.12 (Ir+-C). These BDEs agree well with literature values within experimental uncertainties demonstrating that ground state products are formed for all cases even though some of the reactions are formally spin forbidden. Quantum mechanical calculations at several levels of theory and using several basis sets were performed for MC+ and MO+ (with comparable results taken from the literature in some cases). B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculated ground state BDEs agree reasonably well with experimental values. The ground states in B3LYP and CCSD(T)/CBS calculations are Σ-3 (ReC+), Δ2 (OsC+), and Σ+1 or Δ3 (IrC+) after including spin-orbit considerations. Relaxed potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the M+ + CO reactions show crossings between surfaces of different spin states such that products can be formed with no barriers in excess of the substantial endothermicities. Unlike results for these metal cations reacting with O2, the kinetic energy dependent cross sections for the formation of MO+ in the M+ + CO reactions exhibit only one feature. Reasons for this differential behavior are discussed in detail.

6.
J Chem Phys ; 144(18): 184309, 2016 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27179486

RESUMO

Kinetic energy dependent reactions of Th(+) with O2 and CO are studied using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. The formation of ThO(+) in the reaction of Th(+) with O2 is observed to be exothermic and barrierless with a reaction efficiency at low energies of k/kLGS = 1.21 ± 0.24 similar to the efficiency observed in ion cyclotron resonance experiments. Formation of ThO(+) and ThC(+) in the reaction of Th(+) with CO is endothermic in both cases. The kinetic energy dependent cross sections for formation of these product ions were evaluated to determine 0 K bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of D0(Th(+)-O) = 8.57 ± 0.14 eV and D0(Th(+)-C) = 4.82 ± 0.29 eV. The present value of D0 (Th(+)-O) is within experimental uncertainty of previously reported experimental values, whereas this is the first report of D0 (Th(+)-C). Both BDEs are observed to be larger than those of their transition metal congeners, TiL(+), ZrL(+), and HfL(+) (L = O and C), believed to be a result of lanthanide contraction. Additionally, the reactions were explored by quantum chemical calculations, including a full Feller-Peterson-Dixon composite approach with correlation contributions up to coupled-cluster singles and doubles with iterative triples and quadruples (CCSDTQ) for ThC, ThC(+), ThO, and ThO(+), as well as more approximate CCSD with perturbative (triples) [CCSD(T)] calculations where a semi-empirical model was used to estimate spin-orbit energy contributions. Finally, the ThO(+) BDE is compared to other actinide (An) oxide cation BDEs and a simple model utilizing An(+) promotion energies to the reactive state is used to estimate AnO(+) and AnC(+) BDEs. For AnO(+), this model yields predictions that are typically within experimental uncertainty and performs better than density functional theory calculations presented previously.

7.
J Phys Chem B ; 120(8): 1601-14, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26414691

RESUMO

Kinetic energy dependent reactions of Th(+) with H2, D2, and HD were studied using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. Formation of ThH(+) and ThD(+) is endothermic in all cases with similar thresholds. Branching ratio results for the reaction with HD indicate that Th(+) reacts via a statistical mechanism, similar to Hf(+). The kinetic energy dependent cross sections for formation of ThH(+) and ThD(+) were evaluated to determine a 0 K bond dissociation energy (BDE) of D0(Th(+)-H) = 2.45 ± 0.07 eV. This value is in good agreement with a previous result obtained from analysis of the Th(+) + CH4 reaction. D0(Th(+)-H) is observed to be larger than its transition metal congeners, TiH(+), ZrH(+), and HfH(+), believed to be a result of lanthanide contraction. The reactions with H2 were also explored using quantum chemical calculations that include a semiempirical estimation and explicit calculation of spin-orbit contributions. These calculations agree nicely and indicate that ThH(+) most likely has a (3)Δ1 ground level with a low-lying (1)Σ(+) excited state. Theory also provides the reaction potential energy surfaces and BDEs that are in reasonable agreement with experiment.

8.
J Chem Phys ; 142(13): 134307, 2015 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25854243

RESUMO

The exothermicity of the chemi-ionization reaction Sm + O → SmO(+) + e(-) has been re-evaluated through the combination of several experimental methods. The thermal reactivity (300-650 K) of Sm(+) and SmO(+) with a range of species measured using a selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometer apparatus is reported and provides limits for the bond strength of SmO(+), 5.661 eV ≤ D0(Sm(+)-O) ≤ 6.500 eV. A more precise value is measured to be 5.725 ± 0.07 eV, bracketed by the observed reactivity of Sm(+) and SmO(+) with several species using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer (GIBMS). Combined with the established Sm ionization energy (IE), this value indicates an exothermicity of the title reaction of 0.08 ± 0.07 eV, ∼0.2 eV smaller than previous determinations. In addition, the ionization energy of SmO has been measured by resonantly enhanced two-photon ionization and pulsed-field ionization zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy to be 5.7427 ± 0.0006 eV, significantly higher than the literature value. Combined with literature bond energies of SmO, this value indicates an exothermicity of the title reaction of 0.14 ± 0.17 eV, independent from and in agreement with the GIBMS result presented here. The evaluated thermochemistry also suggests that D0(SmO) = 5.83 ± 0.07 eV, consistent with but more precise than the literature values. Implications of these results for interpretation of chemical release experiments in the thermosphere are discussed.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 54(7): 3584-99, 2015 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25768128

RESUMO

The reaction of atomic thorium cations with CH4 (CD4) and the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of ThCH4(+) with Xe are studied using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry. In the methane reactions at low energies, ThCH2(+) (ThCD2(+)) is the only product; however, the energy dependence of the cross-section is inconsistent with a barrierless exothermic reaction as previously assumed on the basis of ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry results. The dominant product at higher energies is ThH(+) (ThD(+)), with ThCH3(+) (ThCD3(+)) having a similar threshold energy. The latter product subsequently decomposes at still higher energies to ThCH(+) (ThCD(+)). CID of ThCH4(+) yields atomic Th(+) as the exclusive product. The cross-sections of all product ions are modeled to provide 0 K bond dissociation energies (in eV) of D0(Th(+)-H) ≥ 2.25 ± 0.18, D0(Th(+)-CH) = 6.19 ± 0.16, D0(Th(+)-CH2) ≥ 4.54 ± 0.09, D0(Th(+)-CH3) = 2.60 ± 0.30, and D0(Th(+)-CH4) = 0.47 ± 0.05. Quantum chemical calculations at several levels of theory are used to explore the potential energy surfaces for activation of methane by Th(+), and the effects of spin-orbit coupling are carefully considered. When spin-orbit coupling is explicitly considered, a barrier for C-H bond activation that is consistent with the threshold measured for ThCH2(+) formation (0.17 ± 0.02 eV) is found at all levels of theory, whereas this barrier is observed only at the BHLYP and CCSD(T) levels otherwise. The observation that the CID of the ThCH4(+) complex produces Th(+) as the only product with a threshold of 0.47 eV indicates that this species has a Th(+)(CH4) structure, which is also consistent with a barrier for C-H bond activation. This barrier is thought to exist as a result of the mixed ((4)F,(2)D) electronic character of the Th(+) J = (3)/2 ground level combined with extensive spin-orbit effects.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA