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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is a risk factor for poorer illness course in bipolar disorder, but the reasons why are unclear. Trait-like features such as affective instability and impulsivity could be part of the explanation. We aimed to examine whether childhood abuse was associated with clinical features of bipolar disorder, and whether associations were mediated by affective instability or impulsivity. METHODS: We analysed data from 923 people with bipolar I disorder recruited by the Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Adjusted associations between childhood abuse, affective instability and impulsivity and eight clinical variables were analysed. A path analysis examined the direct and indirect links between childhood abuse and clinical features with affective instability and impulsivity as mediators. RESULTS: Affective instability significantly mediated the association between childhood abuse and earlier age of onset [effect estimate (θ)/standard error (SE): 2.49], number of depressive (θ/SE: 2.08) and manic episodes/illness year (θ/SE: 1.32), anxiety disorders (θ/SE: 1.98) and rapid cycling (θ/SE: 2.25). Impulsivity significantly mediated the association between childhood abuse and manic episodes/illness year (θ/SE: 1.79), anxiety disorders (θ/SE: 1.59), rapid cycling (θ/SE: 1.809), suicidal behaviour (θ/SE: 2.12) and substance misuse (θ/SE: 3.09). Measures of path analysis fit indicated an excellent fit to the data. CONCLUSIONS: Affective instability and impulsivity are likely part of the mechanism of why childhood abuse increases risk of poorer clinical course in bipolar disorder, with each showing some selectivity in pathways. They are potential novel targets for intervention to improve outcome in bipolar disorder.

2.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 106: 284-292, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039525

RESUMO

Altered reproductive hormone levels have been associated with the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and this risk may be imparted by their modulatory effect upon hippocampal structure and function. Currently it is unclear whether altered levels of reproductive hormones are causally associated with hippocampal volume reductions and the risk of depressive disorders. Here, we utilize genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics from a GWAS focusing on reproductive hormones, consisting of 2913 individuals. Using this data, we generated polygenic risk scores (PRS) for estradiol, progesterone, prolactin and testosterone in the European RADIANT cohort consisting of 176 postpartum depression (PPD) cases (100% female, mean age: 41.6 years old), 2772 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases (68.6% female, mean age: 46.9 years old) and 1588 control participants (62.5% female, mean age: 42.4 years old), for which there was also a neuroimaging subset of 111 individuals (60.4% female, mean age: 50.0 years old). Only the best-fit PRS for estradiol showed a significant negative association with hippocampal volume, as well as many of its individual subfields; including the molecular layer and granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1, CA2/3 and CA4 regions. Interestingly, several of these subfields are implicated in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. When we tested the same estradiol PRS for association with case-control status for PPD or MDD there was no significant relationship observed. Here, we provide evidence that genetic risk for higher plasma estradiol is negatively associated with hippocampal volume, but this does not translate into an increased risk of MDD or PPD. This work suggests that the relationship between reproductive hormones, the hippocampus, and depression is complex, and that there may not be a clear-cut pathway for etiology or risk moderation.

3.
Bipolar Disord ; 21(6): 547-555, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that agitated depression (AD) is a common, severe feature in bipolar disorder. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of AD and investigate whether presence of AD was associated with episodic and lifetime clinical features in a large well-characterized bipolar disorder sample. METHOD: The prevalence of agitation, based on semi-structured interview and medical case-notes, in the most severe depressive episode was estimated in 2925 individuals with DSM-IV bipolar disorder recruited into the UK Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Predictors of agitation were ascertained using symptoms within the same episode and lifetime clinical features using multivariate models. RESULTS: 32.3% (n = 946) experienced agitation during the worst depressive episode. Within the same episode, significant predictors of presence of agitation were: insomnia (OR 2.119, P < 0.001), poor concentration (OR 1.966, P = 0.027), decreased libido (OR 1.960, P < 0.001), suicidal ideation (OR 1.861, P < 0.001), slowed activity (OR 1.504, P = 0.001), and poor appetite (OR 1.297, P = 0.029). Over the lifetime illness course, co-morbid panic disorder (OR 2.000, P < 0.001), suicide attempt (OR 1.399, P = 0.007), and dysphoric mania (OR 1.354, P = 0.017) were significantly associated with AD. CONCLUSIONS: Agitation accompanied bipolar depression in at least one-third of cases in our sample and was associated with concurrent somatic depressive symptoms, which are also common features of mixed manic states. Furthermore, AD in our sample was associated with lifetime experience of mixed mania, in addition to severe lifetime illness course including comorbid panic disorder and suicidal behavior. Our results have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of agitated features in bipolar depression.

4.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(12): 1065-1073, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, with a high prevalence and a presumed high heterogeneity. Copy number variants (CNVs) could contribute to the heritable component of risk, but the two previous genome-wide association studies of rare CNVs did not report significant findings. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of four cohorts (5780 patients and 6626 control subjects), we analyzed the association of MDD to 1) genome-wide burden of rare deletions and duplications, partitioned by length (<100 kb or >100 kb) and other characteristics, and 2) individual rare exonic CNVs and CNV regions. RESULTS: Patients with MDD carried significantly more short deletions than control subjects (p = .0059) but not long deletions or short or long duplications. The confidence interval for long deletions overlapped with that for short deletions, but long deletions were 70% less frequent genome-wide, reducing the power to detect increased burden. The increased burden of short deletions was primarily in intergenic regions. Short deletions in cases were also modestly enriched for high-confidence enhancer regions. No individual CNV achieved thresholds for suggestive or significant association after genome-wide correction. p values < .01 were observed for 15q11.2 duplications (TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, and NIPA2), deletions in or near PRKN or MSR1, and exonic duplications of ATG5. CONCLUSIONS: The increased burden of short deletions in patients with MDD suggests that rare CNVs increase the risk of MDD by disrupting regulatory regions. Results for longer deletions were less clear, but no large effects were observed for long multigenic CNVs (as seen in schizophrenia and autism). Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.

5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(2): 110-119, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic risk for bipolar disorder (BD) is conferred through many common alleles, while a role for rare copy number variants (CNVs) is less clear. Subtypes of BD including schizoaffective disorder bipolar type (SAB), bipolar I disorder (BD I), and bipolar II disorder (BD II) differ according to the prominence and timing of psychosis, mania, and depression. The genetic factors contributing to the combination of symptoms among these subtypes are poorly understood. METHODS: Rare large CNVs were analyzed in 6353 BD cases (3833 BD I [2676 with psychosis, 850 without psychosis, and 307 with unknown psychosis history], 1436 BD II, 579 SAB, and 505 BD not otherwise specified) and 8656 controls. CNV burden and a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia were used to evaluate the relative contributions of rare and common variants to risk of BD, BD subtypes, and psychosis. RESULTS: CNV burden did not differ between BD and controls when treated as a single diagnostic entity. However, burden in SAB was increased relative to controls (p = .001), BD I (p = .0003), and BD II (p = .0007). Burden and schizophrenia PRSs were increased in SAB compared with BD I with psychosis (CNV p = .0007, PRS p = .004), and BD I without psychosis (CNV p = .0004, PRS p = 3.9 × 10-5). Within BD I, psychosis was associated with increased schizophrenia PRSs (p = .005) but not CNV burden. CONCLUSIONS: CNV burden in BD is limited to SAB. Rare and common genetic variants may contribute differently to risk for psychosis and perhaps other classes of psychiatric symptoms.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 246: 789-793, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic longitudinal mood monitoring has been shown to be acceptable to patients with affective disorders within clinical settings, but its use in large-scale research has not yet been established. METHODS: Using both postal and email invitations, we invited 4080 past research participants with affective disorders who were recruited into the Bipolar Disorder Research Network (BDRN) over a 10 year period to participate in online weekly mood monitoring. In addition, since January 2015 we have invited all newly recruited BDRN research participants to participate in mood monitoring at the point they were recruited into BDRN. RESULTS: Online mood monitoring uptake among past participants was 20%, and among new participants to date was 46% with participants recruited over the last year most likely to register (61%). More than 90% mood monitoring participants engaged for at least one month, with mean engagement period greater than one year (58 weeks) and maximum engagement for longer than three years (165 weeks). There were no significant differences in the proportion of past and new BDRN participants providing data for at least 4 weeks (91%, 92% respectively), 3 months (78%, 82%), 6 months (65%, 54%) or one year (51%, 44%). LIMITATIONS: Our experiences with recruiting participants for electronic prospective mood monitoring may not necessarily generalise fully to research situations that are very different from those we describe. CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale electronic longitudinal mood monitoring in affective disorders for research purposes is feasible with uptake highest among newly recruited participants.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas Psicológicas , Adulto , Afeto , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Metacognição , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Sistemas On-Line , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido
7.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 177(8): 717-726, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345710

RESUMO

Darier disease (DD) is an autosomal dominant skin disorder caused by mutations in ATP2A2 encoding the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase Isoform 2 (SERCA2). Evidence of a population-level association between DD and psychiatric disorders suggests that mutations in ATP2A2 may have pleiotropic effects on the brain as well as skin. Evidence of genotype-phenotype relationships between ATP2A2 mutations and neuropsychiatric phenotypes would further support this suggestion. We investigated genotype-phenotype correlations between lifetime neuropsychiatric features and ATP2A2 mutation type (dichotomized into likely gene disrupting [LGD] or protein altering) in 75 unrelated individuals with DD. We also looked for evidence of clustering of mutations within SERCA2 according to neuropsychiatric features. Combining our data with the existing literature, the rate of LGD mutations was found to be significantly higher among DD cases/families with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or affective psychosis (p = .011). We also found a significant relationship between mutations located in the S4-M4 region of the protein and the presence of a severe neuropsychiatric phenotype (p = .032). Our findings add support to the hypothesis that Darier-causing mutations in ATP2A2 confer susceptibility to neuropsychiatric dysfunction, in particular severe psychiatric illness. This, together with evidence from research on common polymorphisms confirms ATP2A2 as a gene at which variation influences susceptibility to major psychiatric illness.

8.
Br J Psychiatry ; 213(3): 542-547, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and childbirth are a period of high risk for women with bipolar disorder and involve difficult decisions particularly about continuing or stopping medications.AimsTo explore what clinical predictors may help to individualise the risk of perinatal recurrence in women with bipolar disorder. METHOD: Information was gathered retrospectively by semi-structured interview, questionnaires and case-note review from 887 women with bipolar disorder who have had children. Clinical predictors were selected using backwards stepwise logistic regression, conditional permutation random forests and reinforcement learning trees. RESULTS: Previous perinatal history of affective psychosis or depression was the most significant predictor of a perinatal recurrence (odds ratio (OR) = 8.5, 95% CI 5.04-14.82 and OR = 3.6, 95% CI 2.55-5.07 respectively) but even parous women with bipolar disorder without a previous perinatal mood episode were at risk following a subsequent pregnancy, with 7% developing postpartum psychosis. CONCLUSIONS: Previous perinatal history of affective psychosis or depression is the most important predictor of perinatal recurrence in women with bipolar disorder and can be used to individualise risk assessments.Declaration of interestNone.

9.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 177(4): 468-475, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671935

RESUMO

The etiologies of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia include a large number of common risk alleles, many of which are shared across the disorders. BD is clinically heterogeneous and it has been postulated that the pattern of symptoms is in part determined by the particular risk alleles carried, and in particular, that risk alleles also confer liability to schizophrenia influence psychotic symptoms in those with BD. To investigate links between psychotic symptoms in BD and schizophrenia risk alleles we employed a data-driven approach in a genotyped and deeply phenotyped sample of subjects with BD. We used sparse canonical correlation analysis (sCCA) (Witten, Tibshirani, & Hastie, ) to analyze 30 psychotic symptoms, assessed with the OPerational CRITeria checklist, and 82 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by the Schizophrenia Working group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium for which we had data in our BD sample (3,903 subjects). As a secondary analysis, we applied sCCA to larger groups of SNPs, and also to groups of symptoms defined according to a published factor analyses of schizophrenia. sCCA analysis based on individual psychotic symptoms revealed a significant association (p = .033), with the largest weights attributed to a variant on chromosome 3 (rs11411529), chr3:180594593, build 37) and delusions of influence, bizarre behavior and grandiose delusions. sCCA analysis using the same set of SNPs supported association with the same SNP and the group of symptoms defined "factor 3" (p = .012). A significant association was also observed to the "factor 3" phenotype group when we included a greater number of SNPs that were less stringently associated with schizophrenia; although other SNPs contributed to the significant multivariate association result, the greatest weight remained assigned to rs11411529. Our results suggest that the canonical correlation is a useful tool to explore phenotype-genotype relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to apply this approach to complex, polygenic psychiatric traits. The sparse canonical correlation approach offers the potential to include a larger number of fine-grained systematic descriptors, and to include genetic markers associated with other disorders that are genetically correlated with BD.

10.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 668-681, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700475

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal. We found important relationships of genetic risk for major depression with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal, whereas major depression and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for major depression. These findings help refine the basis of major depression and imply that a continuous measure of risk underlies the clinical phenotype.

11.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(2): 151, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371657
12.
J Affect Disord ; 225: 624-629, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with bipolar disorder are at high risk of affective psychoses following childbirth (i.e. "postpartum psychosis", PP) and there is a need to identify which factors underlie this increased risk. Vulnerability to mood dysregulation following sleep loss may influence risk of PP, as childbirth is typified by sleep disruption. We investigated whether a history of mood episodes triggered by sleep loss was associated with PP in women with bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Participants were 870 parous women with BD recruited to the Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Lifetime diagnoses of BD and perinatal episodes were identified via interview and case notes. Information on whether mood episodes had been triggered by sleep loss was derived at interview. Rates of PP were compared between women who did and did not report mood episodes following sleep loss. RESULTS: Women who reported sleep loss triggering episodes of mania were twice as likely to have experienced an episode of PP (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.47-2.97, p < 0.001) compared to women who did not report this. There was no significant association between depression triggered by sleep loss and PP (p = 0.526). LIMITATIONS: Data were cross-sectional therefore may be subject to recall bias. We also did not have objective data on sleep disruption that had occurred during the postpartum period or prior to mood episodes. CONCLUSIONS: In clinical practice, a history of mania following sleep loss could be a marker of increased vulnerability to PP, and should be discussed with BD women who are pregnant or planning to conceive.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Transtornos Puerperais/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Parto/psicologia , Fatores Desencadeantes , Gravidez
14.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 174(8): 767-771, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28851079

RESUMO

Studies have suggested that Research Diagnostic Criteria for Schizoaffective Disorder Bipolar type (RDC-SABP) might identify a more genetically homogenous subgroup of bipolar disorder. Aiming to identify loci associated with RDC-SABP, we have performed a replication study using independent RDC-SABP cases (n = 144) and controls (n = 6,559), focusing on the 10 loci that reached a p-value <10-5 for RDC-SABP in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) bipolar disorder sample. Combining the WTCCC and replication datasets by meta-analysis (combined RDC-SABP, n = 423, controls, n = 9,494), we observed genome-wide significant association at one SNP, rs2352974, located within the intron of the gene TRAIP on chromosome 3p21.31 (p-value, 4.37 × 10-8 ). This locus did not reach genome-wide significance in bipolar disorder or schizophrenia large Psychiatric Genomic Consortium datasets, suggesting that it may represent a relatively specific genetic risk for the bipolar subtype of schizoaffective disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Esquizofrenia/genética
15.
Br J Psychiatry ; 211(3): 169-174, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28684405

RESUMO

BackgroundSleep loss may trigger mood episodes in people with bipolar disorder but individual differences could influence vulnerability to this trigger.AimsTo determine whether bipolar subtype (bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) or II (BD-II)) and gender were associated with vulnerability to the sleep loss trigger.MethodDuring a semi-structured interview, 3140 individuals (68% women) with bipolar disorder (66% BD-I) reported whether sleep loss had triggered episodes of high or low mood. DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar subtype was derived from case notes and interview data.ResultsSleep loss triggering episodes of high mood was associated with female gender (odds ratio (OR) = 1.43, 95% CI 1.17-1.75, P < 0.001) and BD-I subtype (OR = 2.81, 95% CI 2.26-3.50, P < 0.001). Analyses on sleep loss triggering low mood were not significant following adjustment for confounders.ConclusionsGender and bipolar subtype may increase vulnerability to high mood following sleep deprivation. This should be considered in situations where patients encounter sleep disruption, such as shift work and international travel.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/etiologia , Privação do Sono/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno Bipolar/classificação , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Br J Psychiatry ; 211(2): 70-76, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642257

RESUMO

BackgroundDepression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.AimsTo confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.MethodThe sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.ResultsIn the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (ß = 0.12, P = 2.7 × 10-4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10-7) but not with traditional random effects (ß = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (ß = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10-8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTOConclusionsThis meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética
17.
J Affect Disord ; 207: 268-275, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27736738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression of autistic and positive schizotypal traits in a large sample of adults with bipolar I disorder (BD I), and the effect of co-occurring autistic and positive schizotypal traits on global functioning in BD I. METHOD: Autistic and positive schizotypal traits were self-assessed in 797 individuals with BD-I recruited by the Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Differences in global functioning (rated using the Global Assessment Scale) during lifetime worst depressive and manic episodes (GASD and GASM respectively) were calculated in groups with high/low autistic and positive schizotypal traits. Regression analyses assessed the interactive effect of autistic and positive schizotypal traits on global functioning. RESULTS: 47.2% (CI=43.7-50.7%) showed clinically significant levels of autistic traits, and 23.22% (95% CI=20.29-26.14) showed clinically significant levels of positive schizotypal traits. In the worst episode of mania, the high autistic, high positive schizotypal group had better global functioning compared to the other groups. Individual differences analyses showed that high levels of both traits were associated with better global functioning in both mood states. LIMITATIONS: Autistic and schizotypal traits were assessed using self-rated questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of autistic and schizotypal traits in adults with BD I is prevalent, and may be important to predict illness aetiology, prognosis, and diagnostic practices in this population. Future work should focus on replicating these findings in independent samples, and on the biological and/or psychosocial mechanisms underlying better global functioning in those who have high levels of both autistic and positive schizotypal traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/etiologia , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Nat Genet ; 49(1): 27-35, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869829

RESUMO

Copy number variants (CNVs) have been strongly implicated in the genetic etiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, genome-wide investigation of the contribution of CNV to risk has been hampered by limited sample sizes. We sought to address this obstacle by applying a centralized analysis pipeline to a SCZ cohort of 21,094 cases and 20,227 controls. A global enrichment of CNV burden was observed in cases (odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, P = 5.7 × 10-15), which persisted after excluding loci implicated in previous studies (OR = 1.07, P = 1.7 × 10-6). CNV burden was enriched for genes associated with synaptic function (OR = 1.68, P = 2.8 × 10-11) and neurobehavioral phenotypes in mouse (OR = 1.18, P = 7.3 × 10-5). Genome-wide significant evidence was obtained for eight loci, including 1q21.1, 2p16.3 (NRXN1), 3q29, 7q11.2, 15q13.3, distal 16p11.2, proximal 16p11.2 and 22q11.2. Suggestive support was found for eight additional candidate susceptibility and protective loci, which consisted predominantly of CNVs mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
19.
Biol Psychiatry ; 81(4): 325-335, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling mood disorder, and despite a known heritable component, a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies revealed no replicable genetic risk variants. Given prior evidence of heterogeneity by age at onset in MDD, we tested whether genome-wide significant risk variants for MDD could be identified in cases subdivided by age at onset. METHODS: Discovery case-control genome-wide association studies were performed where cases were stratified using increasing/decreasing age-at-onset cutoffs; significant single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in nine independent replication samples, giving a total sample of 22,158 cases and 133,749 control subjects for subsetting. Polygenic score analysis was used to examine whether differences in shared genetic risk exists between earlier and adult-onset MDD with commonly comorbid disorders of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and coronary artery disease. RESULTS: We identified one replicated genome-wide significant locus associated with adult-onset (>27 years) MDD (rs7647854, odds ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.21, p = 5.2 × 10-11). Using polygenic score analyses, we show that earlier-onset MDD is genetically more similar to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder than adult-onset MDD. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that using additional phenotype data previously collected by genetic studies to tackle phenotypic heterogeneity in MDD can successfully lead to the discovery of genetic risk factor despite reduced sample size. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic susceptibility to MDD differs between adult- and earlier-onset MDD, with earlier-onset cases having a greater genetic overlap with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idade de Início , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 243: 81-6, 2016 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27376666

RESUMO

Psychotic experiences in young people are substantially more common than psychotic disorders, and are associated with distress and functional impairment. Family history of depression as well as of schizophrenia increases risk for psychotic experiences, but the prevalence of such experiences and their clinical relevance in offspring of depressed parents is unknown. Our objectives were to explore i) the prevalence of psychotic experiences amongst offspring of parents with recurrent unipolar depression and ii) the relationship between psychotic experiences and other psychopathology. Data were drawn from the 'Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression' longitudinal study of high-risk offspring (aged 9-17 years at baseline) of 337 parents with recurrent depression. Three assessments were conducted over four years. Psychopathology was assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Seventy-eight percent of families (n=262) had complete data on psychotic experiences at each of the three time points. During the study, 8.4% (n=22; 95% CI 5.0%, 11.8%) of offspring reported psychotic experiences on at least one occasion, and these were associated with psychiatric disorder, specifically mood and disruptive disorders, and suicidal thoughts/behaviour. Psychotic experiences amongst offspring of depressed parents index a range of psychopathology. Further research is needed to examine their clinical significance and long-term consequences.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Prevalência , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Recidiva , Risco
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