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1.
Clin Radiol ; 73(3): 221-230, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361274

RESUMO

The radiology of bone has been transformed by magnetic resonance imaging, which has the ability to interrogate bone's complex architecture and physiology. New techniques provide information about both the macrostructure and microstructure of bone ranging from micrometre detail to the whole skeleton. Furthermore functional information about bone physiology can be used to detect disease early before structural changes occur. The future of bone imaging is in quantifying the anatomical and functional information to diagnose and monitor disease more precisely. This review explores the state of the art in quantitative MRI bone imaging.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Osso e Ossos/ultraestrutura , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos
2.
Spinal Cord ; 53(12): 887-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26238317

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Two case studies. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether 6 weeks of regular pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) can improve the strength and endurance of voluntary contractions in incomplete spinal cord injury and reduce neurogenic detrusor over-activity (NDO) and incontinence. SETTING: The London Spinal Cord Injury Centre, Stanmore, London, UK. METHODS: A 6-week programme of PFMT was conducted in two male subjects with stable supra-sacral motor incomplete (AIS C and D) spinal cord injuries. Clinical evaluations before and after training comprised measures of strength and endurance of voluntary pelvic floor contractions both objectively by anal canal-pressure measurements and subjectively using the modified Oxford grading system. NDO was determined by standard urodynamic tests of bladder function and incontinence measured by the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urology. RESULTS: Both subjects improved the strength and endurance of their pelvic floor muscle contractions by over 100% at the end of training. After training, Subject 1 (AIS D) was able to reduce bladder pressure during over-activity almost completely by voluntarily contracting the pelvic floor muscles. Subject 2 (AIS C) achieved a lesser reduction overall after training. Continence improved only in subject 1. CONCLUSION: These case studies provide evidence that a 6-week programme of PFMT may have a beneficial effect on promoting voluntary control of NDO and reduce incontinence in selected cases with a motor incomplete spinal cord lesion.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Incontinência Urinária/reabilitação
3.
BJOG ; 121(13): 1653-8, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24942132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the management and long-term outcomes of transverse vaginal septae. DESIGN: Observational study with cross-sectional and retrospective arms. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre specialising in Müllerian anomalies. POPULATION: Forty-six girls and women with a transverse vaginal septum. METHODS: Data from medical records of all cases (1998-2013) of transverse vaginal septae were collected and reviewed. Patients over 16 years of age also completed a questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presentation, examination findings, investigations, surgery, and long-term reproductive outcomes. RESULTS: The septae in the study were described as follows: 61% (95% CI 0.46-0.74) were imperforate, and presented with obstructed menstruation; 39% (95% CI 0.26-0.54) were perforate, and presented with a variety of concerns; 72% (95% CI 0.57-0.83) were low, 22% (95% CI 0.12-0.36) were mid-vaginal, and 6% (95% CI 0.02-0.18) were high; 33% were managed via an abdominoperineal approach, 59% were managed via a vaginal approach, and 6% had laparoscopic resection (one patient did not have surgery); 11% (95% CI 0.05-0.23) of patients presented with reobstruction, all following abdominoperineal vaginoplasty; 7% presented with vaginal stenosis, two following vaginal resection and one following the abdominoperineal approach; 61% of questionnaires were returned. These results showed that 22/23 patients were menstruating and one had a hysterectomy, 74% had been sexually active, 35% had dyspareunia, and 36% complained of dysmenorrhoea. There were seven pregnancies, with one termination and six live births, all following the vaginal excision of a transverse vaginal septum. CONCLUSIONS: Transverse vaginal septae resected vaginally or laparoscopically have low complication rates and good long-term outcomes. Complex septae require more extensive surgery, with an increased risk of complications.


Assuntos
Vagina/anormalidades , Doenças Vaginais/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Amenorreia/etiologia , Colpotomia , Estudos Transversais , Endometriose/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo para Engravidar , Anormalidades Urogenitais/complicações , Anormalidades Urogenitais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Urogenitais/cirurgia , Vagina/cirurgia , Doenças Vaginais/complicações , Doenças Vaginais/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
4.
Eur Radiol ; 24(2): 288-93, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24037250

RESUMO

Axillary management in patients with breast cancer has become much less invasive with the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). However, over 70 % of SLNBs are negative, questioning the generic use of this invasive procedure. Emerging evidence indicates that breast cancer patients with a low axillary burden of disease do not benefit from axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Non-invasive techniques such as paramagnetic iron oxide contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide genuine alternatives to axillary staging and should be evaluated within clinical trials. Selective axillary surgery could then be offered based on imaging findings and for therapeutic intent. This non-operative approach would reduce morbidity further and facilitate interpretation of follow-up imaging. Key Points • Modern imaging and biopsy greatly help the axillary staging of breast cancer. • Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced MRI offers a further advance. • Sentinel lymph node biopsy may become redundant with SPIO-enhanced MRI. • Selective therapeutic axillary surgery should be based upon preoperative imaging findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Axila , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela
5.
Br J Cancer ; 108(12): 2464-9, 2013 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23695016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the feasibility of dose-dense neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) with paclitaxel and carboplatin before radical chemoradiation (CRT) and assessed the response rate to such a regimen. METHODS: CxII is a single-arm phase II trial of 46 patients, with locally advanced cervical cancer (stage Ib2-IVa). Patients received dose-dense carboplatin (AUC2) and paclitaxel (80 mg m⁻²) weekly for six cycles followed by CRT (40 mg m⁻² of weekly cisplatin, 50.4 Gy, 28 fractions plus brachytherapy). The primary end point was response rate 12 weeks post-CRT. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were: median age at diagnosis 43 years; 72% squamous, 22% adenocarcinoma and 7% adenosquamous histologies; FIGO stage IB2 (11%), II (50%), III (33%), IV (7%). Complete or partial response rate was 70% (95% CI: 54-82) post-NACT and 85% (95% CI: 71-94) post-CRT. The median follow-up was 39.1 months. Overall and progression-free survivals at 3 years were 67% (95% CI: 51-79) and 68% (95% CI: 51-79), respectively. Grade 3/4 toxicities were 20% during NACT (11% haematological, 9% non-haematological) and 52% during CRT (haematological: 41%, non-haematological: 22%). CONCLUSION: A good response rate is achieved by dose-dense weekly NACT with carboplatin and paclitaxel followed by radical CRT. This treatment regimen is feasible as evidenced by the acceptable toxicity of NACT and by the high compliance to radiotherapy (98%).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Progressão da Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Spinal Cord ; 51(5): 375-8, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23318558

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. OBJECTIVES: The International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) assesses cutaneous sensibility through light touch (LT) and sharp-dull discrimination, referred to as pin prick (PP). This project aimed to confirm a tendency for LT to score higher than PP in SCI subjects and discuss possible reasons for such disparity. SETTING: Single site cohort study, the London Spinal Cord Injury Centre, United Kingdom. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of LT and PP scores of 99 spinal cord injury subjects at the time of discharge (median 5 months) from acute care and rehabilitation in the London Spinal Cord Injury Centre was conducted. Subjects were aged 10-88 years (median 44 years; 78 men, 74 traumatic, 25 non-traumatic). There were 40 American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) A, 7 B, 18 C and 34 D subjects. RESULTS: A disparity (P<0.001) was found between LT (64.5±3.2, mean±s.e.) and PP (54.7±2.9) AIS sensory scores. A similar difference in score (LT>PP) was registered both for traumatic and non-traumatic injury, but was greater for incomplete than for complete injury. Despite the difference, LT was well correlated with PP (R=0.87, P<0.001). Spinal segmental level of injury was determined more frequently by PP alone (43 of 99) than by LT (10 of 99) alone. CONCLUSION: The discrepancies between LT and PP could relate to the greater complexity of the PP test or a difference in the extent of injury to the posterior columns (LT) and spinothalamic (PP) tracts. Further interpretation would benefit from additional electrophysiological sensory tests.


Assuntos
Exame Neurológico/métodos , Exame Neurológico/normas , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tato , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Vet Intern Med ; 27(1): 99-105, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23194073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of urinary control after spinal cord injury increases risk of urinary tract disease and is problematical for owners of affected dogs. OBJECTIVES: To design, implant, and test a sacral nerve stimulating device for controlling urine voiding in paraplegic dogs. ANIMALS: Nine pet dogs with severe thoracolumbar spinal cord injury causing paraplegia, loss of hindquarter sensation, and incontinence for more than 3 months. The procedure was offered prospectively to owners of suitable candidates after the irreversibility of the incontinence had been ascertained. METHODS: Open label clinical study. Surgically implantable electrode "books" were designed for insertion and retention of mixed sacral nerves. Sacral nerves were accessed via laminectomy and stimulated to test their ability to elicit detrusor contraction and then inserted into the electrode book, which was attached to a subcutaneously implanted, externally activated receiver. RESULTS: In 8/9 dogs, S2 nerves elicited the largest increases in intravesicular pressure with minimum stimulation and were placed in electrode books. Voiding efficiency was >90% in 8 of the 9 implanted dogs. No important detrimental effects of the procedure were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This sacral nerve stimulating implant is a simple and apparently effective neuroprosthetic device that restores urine voiding in paraplegic dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/terapia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/veterinária , Eletrodos Implantados/veterinária , Paraplegia/veterinária , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/veterinária , Retenção Urinária/veterinária , Animais , Doença Crônica , Cães , Próteses Neurais , Reflexo , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/terapia , Retenção Urinária/terapia
8.
J Pediatr Urol ; 8(6): 585-91, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22995869

RESUMO

The assessment of abnormal anatomy in cases of DSD is important to aid diagnosis, understand the aetiology and severity of the condition, guide management and assess the outcomes of treatment. In this paper we present a systematic approach to this assessment which will provide a means by which the multiple disciplines who manage patients with these rare and complex conditions can communicate and thus improve overall care.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/patologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Análise para Determinação do Sexo/métodos , Anormalidades Urogenitais/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 122(12): 2452-61, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21600843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of physiological outcome measures in detecting functional change in the degree of impairment of spinal cord injury (SCI) following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the sensorimotor cortex. METHODS: Subjects with complete or incomplete cervical (or T1) SCI received real and sham rTMS in a randomised placebo-controlled single-blinded cross-over trial. rTMS at sub-threshold intensity for upper-limb muscles was applied (5 Hz, 900 stimuli) on 5 consecutive days. Assessments made before and for 2 weeks after treatment comprised the ASIA (American Spinal Injuries Association) impairment scale (AIS), the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), a peg-board test, electrical perceptual test (EPT), motor evoked potentials, cortical silent period, cardiovascular and sympathetic skin responses. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in AIS outcomes between real and sham rTMS. The ARAT was increased at 1h after real rTMS compared to baseline. Active motor threshold for the most caudally innervated hand muscle was increased at 72 and 120 h compared to baseline. Persistent reductions in EPT to rTMS occurred in two individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in cortical motor threshold measures may accompany functional gains to rTMS in SCI subjects. SIGNIFICANCE: Electrophysiological measures may provide a useful adjunct to ASIA impairment scales.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto , Sistema Cardiovascular/inervação , Estudos Cross-Over , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos dos Movimentos/fisiopatologia , Pele/inervação , Resultado do Tratamento , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia
10.
Brain Res Bull ; 84(4-5): 343-57, 2011 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20728509

RESUMO

The ability to detect physiological changes associated with treatments to effect axonal regeneration, or novel rehabilitation strategies, for spinal cord injury will be challenging using the widely employed American Spinal Injuries Association (ASIA) impairment scales (AIS) for sensory and motor function. Despite many revisions to the AIS standard neurological assessment, there remains a perceived need for more sensitive, quantitative and objective outcome measures. The purpose of Stage 1 of the Clinical Initiative was to develop these tools and then, in Stage 2 to test them for reliability against natural recovery and treatments expected to produce functional improvements in those with complete or incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we review aspects of the progress made by four teams involved in Stage 2. The strategies employed by the individual teams were (1) application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the motor cortex in stable (chronic) SCI with intent to induce functional improvement of upper limb function, (2) a tele-rehabilitation approach using functional electrical stimulation to provide hand opening and grip allowing incomplete SCI subjects to deploy an instrumented manipulandum for hand and arm exercises and to play computer games, (3) weight-assisted treadmill walking therapy (WAT) comparing outcomes in acute and chronic groups of incomplete SCI patients receiving robotic assisted treadmill therapy, and (4) longitudinal monitoring of the natural progress of recovery in incomplete SCI subjects using motor tests for the lower extremity to investigate strength and coordination.


Assuntos
Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Exame Neurológico , Telemedicina
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20102010 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22798312

RESUMO

POEMS (peripheral neuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein, skin changes) syndrome is a rare multisystem paraneoplastic disorder. A 40-year-old male with a history of peripheral neuropathy and erectile dysfunction presented with a pathological fracture of the neck of the femur, found to be a solitary plasmacytoma. Additional unusual features included splenomegaly, hyperprolactinaemia and skin changes. The patient had a total hip replacement at a specialist orthopaedic hospital and is due to undergo radiotherapy to the femoral lesion and autologous stem cell transplantation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Femorais/diagnóstico , Fraturas Espontâneas/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico , Síndrome POEMS/diagnóstico , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/diagnóstico , Plasmocitoma/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras , Adulto , Artroplastia de Quadril , Terapia Combinada , Neoplasias Femorais/patologia , Neoplasias Femorais/cirurgia , Fraturas Espontâneas/patologia , Fraturas Espontâneas/cirurgia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Fraturas do Quadril/patologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Exame Neurológico , Síndrome POEMS/patologia , Síndrome POEMS/cirurgia , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/patologia , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/cirurgia , Plasmocitoma/patologia , Plasmocitoma/cirurgia , Radioterapia Adjuvante
12.
Spinal Cord ; 48(4): 319-24, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19841636

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the relationship between bladder management methods and the health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). (2) To identify any correlation between the two questionnaires used to assess the quality of life (one validated for SCI and one validated for bladder symptoms). SETTING: Spinal Cord Injury Centre, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Middlesex, UK. METHODS: This study is based on two questionnaires with results collected from 142 people with SCI. The two questionnaires were based on information from the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) and the King's Health Questionnaire and included demographic characteristics, bladder management methods and the frequency of incontinence. RESULTS: There is a moderate correlation between the results of the SF-36 and the King's Health Questionnaire. Only 21% SCI patients report normal voiding without any other form of bladder management. The type of bladder management may influence the HRQL in patients with SCI. Clean intermittent catheterization by attendant, indwelling transurethral catheterization and indwelling suprapubic catheterization are the three groups with the worst mental status. In addition, the frequency of incontinence is a strong influence on HRQL. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study may provide a general baseline HRQL for patients with SCI. Our findings show the relationships between bladder management methods and quality of life in patients with SCI. In addition, the impact of incontinence on quality of life was also confirmed.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/psicologia , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/etiologia , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/terapia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Bone Joint Surg Br ; 91(8): 1031-6, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19651829

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between the cross-over sign and the true three-dimensional anatomical version of the acetabulum. We also investigated whether in true retroversion there is excessive femoral head cover anteriorly. Radiographs of 64 hips in patients being investigated for symptoms of femoro-acetabular impingement were analysed and the presence of a cross-over sign was documented. CT scans of the same hips were analysed to determine anatomical version and femoral head cover in relation to the anterior pelvic plane after correcting for pelvic tilt. The sensitivity and specificity of the cross-over sign were 92% and 55%, respectively for identifying true acetabular retroversion. There was no significant difference in total cover between normal and retroverted cases. Anterior and posterior cover were, however, significantly different (p < 0.001 and 0.002). The cross-over sign was found to be sensitive but not specific. The results for femoral head cover suggest that retroversion is characterised by posterior deficiency but increased cover anteriorly.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Artropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/anormalidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Artropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Spinal Cord ; 47(5): 379-83, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19030013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To create an International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: An international working group. METHODS: The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group comprising members appointed by the Neurourology Committee of the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the Data Set was developed after review and comments by members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested international organizations and societies (around 40), individual persons with specific expertise and the ISCoS Council. Endorsement of the Data Sets by relevant organizations and societies will be obtained. To make the Data Set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. RESULTS: The variables included in the International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic SCI Data Set are the results obtained using the following investigations: intravenous pyelography or computer tomography urogram or ultrasound, X-ray, renography, clearance, cystogram, voiding cystogram or micturition cystourogram or videourodynamics. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the websites of both ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org).


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Diagnóstico por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação Internacional , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Sistema Urinário/patologia , Urodinâmica , Coleta de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Humanos , Radiografia , Renografia por Radioisótopo/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia , Sistema Urinário/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Urinários/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Urinários/etiologia , Transtornos Urinários/patologia
15.
J Bone Joint Surg Br ; 90(11): 1428-34, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18978260

RESUMO

We present a new CT-based method which measures cover of the femoral head in both normal and dysplastic hips and allows assessment of acetabular inclination and anteversion. A clear topographical image of the head with its covered area is generated. We studied 36 normal and 39 dysplastic hips. In the normal hips the mean cover was 73% (66% to 81%), whereas in the dysplastic group it was 51% (38% to 64%). The significant advantage of this technique is that it allows the measurements to be standardised with reference to a specific anatomical plane. When this is applied to assessing cover in surgery for dysplasia of the hip it gives a clearer understanding of where the corrected hip stands in relation to normal and allows accurate assessment of inclination and anteversion.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Deformidades Articulares Adquiridas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Acetábulo/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Cabeça do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Luxação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Deformidades Articulares Adquiridas/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia
16.
Clin Radiol ; 63(4): 442-8, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18325365

RESUMO

AIM: To assess accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the delineation of morphological abnormalities of the vagina in patients with congenital anomalies of the genito-urinary tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients (median age 19 years; range 12-40 years) were studied. All were consecutively referred for MRI to assess genital tract anatomy, between 1996 and 2004, from a clinic specializing in congenital abnormalities of the urogenital tract. All patients were assessed clinically and underwent MRI. Images were reviewed retrospectively by an experienced radiologist. Where there was discordance between clinical and radiological findings a consensus diagnosis was achieved by the gynaecologists and radiologists reviewing all of the clinical and radiological evidence together, including assessment of vaginal length. RESULTS: The clinical data were incomplete for five women and the images non-diagnostic in two cases; consequently, 44 of 51 women had complete datasets and could be evaluated. Vaginas were abnormal in 30 of the 44 patients. There was discordance between the clinical and imaging findings at the initial review in three of the 44 cases (6.8%). After consensus review, and with the inclusion of measurement of the vaginal length on MRI, the MRI and clinical findings were concordant in all cases. The initial discordance was due to two vaginal dimples not being appreciated on MRI and one case in which presence of vaginal tissue proximal to a mid-segment obstruction was not appreciated clinically. CONCLUSION: MRI is an accurate method of imaging vaginal anomalies. However, to achieve reliable results the radiologist requires details of previous surgery and the vaginal length must be measured.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Anormalidades Urogenitais/diagnóstico , Vagina/anormalidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Spinal Cord ; 46(7): 513-6, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18227849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To create the International Urodynamic Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: International working group. METHODS: The draft of the data set was developed by a working group consisting of members appointed by the Neurourology Committee of the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the data set was developed after review and comments by members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested (international) organizations and societies (around 40) and persons and the ISCoS Council. Endorsement of the data set by relevant organizations and societies will be obtained. To make the data set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. RESULTS: Variables included in the International Urodynamic Basic SCI Data Set are date of data collection, bladder sensation during filling cystometry, detrusor function, compliance during filing cystometry, function during voiding, detrusor leak point pressure, maximum detrusor pressure, cystometric bladder capacity and post-void residual volume.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Gerenciamento de Base de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Cooperação Internacional , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Urodinâmica/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Urinários/etiologia
18.
Spinal Cord ; 46(5): 325-30, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18040278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To create the International Lower Urinary Tract Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: International working group. METHODS: The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group consisting of the members appointed by the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the Data Set was developed after review and comments by the members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested (international) organizations and societies (around 40) and persons, and the ISCoS Council. Endorsement of the Data Set by relevant organizations and societies will be obtained. To make the Data Set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. RESULTS: Variables included in the International Lower Urinary Tract Function Basic SCI Data Set are as follows: date of data collection, urinary tract impairment unrelated to spinal cord lesion, awareness of the need to empty the bladder, bladder emptying, average number of voluntary bladder emptyings per day during the last week, incontinence within the last 3 months, collecting appliances for urinary incontinence, any drugs for the urinary tract within the last year, surgical procedures on the urinary tract and any change in urinary symptoms within the last year. Complete instruction for data collection, data sheet and training cases available at the website of ISCoS (www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (www.asia-spinalinjury.org).


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Coleta de Dados/normas , Sistemas de Gerenciamento de Base de Dados , Avaliação da Deficiência , Saúde Global , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Agências Internacionais , Cooperação Internacional , Vigilância da População , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reflexo Anormal , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/reabilitação , Cateterismo Urinário , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/reabilitação
19.
Actas Urol Esp ; 31(8): 872-9, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18020212

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We have implanted the FlowSecure artificial sphincter for the first time in October 2006. The prototype was originally conceived and designed by Professor Craggs M. D. and Professor Mundy A.R. Preliminary clinical results were reported in nine patients early this year. Our objective is to spread technique for surgical implantation. METHODS: Combined perineal and abdominal incisions are required for exposure of bulbar urethra, creation of a cavity in the para-vesical space and dissection of a pocket under de scrotal wall. A trocar with a stylet is routed from the abdominal incision to the perineal incision to pass the deflated cuff to the perineal site. The cuff is placed around the urethra and secured with Prolene sutures. After refilling the cuff, fluid is removed from the system until the stress relief balloon becomes just indented (atmospheric pressure 0). The pump is placed in the scrotum and the balloons in the paravesical space. RESULTS: We have implanted our first FlowSecure artificial sphincter in a patient with severe stress incontinence following a T.U.R.P. The surgical technique is simple and associated with little handling. He was discharged from hospital 4 days after the procedure and it was decided that pressurisation was unnecessary. DISCUSSION: Surgical implantation of the new FlowSecure artificial urinary sphincter is an easy procedure in males with stress urinary incontinence. Knigth et al. reported 30 to 40 minutes operating time, 4 days mean hospital stay and unnecessary pressurisation procedure in 3 out of their 9 patients. It seems that their results are reproducible.


Assuntos
Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/cirurgia , Esfíncter Urinário Artificial , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Actas Urol Esp ; 31(7): 752-8, 2007.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17902469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To spread de concept of a new artificial urinary sphincter with conditional occlusion for stress incontinence. The new prototype was conceived and designed in The Institute of Urology and Nephrology of London by Professor Craggs M. and Professor Mundy A.R. METHODS: The FlowSecure sphincter consists of an adjustable pressure-regulating balloon, a stress relief reservoir, a control pump and valve assembly unit with self-sealing port and a urethral cuff. The pressure regulating balloon determinates de operating pressure of the device; the pressure is adjustable in the range 0-80 cm H2O and can be altered by injection or removal of normal saline through the self sealing port. The stress relief balloon transmits transient intrabdominal pressure to the cuff during periods of stress. An adjustable circular urethral cuff minimises creasing and possible stress fractures. RESULTS: The device is implanted as a one-piece assembly which is pre-filled with sterile saline. The surgical technique is simple and associated with little handling, reducing risk of infection and potential assembly errors. The adjustable pressure regulating balloon in association with the stress relief reservoir enables the cuff occluding pressure to be set at a low range, therefore reducing the risk for atrophy and erosion. DISCUSSION: The new FlowSecure urinary artificial sphincter with conditional occlusion is designed to provide good continence rates adjusting regulating pressures when needed and conceived to reduce the risk of potential complications associated with excessive occluding pressures and mechanical failures.


Assuntos
Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/cirurgia , Esfíncter Urinário Artificial , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese
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