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1.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 450-459, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146972

RESUMO

Dialysis prior to kidney transplantation may have a detrimental effect on post-transplant outcomes. However, prior studies have not fully characterized the nature of this relationship and may have been subject to residual confounding. Here we investigated the association between pre-transplant dialysis duration and two post-transplant outcomes: all-cause death and death with functioning graft. This was a retrospective, population-based, cohort study in all deceased donor kidney transplants performed in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2013. Patient blood type was chosen as an instrumental variable and a two-stage modeling procedure that included a threshold-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between dialysis time and the two post-transplant outcomes. Among 4,440 transplant recipients, the relative risk of all-cause death associated with each dialysis year prior to three years was 42% and fell to 5% per additional dialysis year thereafter. For death with functioning graft, each dialysis year before and after 2.8 years increased the relative risk by 31% and 4%, respectively. Peak panel reactive antibody of more than 50% was independently associated with an elevated risk of death with functioning graft but not with the risk of all-cause death. Thus, our findings highlight the urgency to develop strategies to ensure timely transplant listing and to shorten the total dialysis time before transplantation, with the goal of enhancing kidney transplant outcomes.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15841, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive formula feeding is more cost-effective when a Canadian mother with HIV is adherent to antiretroviral therapy and has full virologic suppression. DESIGN: Current Canadian guidelines recommend that mothers with HIV practice exclusive formula feeding. This contradicts the updated World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines which recommend that mothers with HIV should breastfeed for ≥12 months while receiving support for antiretroviral therapy adherence. Due to the economic and health risks and benefits associated with each modality, there remains expert disagreement on whether the WHO recommendations should be adopted in high-income countries. METHODS: A microsimulation model was developed to estimate lifetime costs and effectiveness (i.e., infant's quality-adjusted life years) of a hypothetical group of 1,000,000 initially healthy, HIV-negative infants, if the mother with HIV was on antiretroviral therapy with full virologic suppression and either exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive formula feeding. The model was developed from the economic perspective of the Ontario Ministry of Health, taking into account direct costs associated with infant feeding modality as well as related indirect costs born out of the child's lifetime health outcomes. Uncertainties related to model parameters were evaluated using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: In comparison to exclusive formula feeding, exclusive breastfeeding was the dominant feeding modality (i.e., less costly and more effective) yielding cost-savings of $13,812 per additional quality-adjusted life year gained. Neither one-way nor probabilistic sensitivity analyses altered the conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the risk of HIV transmission, exclusive breastfeeding was more cost-effective than exclusive formula feeding. These findings merit review of current infant feeding guidelines for mothers with HIV living in high-income countries.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno/economia , Fórmulas Infantis/economia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mães , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Canadá , Simulação por Computador , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Metanálise como Assunto , Modelos Econométricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
4.
Inquiry ; 56: 46958019842000, 2019 Jan-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975010

RESUMO

This article examines the impacts of public health insurance on the health of adults through use of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. We use the endogenous treatment effects model to infer the causal effects of public health insurance on health. We find that public health insurance significantly improves the physical and mental health status of health insurance beneficiaries after controlling for other covariates. Among the 2 types of voluntary public health insurance, the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance has the greater impact in improving health than the New Cooperative Medical Scheme. Moreover, the health effect appears to be stronger for middle-aged individuals, the elderly, and those with lower incomes than for their counterparts. The positive health effects may result from few channels, including the increase of health care utilization, the improvement of health-related behaviors, and the fact that individuals with public health insurance are more likely to use higher level care providers. This study provides implications on reforming China's health care system.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e022995, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826789

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Approximately 400 000 Americans and 36 000 Canadians undergo cardiac surgery annually, and up to 56% will develop chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP). The primary aim of this study is to explore the association of pain-related beliefs and gender-based pain expectations on the development of CPSP. Secondary goals are to: (A) explore risk factors for poor functional status and patient-level cost of illness from a societal perspective up to 12 months following cardiac surgery; and (B) determine the impact of CPSP on quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) borne by cardiac surgery, in addition to the incremental cost for one additional QALY gained, among those who develop CPSP compared with those who do not. METHODS AND ANALYSES: In this prospective cohort study, 1250 adults undergoing cardiac surgery, including coronary artery bypass grafting and open-heart procedures, will be recruited over a 3-year period. Putative risk factors for CPSP will be captured prior to surgery, at postoperative day 3 (in hospital) and day 30 (at home). Outcome data will be collected via telephone interview at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. We will employ generalised estimating equations to model the primary (CPSP) and secondary outcomes (function and cost) while adjusting for prespecified model covariates. QALYs will be estimated by converting data from the Short Form-12 (version 2) to a utility score. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol has been approved by the responsible bodies at each of the hospital sites, and study enrolment began May 2015. We will disseminate our results through CardiacPain.Net, a web-based knowledge dissemination platform, presentation at international conferences and publications in scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01842568.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impacts and social value relative to the cost of the Integrated Management of Alcohol Intervention Program in the Health Care System (i-MAP) on direct beneficiaries, using a Social Return on Investment (SROI) analysis. METHOD: A mixed-method approach was conducted among stakeholders and 113 drinkers (29 low-risk, 43 high-risk, and 41 dependent drinkers) who consecutively received i-MAP at four community hospitals in Songkhla province of Thailand. Resources for program implementation as well as drinking and a list of psychosocial outcomes, selected through stakeholder interviews, were measured among participants during and at the sixth month after participation, respectively. SROI (societal benefit-to-cost) ratio of i-MAP was estimated over a 5-year time horizon and shown in 2017 Thai baht, where US$1.00 = 33.1 baht. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses of key parameters were performed among treatment subgroups. RESULTS: Baseline estimates of the annual cost and 5-year social value of i-MAP were 25.5 and 51.0 million baht, respectively, yielding an estimated SROI ratio of 2.0, with a possible range of 1.3 to 2.4. Value created by the program was mostly attributed to broader gains to society (productivity gains and averted crime costs) and drinkers. Subgroup analyses suggested that the SROI ratio for high-risk drinkers was twice that for dependent drinkers (2.8 vs. 1.5). The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that more than 99% of the simulated treatments for both high-risk and dependent groups yielded benefits beyond the corresponding costs. CONCLUSIONS: By considering societal perspective, the i-MAP program has demonstrated its social value is twice its investment cost and potential for the program to be implemented nationwide.

7.
Paediatr Child Health ; 23(6): e109-e116, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455581

RESUMO

Background: The SickKids Paediatric Orthopaedic Pathway (SKPOP) for proximal humerus fractures may safely reduce the number of radiographs and follow-up assessments for children with these injuries. The study objective was to examine potential cost-savings of the SKPOP from the perspective of the Ministry of Health and Long-term Care (MOHLTC). Methods: Two sets of resource profiles, based on direct health care costs were created for a cohort of patients treated at our institution: the first based on actual follow-up assessment values, and the other based on follow-up assessments according to the SKPOP. Differences between the two profiles represent potential cost-savings. A decision-analysis and associated probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) were performed. Results: In a cohort of 239 patients treated between 2009 and 2014, 92.9% (222) would have met SKPOP eligibility. Management according to this pathway would have reduced orthopaedic assessments and shoulder radiograph series by 83.6% (470/562) and 70.8% (367/589), respectively. For the cohort examined, a potential cost-savings of $30,040.56 ($135.32/patient) was observed. A PSA, accounting for variable SKPOP adherence and health care utilization, yielded cost-savings in 96.5% of the iterations run through the decision-analysis model and an average cost-savings of $57.82/patient. Based on these results and the annual provincial incidence rate of eligible patients (n=575), the MOHLTC could potentially save $33,249.45 annually with province-wide implementation. Conclusions: Implementation of the SKPOP for a cohort of patients managed at our institution could have resulted in cost-savings due to substantial reductions in health care utilization. Cost-savings are likely to occur with provincial implementation of the SKPOP for proximal humerus fractures.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486410

RESUMO

Background In China, income levels and living standards have improved significantly, but many Chinese citizens still do not feel any happier. This phenomenon may be attributed to increased income inequality. Methods Using data from the 2013 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), we employed multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) to investigate the impact of county-level income inequality on individual-level happiness in China and multilevel mediation analysis with structural equation modeling (MMSEM) to explore the mechanisms through which income inequality impacted happiness. Results A negative relationship between income inequality and happiness was found. The negative association between them was explained by two psychological mechanisms, i.e., fairness and trust. The findings explained a "Chinese puzzle," i.e., why people do not feel happier despite improved income and living standards. Conclusions Our findings may provide a reference for policy makers to implement policies designed to improve individual happiness. What is important now is to reduce income inequality, and to potentially improve perceptions of fairness and trust in China.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321493

RESUMO

Background - Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major health threat worldwide as it brings about poorer outcomes and places economic burdens to society. This study aims to estimate the economic burdens from nosocomial infections (NI) caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in Thailand. Research design and methods - A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary hospital over 2011-2012. A multivariate log-linear regression model was used to estimate the excess treatment costs of AMR to those non-AMR patients. Results - Switching from a non-AMR case to an AMR infection case, resulted in 42% increase in expected average treatment costs per patient. The annual treatment from hospital perspective and antibiotic costs associated with the management of AMR infections were estimated to be US$ 2.3 billion and US$ 262 million, respectively. The estimated annual benefit from eradicating AMR NI were US$ 4.2 billion from a societal perspective with the annual gains in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of 0.6 million due to the absence of 111,295 AMR cases each year. Conclusions - Large amount of money was spent on treatment and antibiotic costs to manage AMR infections. Benefit of eliminating these infections was estimated and it would be highly cost-effective.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307669

RESUMO

Understanding how informal care impacts formal care utilisation for home-based end-of-life patients is an important policy- and practice-relevant question. This paper aims to assess the relationship between informal and formal home care among home-based end-of-life patients and how this relationship has changed over the last decade and over the end-of-life trajectory. We focus on informal care provided by family members or friends, and three types of home-based formal care services: care by personal support workers, physician visits, and nurse visits. Using survey data collected in a home-based end-of-life care programme in Ontario, Canada from 2005 to 2016, we build a two-part utilisation model analysing both the propensity to use each type of formal care and the amount of formal care received by patients. The results suggest that informal care is a substitute for care by personal support workers, but a complement to physician visits and nurse visits. In the case of nurse visits, an increased complementary effect is observed in more recent years. For home-based physician and nurse visits, the complementary effect grows with patient's proximity to death. These results highlight the complexity of the relationship between informal and formal care among home-based end-of-life patients. Decision-makers need to take into account the relationship between informal care and different types of formal services when introducing future policies.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 694, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence is increasing rapidly. Esophageal cancer has the second lowest 5-year survival rate of people diagnosed with cancer in Canada. Given the poor survival and the potential for further increases in incidence, phase-specific cost estimates constitute an important input for economic evaluation of prevention, screening, and treatment interventions. The study aims to estimate phase-specific net direct medical costs of care attributable to EAC, costs stratified by cancer stage and treatment, and predictors of total net costs of care for EAC. METHODS: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using Ontario Cancer Registry-linked administrative health data from 2003 to 2011. The mean net costs of EAC care per 30 patient-days (2016 CAD) were estimated from the payer perspective using phase of care approach and generalized estimating equations. Predictors of net cost by phase of care were based on a generalized estimating equations model with a logarithmic link and gamma distribution adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: The mean net costs of EAC care per 30 patient-days were $1016 (95% CI, $955-$1078) in the initial phase, $669 (95% CI, $594-$743) in the continuing care phase, and $8678 (95% CI, $8217-$9139) in the terminal phase. Overall, stage IV at diagnosis and surgery plus radiotherapy for EAC incurred the highest cost, particularly in the terminal phase. Strong predictors of higher net costs were receipt of chemotherapy plus radiotherapy, surgery plus chemotherapy, radiotherapy alone, surgery alone, and chemotherapy alone in the initial and continuing care phases, stage III-IV disease and patients diagnosed with EAC later in a calendar year (2007-2011) in the initial and terminal phases, comorbidity in the continuing care phase, and older age at diagnosis (70-74 years), and geographic region in the terminal phase. CONCLUSIONS: Costs of care vary by phase of care, stage at diagnosis, and type of treatment for EAC. These cost estimates provide information to guide future resource allocation decisions, and clinical and policy interventions to reduce the burden of EAC.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882779

RESUMO

Community-based day care centres play an important role in service delivery for Chinese seniors. Little research has examined how community living infrastructure has influenced the establishment of these day care centres in rural communities. The purposes of this study were: (1) explore regional differences in community living infrastructure; and (2) to examine the impact of such infrastructure on the establishment of day care centres for Chinese seniors in rural communities. The data were derived from “The Fourth Sample Survey on the Living Conditions of Elderly People in Urban and Rural China (2015)”. The establishment of at least one day care centre was the outcome of interest, which was dichotomized at the community level into the establishment of at least one day care centre or the absence of any day care centres. Logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the impact of various community living infrastructural characteristics on the establishment of day care centres. The results showed that of the 4522 rural communities surveyed in 2015, only 10.1% had established at least one day care centre. Community living infrastructural characteristics that were significantly associated with the establishment of day care centres were the availability of cement/asphalt roads, natural gas, tap drinking water, sewage systems, and centralized garbage disposal. Our findings suggest that the significant association between community-level characteristics, especially community living infrastructure, and the establishment of rural day care centre for seniors may inform policy decision making.

13.
J Palliat Care ; 33(2): 95-99, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29392999

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to examine whether and how the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS), a measure of a patient's function, was predictive of survival time for those in receipt of home-based palliative care. This was a prospective study, which included 194 cancer patients from November 17, 2013, to August 18, 2015. Data were collected from biweekly telephone interviews with caregivers. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were estimated to assess how survival time was correlated with initial PPS scores after admission to the home-based palliative care program. A multivariate extended Cox regression model was used to examine the association between PPS and survival. The results showed that patients with higher PPS scores, that is, better function, had a lower hazard ratio (0.977; 95% confidence interval: 0.965-0.989) and hence longer survival times. The PPS can be used in predicting survival time for home-based palliative care patients.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 155(5): 1978-1988.e1, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been shown to be noninferior to surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis at intermediate surgical risk, the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in this population is unknown. Our objective was to conduct a cost-utility analysis comparing transcatheter aortic valve implantation with surgical aortic valve replacement in the population with intermediate risk severe aortic stenosis. METHODS: A fully probabilistic Markov model with 30-day cycles was constructed from the Canadian third-party payer's perspective to estimate the difference in cost and effectiveness (measured as quality-adjusted life years) of transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgical aortic valve replacement for intermediate-risk patients over a lifetime time horizon, discounted at 1.5% per annum. Clinical trial data from The Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve 2 informed the efficacy inputs. Costs (adjusted to 2016 Canadian dollars) were obtained from the Canadian Institute of Health Information and the Ontario Schedule of Benefits. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. RESULTS: In the base-case analysis, total lifetime costs for transcatheter aortic valve implantation were $10,548 higher than surgical aortic valve replacement but added 0.23 quality-adjusted life years, for an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $46,083/quality-adjusted life-years gained. Deterministic 1-way analyses showed that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was sensitive to rates of complications and cost of the transcatheter aortic valve implantation prosthesis. There was moderate-to-high parameter uncertainty; transcatheter aortic valve implantation was the preferred option in only 52.7% and 55.4% of the simulations at a $50,000 and $100,000 per quality-adjusted life years willingness-to-pay thresholds, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of current evidence, transcatheter aortic valve implantation may be cost-effective for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in patients with intermediate surgical risk. There remains moderate-to-high uncertainty surrounding the base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio.

15.
Thorax ; 2018 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals using home mechanical ventilation (HMV) frequently choose to live at home for quality of life, despite financial burden. Previous studies of healthcare utilisation and costs do not consider public and private expenditures, including caregiver time. OBJECTIVES: To determine public and private healthcare utilisation and costs for HMV users living at home in two Canadian provinces, and examine factors associated with higher costs. METHODS: Longitudinal, prospective observational cost analysis study (April 2012 to August 2015) collecting data on public and private (out-of-pocket, third-party insurance, caregiving) costs every 2 weeks for 6 months using the Ambulatory and Home Care Record. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) was used at baseline and study completion. Regression models examined variables associated with total monthly costs selected a priori using Andersen and Newman's framework for healthcare utilisation, relevant literature, and clinical expertise. Data are reported in 2015 Canadian dollars ($C1=US$0.78=£0.51=€0.71). RESULTS: We enrolled 134 HMV users; 95 with family caregivers. Overall median (IQR) monthly healthcare cost was $5275 ($2291-$10 181) with $2410 (58%) publicly funded; $1609 (39%) family caregiving; and $141 (3%) out-of-pocket (<1% third-party insurance). Median healthcare costs were $8733 ($5868-$15 274) for those invasively ventilated and $3925 ($1212-$7390) for non-invasive ventilation. Variables associated with highest monthly costs were amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (1.88, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.26, P<0.03) and lower FIM quintiles (higher dependency) (up to 6.98, 95% CI 3.88 to 12.55, P<0.0001) adjusting for age, sex, tracheostomy and ventilation duration. CONCLUSIONS: For HMV users, most healthcare costs were publicly supported or associated with family caregiving. Highest costs were incurred by the most dependent users. Understanding healthcare costs for HMV users will inform policy decisions to optimise resource allocation, helping individuals live at home while minimising caregiver burden.

16.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 34(1): 38-45, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258628

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is a useful option in providing secure venous access, which enables patients to be discharged earlier with the provision of home care. The objective was to identify the costs associated with having a PICC from a societal perspective, and to identify factors that are associated with total PICC costs. METHODS: Data were obtained from a retrospective cohort of 469 hospitalized pediatric patients with PICCs inserted. Both direct and indirect costs were estimated from a societal perspective. Insertion costs, complication costs, nurse and physician assessment costs, inpatient ward costs, catheter removal costs, home care costs, travel costs, and the cost associated with productivity losses incurred by parents were included in this study. RESULTS: Based on catheter dwell time, the median total cost associated with a PICC per patient per day (including inpatient hospital costs) was $3,133.5 ($2,210.7-$9,627.0) in 2017 Canadian dollars ($1.00USD = $1.25CAD in 2017). The adjusted mean cost per patient per day was $2,648.2 ($2,402.4-$2,920.4). Excluding inpatient ward costs, the median total and adjusted costs per patient per day were $198.8 ($91.8-$2,475.8) and $362.7($341.0-$386.0), respectively. Younger age, occurrence of complications, more catheter dwell days, wards with more intensive care, and the absence of home care were significant factors associated with higher total PICC costs. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated the costs associated with PICCs. This information may be helpful for healthcare providers to understand PICC related cost in children and resource implications.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Custos e Análise de Custo , Eficiência , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/economia , Preços Hospitalares , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Viagem/economia
17.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 40(3): 317-327, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29054509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecologic cancer. Disease prevention may be the only method to reduce the incidence of ovarian cancer. The Society of Gynecologic Oncology advised that salpingectomies may be an appropriate and feasible strategy for ovarian cancer risk reduction. This study conducted an economic evaluation from a societal perspective of bilateral salpingectomies versus conventional sterilization techniques in the prevention of ovarian cancer. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a micro-cost analysis comparing laparoscopic tubal coagulation, tubal clips and bilateral salpingectomies at the Michael Garron Hospital, formerly the Toronto East General Hospital, from 2015 to 2016. A Markov model was used in the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses on these surgical procedures in ovarian cancer prevention. Costs were derived for the number ovarian cancer cases observed per sterilization method, cancer treatment, and associated procedural costs over each cancer patient's lifetime. The number of bilateral salpingectomies required to prevent an additional ovarian cancer case with the recommended treatment was also estimated. RESULTS: Bilateral salpingectomies performed at the Michael Garron Hospital generated savings of $7823 per life-year gained (95% CI $3248-$10 190; incremental cost [ΔC] -$907, incremental effect [ΔE] 0.11 life-years gained) compared with tubal clips and savings of $6315 per life-year gained (95% CI -$6360 to $9342; ΔC -$755, ΔE 0.11 life-years gained) compared with tubal coagulation. Most importantly, for every 150 bilateral salpingectomies performed, one case of ovarian cancer may be prevented. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic bilateral salpingectomy is the dominant, cost-effective surgical strategy when compared to tubal clips and tubal coagulation to prevent ovarian cancer. Laparoscopic bilateral salpingectomies reduce costs and enhance quality-adjusted life-years relative to the two alternative treatments.

18.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A previous randomized controlled trial showed that artificially elevating the pulse oximetry display resulted in fewer hospitalizations with no worse outcomes. This suggests that management decisions based mainly on pulse oximetry may unnecessarily increase health care costs. This study assessed the incremental cost of altered relative to true oximetry in infants with mild to moderate bronchiolitis. METHODS: A cost analysis was undertaken from the health care system and societal perspectives using patient-level data from the randomized controlled trial, with a 5-day time horizon after emergency department visit. Infants aged 4 weeks to 12 months with mild to moderate bronchiolitis were randomized to pulse oximetry measurements with true or altered saturation values displayed by artificially increasing saturation 3% points above true values. Direct and indirect health care costs were measured. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess parameter uncertainty. RESULTS: From the health care system perspective, the average cost per patient was Can $1155 for altered oximetry and $1967 for true oximetry, with a net savings of $812. From a societal perspective, the average cost per patient was $1559 for altered oximetry and $2473 for true oximetry, with a net savings of $914. Probabilistic analyses demonstrated that altered oximetry remained the less costly study group, with an average savings of $810 (95% confidence interval, $748-$872) from the health care system perspective and $910 (95% confidence interval, $848-$973) from the societal system perspective. CONCLUSIONS: Reliance on oximetry as a major determinant in the decision to hospitalize infants with mild to moderate bronchiolitis is associated with significantly greater costs.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a cost-utility analysis of nonsurgical treatments for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in healthy adult women with a health system perspective over a 1-year time horizon. METHODS: A decision tree model was constructed to evaluate the following nonsurgical treatment options for SUI in a simulated healthy adult female cohort who had failed Kegel exercises: pelvic floor muscle therapy (PFMT), a disposable tampon device (Impressa), a self-fitting intravaginal incontinence device (Uresta), and a traditional incontinence pessary. Published data and consultation with health care providers were used to estimate efficacies and costs. Health utility estimates were derived from existing literature. Deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed as well as Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis to account for the impact of parameter uncertainty on costs and efficacies for each treatment. Our primary outcome was the highest net monetary benefit (NMB), which represents the monetary value of the health benefits less the treatment costs. The standard willingness-to-pay threshold of US $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year was used. RESULTS: The utility of SUI in an otherwise healthy patient was 0.81 ± 0.16 and for subjective cure was 0.93 ± 0.08. Using base-case estimates, PFMT was the most cost-effective treatment with an NMB of US $44,098. The Impressa tampon, Uresta, and traditional pessary had NMBs of US $43,970, $43,785, and $42,846, respectively. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed PFMT to be the most cost-effective treatment option at a willingness to pay of US $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our cost-utility analysis favor PFMT as the most cost-effective nonsurgical treatment option for SUI. Cost-effectiveness for 1 year of treatment was also favorable for Impressa and Uresta. In jurisdictions where there is no public funding for PFMT, Impressa or Uresta are alternatives for women wishing to avoid surgery.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019952

RESUMO

China is facing a dramatic aging of its population. Little is known about the factors that influence the place of death and the trends in the place of death for elderly people in China. The purposes of this study were: (1) to examine the impact of the socioeconomic status (SES) on place of death for elderly Chinese residents; and (2) to assess temporal trends in the place of death over the last 15 years. Data were derived from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) (1998-2012). Place-of-death as an outcome was dichotomized into either death at home or death outside the home. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the impact of SES on place of death. The results showed that, of the 23,098 deaths during the study period, 87.78% occurred at home. The overall trend in home death has increased since 2005. SES was shown to be an important factor affecting place of death. The elderly with higher SES were more likely to die where health resources were concentrated, i.e., in a hospital or other type of institution. Our finding suggests that the trend towards a greater emphasis on death at home may call for the development of more supportive home care programs in China. Our finding also suggests that the socioeconomic differences in the place of death may be related to the availability of or access to health care services.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Hospitais , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
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