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1.
Birth Defects Res ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested associations between maternal smoking, a source of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other chemicals, and central nervous system and face birth defects; however, no previous studies have evaluated maternal occupational PAH exposure itself. METHODS: Jobs held in the periconceptional period were retrospectively assigned for occupational PAH exposures. Associations between maternal occupational PAH exposure and selected rare defects of the face (cataracts, microphthalmia, glaucoma, microtia, and choanal atresia) and central nervous system (holoprosencephaly, hydrocephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, and Dandy-Walker malformation) were evaluated using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study in the United States. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to estimate associations between each evaluated defect and PAH exposure using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Food and beverage serving, as well as cooks and food preparation occupations, were among the most frequent jobs held by exposed mothers. Cataracts, microtia, microphthalmia, and holoprosencephaly were significantly associated with PAH exposure with evidence of dose-response (P-values for trend ≤.05). Hydrocephaly was associated with any PAH exposure, but not significant for trend. Sensitivity analyses that reduced possible sources of exposure misclassification tended to strengthen associations. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population-based case-control study to evaluate associations between maternal occupational PAH exposures and these rare birth defects of the central nervous system and face.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782

RESUMO

In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 33(6): 436-448, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical advancements have resulted in better survival and life expectancy among those with spina bifida, but a significantly increased risk of perinatal and postnatal mortality for individuals with spina bifida remains. OBJECTIVES: To examine stillbirth and infant and child mortality among those affected by spina bifida using data from multiple countries. METHODS: We conducted an observational study, using data from 24 population- and hospital-based surveillance registries in 18 countries contributing as members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). Cases of spina bifida that resulted in livebirths or stillbirths from 20 weeks' gestation or elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were included. Among liveborn spina bifida cases, we calculated mortality at different ages as number of deaths among liveborn cases divided by total number of liveborn cases with spina bifida. As a secondary outcome measure, we estimated the prevalence of spina bifida per 10 000 total births. The 95% confidence interval for the prevalence estimate was estimated using the Poisson approximation of binomial distribution. RESULTS: Between years 2001 and 2012, the overall first-week mortality proportion was 6.9% (95% CI 6.3, 7.7) and was lower in programmes operating in countries with policies that allowed ETOPFA compared with their counterparts (5.9% vs. 8.4%). The majority of first-week mortality occurred on the first day of life. In programmes where information on long-term mortality was available through linkage to administrative databases, survival at 5 years of age was 90%-96% in Europe, and 86%-96% in North America. CONCLUSIONS: Our multi-country study showed a high proportion of stillbirth and infant and child deaths among those with spina bifida. Effective folic acid interventions could prevent many cases of spina bifida, thereby preventing associated childhood morbidity and mortality.

4.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(18): 1365-1379, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many public health surveillance programs utilize hospital discharge data in their estimation of disease prevalence. These databases commonly use the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding scheme, which transitioned from the ICD-9 clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) to ICD-10-CM on October 1, 2015. This study examined this transition's impact on the prevalence of major birth defects among infant hospitalizations. METHODS: Using data from the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality-sponsored National Inpatient Sample, hospitalizations during the first year of life with a discharge date between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2016 were used to estimate the monthly national hospital prevalence of 46 birth defects for the ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM timeframes separately. Survey-weighted Poisson regression was used to estimate 95% confidence intervals for each hospital prevalence. Interrupted time series framework and corresponding segmented regression was used to estimate the immediate change in monthly hospital prevalence following the ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM transition. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2016, over 21 million inpatient hospitalizations occurred during the first year of life. Among the 46 defects studied, statistically significant decreases in the immediate hospital prevalence of five defects and significant increases in the immediate hospital prevalence of eight defects were observed after the ICD-10-CM transition. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in prevalence were expected based on changes to ICD-10-CM. Observed changes for some conditions may result from variation in monthly hospital prevalence or initial unfamiliarity of coders with ICD-10-CM. These findings may help birth defects surveillance programs evaluate and interpret changes in their data related to the ICD-10-CM transition.

5.
Eur Urol ; 76(4): 482-490, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is a common male birth defect that has shown widespread variation in reported prevalence estimates. Many countries have reported increasing trends over recent decades. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence and trends of hypospadias for 27 international programs over a 31-yr period. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The study population included live births, stillbirths, and elective terminations of pregnancy diagnosed with hypospadias during 1980-2010 from 27 surveillance programs around the world. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We used joinpoint regression to analyze changes over time in international total prevalence of hypospadias across programs, prevalence for each specific program, and prevalence across different degrees of severity of hypospadias. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The international total prevalence of hypospadias for all years was 20.9 (95% confidence interval: 19.2-22.6) per 10000 births. The prevalence for each program ranged from 2.1 to 39.1 per 10000 births. The international total prevalence increased 1.6 times during the study period, by 0.25 cases per 10000 births per year (p<0.05). When analyzed separately, there were increasing trends for first-, second-, and third-degree hypospadias during the early 1990s to mid-2000s. The majority of programs (61.9%) had a significantly increasing trend during many of the years evaluated. Limitations include known differences in data collection methods across programs. CONCLUSIONS: Although there have been changes in clinical practice and registry ascertainment over time in some countries, the consistency in the observed increasing trends across many programs and by degrees of severity suggests that the total prevalence of hypospadias may be increasing in many countries. This observation is contrary to some previous reports that suggested that the total prevalence of hypospadias was no longer increasing in recent decades. PATIENT SUMMARY: We report on the prevalence and trends of hypospadias among 27 birth defect surveillance systems, which indicate that the prevalence of hypospadias continues to increase internationally.

7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 161, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This report describes the results of recruitment efforts and the subsequent participation of pregnant women in study activities in a 2010-2012 observational study focused on influenza illness and vaccination in California and Oregon, USA. METHODS: Socio-demographic and health characteristics extracted from electronic medical records were compared among pregnant women who enrolled in the study, refused to participate, or were never reached for study invitation. These characteristics plus additional self-reported information were compared between women who enrolled in two study tracks: a prospective cohort vs. women enrolled following an acute respiratory illness (ARI) medical encounter. The characteristics of women who participated in weekly ARI surveillance (cohort enrollees, year one) and a 6-month follow-up interview (all enrollees) were also examined. RESULTS: In year one, we reached 51% (6938/13,655) of the potential participants we tried to contact by telephone, and 20% (1374/6938) of the women we invited agreed to join the prospective cohort. Women with chronic medical conditions, pregnancy complications, and medical encounters for ARI (prior to pregnancy or during the study period) were more likely to be reached for recruitment and more likely to enroll in the cohort. Twenty percent of cohort enrollees never started weekly surveillance reports; among those who did, reports were completed for 55% of the surveillance weeks. Receipt of the influenza vaccine was higher among women who joined the cohort (76%) than those who refused (56%) or were never reached (54%). In contrast, vaccine uptake among medical enrollees in year one (54%; 53/98) and two (52%; 79/151) was similar to other pregnant women in those years. Study site, white race, non-Hispanic ethnicity, and not having a child aged < 13 years at home were most consistently associated with joining as a cohort or medical enrollee and completing study activities after joining. CONCLUSIONS: We observed systematic differences in socio-demographic and health characteristics across different levels of participant engagement and between cohort and medical enrollees. More methodological research and innovation in conducting prospective observational studies in this population are needed, especially when extended participant engagement and ongoing surveillance are required.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Seleção de Pacientes , Vigilância da População , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , California , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza , Oregon , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(23): 615-621, 2017 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28617773

RESUMO

Pregnant women living in or traveling to areas with local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission are at risk for Zika virus infection, which can lead to severe fetal and infant brain abnormalities and microcephaly (1). In February 2016, CDC recommended 1) routine testing for Zika virus infection of asymptomatic pregnant women living in areas with ongoing local Zika virus transmission at the first prenatal care visit, 2) retesting during the second trimester for women who initially test negative, and 3) testing of pregnant women with signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (e.g., fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) at any time during pregnancy (2). To collect information about pregnant women with laboratory evidence of recent possible Zika virus infection* and outcomes in their fetuses and infants, CDC established pregnancy and infant registries (3). During January 1, 2016-April 25, 2017, U.S. territories† with local transmission of Zika virus reported 2,549 completed pregnancies§ (live births and pregnancy losses at any gestational age) with laboratory evidence of recent possible Zika virus infection; 5% of fetuses or infants resulting from these pregnancies had birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection¶ (4,5). Among completed pregnancies with positive nucleic acid tests confirming Zika infection identified in the first, second, and third trimesters, the percentage of fetuses or infants with possible Zika-associated birth defects was 8%, 5%, and 4%, respectively. Among liveborn infants, 59% had Zika laboratory testing results reported to the pregnancy and infant registries. Identification and follow-up of infants born to women with laboratory evidence of recent possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy permits timely and appropriate clinical intervention services (6).


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Birth Defects Res ; 109(5): 372-378, 2017 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus is a newly recognized human teratogen; monitoring its impact on the birth prevalence of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes will continue to be an urgent need in the United States and worldwide. METHODS: When the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) activated the Emergency Operations Center for the Zika virus outbreak response in January of 2016, public health leadership recognized that a joint, coordinated effort was required between activities focused on the effects of the infection among pregnant women and those focused on birth defects in fetuses and infants. Before the introduction of Zika virus in the Americas, population-based birth defects surveillance occurred independently of pregnancy surveillance activities. RESULTS: The coordination of pregnancy surveillance and birth defects surveillance implemented through the CDC Zika virus response represents a paradigm shift. CONCLUSION: Coordination of these surveillance systems provides an opportunity to capture information from both a prospective and retrospective approach. This relatively modest investment in the public health infrastructure can continue to protect pregnant women and their infants during the ongoing response to Zika virus and in the next emergent threat to maternal and child health. Birth Defects Research 109:372-378, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População/métodos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(8): 219-222, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253231

RESUMO

Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious brain abnormalities, but the full range of adverse outcomes is unknown (1). To better understand the impact of birth defects resulting from Zika virus infection, the CDC surveillance case definition established in 2016 for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection* (2) was retrospectively applied to population-based birth defects surveillance data collected during 2013-2014 in three areas before the introduction of Zika virus (the pre-Zika years) into the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) (3). These data, from Massachusetts (2013), North Carolina (2013), and Atlanta, Georgia (2013-2014), included 747 infants and fetuses with one or more of the birth defects meeting the case definition (pre-Zika prevalence = 2.86 per 1,000 live births). Brain abnormalities or microcephaly were the most frequently recorded (1.50 per 1,000), followed by neural tube defects and other early brain malformations† (0.88), eye abnormalities without mention of a brain abnormality (0.31), and other consequences of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction without mention of brain or eye abnormalities (0.17). During January 15-September 22, 2016, the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) reported 26 infants and fetuses with these same defects among 442 completed pregnancies (58.8 per 1,000) born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (2). Although the ascertainment methods differed, this finding was approximately 20 times higher than the proportion of one or more of the same birth defects among pregnancies during the pre-Zika years. These data demonstrate the importance of population-based surveillance for interpreting data about birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Adulto , Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(2): 41-46, 2017 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28103210

RESUMO

In the United States, major structural or genetic birth defects affect approximately 3% of live births (1) and are responsible for 20% of infant deaths (2). Birth defects can affect persons across their lifespan and are the cause of significant lifelong disabilities. CDC used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) 2013 National Inpatient Sample (NIS), a 20% stratified sample of discharges from nonfederal community hospitals, to estimate the annual cost of birth defect-associated hospitalizations in the United States, both for persons of all ages and by age group. Birth defect-associated hospitalizations had disproportionately high costs, accounting for 3.0% of all hospitalizations and 5.2% of total hospital costs. The estimated annual cost of birth defect-associated hospitalizations in the United States in 2013 was $22.9 billion. Estimates of the cost of birth defect-associated hospitalizations offer important information about the impact of birth defects among persons of all ages on the overall health care system and can be used to prioritize prevention, early detection, and care.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 54(1): e7-e13, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26523325

RESUMO

On October 1, 2015, the United States required use of the Clinical Modification of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10-CM) for diagnostic coding. This primer was written to assist the cleft care community with understanding and use of ICD-10-CM for diagnostic coding related to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P).


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/classificação , Fenda Labial/terapia , Fissura Palatina/classificação , Fissura Palatina/terapia , Codificação Clínica , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 106(11): 905-914, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27891780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On October 1, 2015, the United States required use of the Clinical Modification of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10-CM) for diagnostic coding. The ICD-10-CM code set is limited to gross categories for cleft lip and/or cleft palate (using only four of a possible seven characters). METHODS: Herein, a clinically useful expansion of the ICD-10-CM code set is proposed to improve the diagnostic accuracy necessary for individual clinical, research, and statistical projects that require it. (This is similar to how the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/British Paediatric Association Code served to extend the ICD-9 code base.) RESULTS: Our proposed expansion does not replace the required use of ICD-10-CM for clinical, administrative, or financial transactions. Rather, it is offered as an optional set of cleft codes that could be used in parallel to document true classification-level data with phenotypic accuracy. CONCLUSION: The expanded set is "collapsible" into the official ICD-10-CM codes; this improves compatibility of the expanded codes that would be contained in research and epidemiologic databases with the standard codes from hospital electronic medical record systems and administrative billing data. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:905-914, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/diagnóstico , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 106(11): 972-982, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27891783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital microcephaly has been linked to maternal Zika virus infection. However, ascertaining infants diagnosed with microcephaly can be challenging. METHODS: Thirty birth defects surveillance programs provided data on infants diagnosed with microcephaly born 2009 to 2013. The pooled prevalence of microcephaly per 10,000 live births was estimated overall and by maternal/infant characteristics. Variation in prevalence was examined across case finding methods. Nine programs provided data on head circumference and conditions potentially contributing to microcephaly. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of microcephaly was 8.7 per 10,000 live births. Median prevalence (per 10,000 live births) was similar among programs using active (6.7) and passive (6.6) methods; the interdecile range of prevalence estimates was wider among programs using passive methods for all race/ethnicity categories except Hispanic. Prevalence (per 10,000 live births) was lowest among non-Hispanic Whites (6.5) and highest among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics (11.2 and 11.9, respectively); estimates followed a U-shaped distribution by maternal age with the highest prevalence among mothers <20 years (11.5) and ≥40 years (13.2). For gestational age and birth weight, the highest prevalence was among infants <32 weeks gestation and infants <1500 gm. Case definitions varied; 41.8% of cases had an HC ≥ the 10th percentile for sex and gestational age. CONCLUSION: Differences in methods, population distribution of maternal/infant characteristics, and case definitions for microcephaly can contribute to the wide range of observed prevalence estimates across individual birth defects surveillance programs. Addressing these factors in the setting of Zika virus infection can improve the quality of prevalence estimates. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:972-982, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(3): 63-7, 2016 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26820387

RESUMO

CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States who are caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy. These guidelines include recommendations for the testing and management of these infants. Guidance is subject to change as more information becomes available; the latest information, including answers to commonly asked questions, can be found online (http://www.cdc.gov/zika). Pediatric health care providers should work closely with obstetric providers to identify infants whose mothers were potentially infected with Zika virus during pregnancy (based on travel to or residence in an area with Zika virus transmission [http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices]), and review fetal ultrasounds and maternal testing for Zika virus infection (see Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak*) (1). Zika virus testing is recommended for 1) infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications born to women who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission while pregnant; or 2) infants born to mothers with positive or inconclusive test results for Zika virus infection. For infants with laboratory evidence of a possible congenital Zika virus infection, additional clinical evaluation and follow-up is recommended. Health care providers should contact their state or territorial health department to facilitate testing. As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Estados Unidos
20.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 211(4): 404.e1-9, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24681289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess maternal prenatal use of analgesics and risk of cardiovascular malformations (CVM) in the offspring. STUDY DESIGN: Data from the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study, a population-based case-control investigation of CVM, were used to examine selected isolated CVM diagnoses and maternal analgesic use during the periconceptional period (3 months before and after conception). We compared case and control infants on frequency of maternal use of analgesics and estimated adjusted odds ratios (adjORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with logistic regression models for specific CVM phenotypes. RESULTS: Frequency of periconceptional use of any analgesic was 52% among control mothers and 53% among case mothers. Analyses by CVM diagnoses identified an association of tetralogy of Fallot with maternal acetaminophen use (adjOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3) and dextrotransposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum with maternal nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use (adjOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2-8.7). CONCLUSION: Analgesic use during the periconceptional period was not associated with CVM in the aggregate or with most phenotypes of CVM examined. Associations with 2 phenotypes of CVM may have occurred by chance. These findings warrant corroboration and further study, including further evaluation of the observed associations, the dose of analgesic taken, more specific timing of analgesic use, and indications for use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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