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1.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-39, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212964

RESUMO

Objectives: Executive functioning and emotion recognition may be impaired in disruptive youth, yet findings in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are inconsistent. We examined these functions related to ODD and CD, accounting for comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and internalizing symptoms.Methods: We compared executive functioning (visual working memory, visual attention, inhibitory control) and emotion recognition between youth (8-18 years old, 123 boys, 55 girls) with ODD (n = 44) or CD (with/without ODD, n = 48), and healthy controls (n = 86). We also related ODD, CD, and ADHD symptom counts and internalizing symptomatology to all outcome measures, as well as executive functioning to emotion recognition.Results: Visual working memory and inhibitory control were impaired in the ODD and CD groups versus healthy controls. Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness recognition were impaired in the CD group; only anger recognition was impaired in the ODD group. Deficits were not explained by comorbid ADHD or internalizing symptoms. Visual working memory was associated with recognition of all basic emotions.Conclusions: Our findings challenge the view that neuropsychological impairments in youth with ODD/CD are driven by comorbid ADHD and suggest possible distinct neurocognitive mechanisms in CD versus ODD.

2.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 150: 17-40, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204831

RESUMO

The impact of stress on brain health begins in the womb. Both animal and human studies have found that prenatal maternal stress affects the brain and behavior of the offspring. Stressful life events, exposure to a natural disaster, and symptoms of maternal anxiety and depression increase the risk for the child having a range of emotional, behavioral and/or cognitive problems in later life. These include depression, anxiety, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and/or conduct disorders. There is an increased risk for other outcomes also, including preterm delivery and reduced telomere length, possibly indicative of an accelerated life history. The causal role of prenatal maternal stress on the etiology of the neurodevelopmental disorders is supported by large population cohorts, which have controlled for a wide range of potential confounders, including postnatal maternal mood. More recently, research has begun to explore the biological correlates and mediators of these findings. These studies suggest that the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis plays a role in mediating the effects of maternal stress on the fetal brain. Further, in vivo brain imaging research reports that maternal stress is associated with changes in limbic and frontotemporal networks, and the functional and microstructural connections linking them. The structural changes include cortical thinning and an enlarged amygdala. While these studies have been conducted on smaller sample sizes and could not control for many confounders, the observed brain changes do plausibly underlie many of the emotional, behavioral and cognitive changes found to be associated with prenatal stress.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0223812, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053587

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that the quantity and quality of conscious experience may be a function of the complexity of activity in the brain and that consciousness emerges in a critical zone between low and high-entropy states. We propose fractal shapes as a measure of proximity to this critical point, as fractal dimension encodes information about complexity beyond simple entropy or randomness, and fractal structures are known to emerge in systems nearing a critical point. To validate this, we tested several measures of fractal dimension on the brain activity from healthy volunteers and patients with disorders of consciousness of varying severity. We used a Compact Box Burning algorithm to compute the fractal dimension of cortical functional connectivity networks as well as computing the fractal dimension of the associated adjacency matrices using a 2D box-counting algorithm. To test whether brain activity is fractal in time as well as space, we used the Higuchi temporal fractal dimension on BOLD time-series. We found significant decreases in the fractal dimension between healthy volunteers (n = 15), patients in a minimally conscious state (n = 10), and patients in a vegetative state (n = 8), regardless of the mechanism of injury. We also found significant decreases in adjacency matrix fractal dimension and Higuchi temporal fractal dimension, which correlated with decreasing level of consciousness. These results suggest that cortical functional connectivity networks display fractal character and that this is associated with level of consciousness in a clinically relevant population, with higher fractal dimensions (i.e. more complex) networks being associated with higher levels of consciousness. This supports the hypothesis that level of consciousness and system complexity are positively associated, and is consistent with previous EEG, MEG, and fMRI studies.

4.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201919060583, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is among the strongest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported variable alterations in subcortical brain structures in 22q11DS. To better characterize subcortical alterations in 22q11DS, including modulating effects of clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the authors studied a large multicenter neuroimaging cohort from the ENIGMA 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Group. METHODS: Subcortical structures were measured using harmonized protocols for gross volume and subcortical shape morphometry in 533 individuals with 22q11DS and 330 matched healthy control subjects (age range, 6-56 years; 49% female). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the 22q11DS group showed lower intracranial volume (ICV) and thalamus, putamen, hippocampus, and amygdala volumes and greater lateral ventricle, caudate, and accumbens volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.90 to 0.93). Shape analysis revealed complex differences in the 22q11DS group across all structures. The larger A-D deletion was associated with more extensive shape alterations compared with the smaller A-B deletion. Participants with 22q11DS with psychosis showed lower ICV and hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.91 to 0.53) compared with participants with 22q11DS without psychosis. Shape analysis revealed lower thickness and surface area across subregions of these structures. Compared with subcortical findings from other neuropsychiatric disorders studied by the ENIGMA consortium, significant convergence was observed between participants with 22q11DS with psychosis and participants with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest neuroimaging study of 22q11DS to date, the authors found widespread alterations to subcortical brain structures, which were affected by deletion size and psychotic illness. Findings indicate significant overlap between 22q11DS-associated psychosis, idiopathic schizophrenia, and other severe neuropsychiatric illnesses.

5.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027077

RESUMO

The human brain exhibits a rich functional repertoire in terms of complex functional connectivity patterns during rest and tasks. However, how this is developed upon a fixed structural anatomy remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the hypothesis that resting state functional connectivity and the manner in which it changes during tasks related to a set of underlying structural connections that promote optimal communication in the brain. We used a game-theoretic model to identify such optimal connections in the structural connectome of 50 healthy individuals and subsequently used the optimal structural connections to predict resting-state functional connectivity with high accuracy. In contrast, we found that nonoptimal connections accurately predicted functional connectivity during a working memory task. We further found that this balance between optimal and nonoptimal connections between brain regions was associated with a specific gene expression linked to neurotransmission. This multimodal evidence shows for the first time that structure-function relationships in the human brain are related to how brain networks navigate information along different white matter connections as well as the brain's underlying genetic profile.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925327

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a number of volumetric brain abnormalities. The syndrome is also associated with an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. An earlier meta-analysis showed reduced grey and white matter volumes in individuals with 22q11.2DS. Since this analysis was conducted, the number of studies has increased markedly, permitting more precise estimates of effects and more regions to be examined. Although 22q11.2DS is clinically heterogeneous, it is not known to what extent this heterogeneity is mirrored in neuroanatomy. The aim of this study was thus to investigate differences in mean brain volume and structural variability within regions, between 22q11.2DS and typically developing controls. We examined studies that reported measures of brain volume using MRI in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and PsycINFO from inception to 1 May 2019. Data were extracted from studies in order to calculate effect sizes representing case-control difference in mean volume, and in the variability of volume (as measured using the log variability ratio (lnVR) and coefficient of variation ratio (CVR)). We found significant overall decreases in mean volume in 22q11.2DS compared with control for: total brain (g = -0.96; p < 0.001); total grey matter (g = -0.81, p < 0.001); and total white matter (g = -0.81; p < 0.001). There was also a significant overall reduction of mean volume in 22q11.2DS subjects compared with controls in frontal lobe (g = -0.47; p < 0.001), temporal lobe (g = -0.84; p < 0.001), parietal lobe (g = -0.73; p = 0.053), cerebellum (g = -1.25; p < 0.001) and hippocampus (g = -0.90; p < 0.001). Significantly increased variability in 22q11.2DS individuals compared with controls was found only for the hippocampus (VR, 1.14; p = 0.036; CVR, 1.30; p < 0.001), and lateral ventricles (VR, 1.56; p = 0.004). The results support the notion that structural abnormalities in 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia are convergent, and also to some degree with findings in autism spectrum disorder. Finally, the increased variability seen in the hippocampus in 22q11.2DS may underlie some of the heterogeneity observed in the neuropsychiatric phenotype.

7.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(1): e00125, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the precursor lesion and a major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Although patients with BE undergo routine endoscopic surveillance, current screening methodologies have proven ineffective at identifying individuals at risk of EAC. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) have potential diagnostic and prognostic value as disease biomarkers, we sought to identify an miRNA signature of BE and EAC. METHODS: High-throughput sequencing of miRNAs was performed on serum and tissue biopsies from 31 patients identified either as normal, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), BE, BE with low-grade dysplasia (LGD), or EAC. Logistic regression modeling of miRNA profiles with Lasso regularization was used to identify discriminating miRNA. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to validate changes in miRNA expression using 46 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens obtained from normal, GERD, BE, BE with LGD or HGD, and EAC subjects. RESULTS: A 3-class predictive model was able to classify tissue samples into normal, GERD/BE, or LGD/EAC classes with an accuracy of 80%. Sixteen miRNAs were identified that predicted 1 of the 3 classes. Our analysis confirmed previous reports indicating that miR-29c-3p and miR-193b-5p expressions are altered in BE and EAC and identified miR-4485-5p as a novel biomarker of esophageal dysplasia. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction validated 11 of 16 discriminating miRNAs. DISCUSSION: Our data provide an miRNA signature of normal, precancerous, and cancerous tissue that may stratify patients at risk of progressing to EAC. We found that serum miRNAs have a limited ability to distinguish between disease states, thus limiting their potential utility in early disease detection.

8.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(6): 559-569, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal prenatal stress exposure (PNSE) increases risk for adverse psychiatric and behavioral outcomes in offspring. The biological basis for this elevated risk is poorly understood but may involve alterations to the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter tracts within the limbic system, particularly the uncinate fasciculus. Additionally, preterm birth is associated with both impaired white matter development and adverse developmental outcomes. In this study we hypothesized that higher maternal PNSE was associated with altered uncinate fasciculus microstructure in offspring. METHODS: In this study, 251 preterm infants (132 male, 119 female) (median gestational age = 30.29 weeks [range, 23.57-32.86 weeks]) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging around term-equivalent age (median = 42.43 weeks [range, 37.86-45.71 weeks]). Measures of white matter microstructure were calculated for the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, a control tract that we hypothesized was not associated with maternal PNSE. Multiple regressions were used to investigate the relationship among maternal trait anxiety scores, stressful life events, and white matter microstructure indices in the neonatal brain. RESULTS: Adjusting for gestational age at birth, postmenstrual age at scan, maternal age, socioeconomic status, sex, and number of days on parenteral nutrition, higher stressful life events scores were associated with higher axial diffusivity (ß = .177, q = .007), radial diffusivity (ß = .133, q = .026), and mean diffusivity (ß = .149, q = .012) in the left uncinate fasciculus, and higher axial diffusivity (ß = .142, q = .026) in the right uncinate fasciculus. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PNSE is associated with altered development of specific frontolimbic pathways in preterm neonates as early as term-equivalent age.

9.
Acta Haematol ; 143(1): 40-50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) who fail to achieve complete response (CR) or relapse after front-line therapy are poor with lack of prospective outcomes data. OBJECTIVES: COMPLETE is a prospective registry of 499 patients enrolled at academic and community sites in the United States detailing patient demographics, treatment and outcomes for patients with aggressive T cell lymphomas. We report results for patients with primary refractory and relapsed disease. METHODS: Primary refractory disease was defined as an evaluable best response to initial treatment (induction ± maintenance or consolidation/transplant) other than CR, and included a partial response, progressive disease, or no response/stable disease. Relapsed disease was defined as an evaluable best response to initial treatment of CR, followed by disease progression at a later date, irrespective of time to progression. Patients were included in the analysis if initial treatment began within 30 days of enrollment and treatment duration was ≥4 days. RESULTS: Of 420 evaluable patients, 97 met the definition for primary refractory and 58 with relapsed disease. In the second-line setting, relapsed patients received single-agent therapies more often than refractory patients (52 vs. 28%; p = 0.01) and were more likely to receive single-agent regimens (74 vs. 53%; p = 0.03). The objective response rate to second-line therapy was higher in relapsed patients (61 vs. 40%; p = 0.04) as was the proportion achieving a CR (41 vs. 14%; p = 0.002). Further, relapsed patients had longer overall survival (OS) compared to refractory patients, with a median OS of 29.1 versus 12.3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of newer active single agents, refractory patients were less likely to receive these therapies and continue to have inferior outcomes compared to those with relapsed disease. PTCL in the real world remains an unmet medical need, and improvements in front-line therapies are needed.

10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(3): 614-628, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028290

RESUMO

Significant heterogeneity across aetiologies, neurobiology and clinical phenotypes have been observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neuroimaging-based neuroanatomical studies of ASD have often reported inconsistent findings which may, in part, be attributable to an insufficient understanding of the relationship between factors influencing clinical heterogeneity and their relationship to brain anatomy. To this end, we performed a large-scale examination of cortical morphometry in ASD, with a specific focus on the impact of three potential sources of heterogeneity: sex, age and full-scale intelligence (FIQ). To examine these potentially subtle relationships, we amassed a large multi-site dataset that was carefully quality controlled (yielding a final sample of 1327 from the initial dataset of 3145 magnetic resonance images; 491 individuals with ASD). Using a meta-analytic technique to account for inter-site differences, we identified greater cortical thickness in individuals with ASD relative to controls, in regions previously implicated in ASD, including the superior temporal gyrus and inferior frontal sulcus. Greater cortical thickness was observed in sex specific regions; further, cortical thickness differences were observed to be greater in younger individuals and in those with lower FIQ, and to be related to overall clinical severity. This work serves as an important step towards parsing factors that influence neuroanatomical heterogeneity in ASD and is a potential step towards establishing individual-specific biomarkers.

11.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 40: 100721, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704653

RESUMO

Fathers play a crucial role in their children's socio-emotional and cognitive development. A plausible intermediate phenotype underlying this association is father's impact on infant brain. However, research on the association between paternal caregiving and child brain biology is scarce, particularly during infancy. Thus, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the relationship between observed father-infant interactions, specifically paternal sensitivity, and regional brain volumes in a community sample of 3-to-6-month-old infants (N = 28). We controlled for maternal sensitivity and examined the moderating role of infant communication on this relationship. T2-weighted MR images were acquired from infants during natural sleep. Higher levels of paternal sensitivity were associated with smaller cerebellar volumes in infants with high communication levels. In contrast, paternal sensitivity was not associated with subcortical grey matter volumes in the whole sample, and this was similar in infants with both high and low communication levels. This preliminary study provides the first evidence for an association between father-child interactions and variation in infant brain anatomy.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4993, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704927

RESUMO

A major roadblock in realizing large-scale production of hydrogen via electrochemical water splitting is the cost and inefficiency of current catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Computational research has driven important developments in understanding and designing heterogeneous OER catalysts using linear scaling relationships derived from computed binding energies. Herein, we interrogate 17 of the most active molecular OER catalysts, based on different transition metals (Ru, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu), and show they obey similar scaling relations to those established for heterogeneous systems. However, we find that the conventional OER descriptor underestimates the activity for very active OER complexes as the standard approach neglects a crucial one-electron oxidation that many molecular catalysts undergo prior to O-O bond formation. Importantly, this additional step allows certain molecular catalysts to circumvent the "overpotential wall", leading to enhanced performance. With this knowledge, we establish fundamental principles for the design of ideal molecular OER catalysts.

13.
J Biol Chem ; 294(45): 17007-17016, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601649

RESUMO

An estimated 5.4 million cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer are reported in the United States at an associated cost of $4.8 billion. ΔNp63α, a proto-oncogene in the p53 family of transcription factors, is overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and associated with poor prognosis and survival. ΔNp63α elicits its tumorigenic effects in part by promoting cellular proliferation and cell survival. Despite its importance in SCC, the upstream regulation of ΔNp63α is poorly understood. In this study, we identify TIP60 as a novel upstream regulator of ΔNp63α. Using a combination of overexpression, silencing, stable expression, and pharmacological approaches in multiple cell lines, we showed that TIP60 up-regulates ΔNp63α expression. Utilizing cycloheximide treatment, we showed that TIP60 catalytic activity is required for stabilization of ΔNp63α protein levels. We further showed that TIP60 coexpression inhibits ΔNp63α ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Stabilization of ΔNp63α protein was further associated with TIP60-mediated acetylation. Finally, we demonstrated that TIP60-mediated regulation of ΔNp63α increases cellular proliferation by promoting G2/M progression through MTS assays and flow cytometry. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that TIP60 may contribute to SCC progression by increasing ΔNp63α protein levels, thereby promoting cellular proliferation.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4616, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601811

RESUMO

Prominent theories of consciousness emphasise different aspects of neurobiology, such as the integration and diversity of information processing within the brain. Here, we combine graph theory and dynamic functional connectivity to compare resting-state functional MRI data from awake volunteers, propofol-anaesthetised volunteers, and patients with disorders of consciousness, in order to identify consciousness-specific patterns of brain function. We demonstrate that cortical networks are especially affected by loss of consciousness during temporal states of high integration, exhibiting reduced functional diversity and compromised informational capacity, whereas thalamo-cortical functional disconnections emerge during states of higher segregation. Spatially, posterior regions of the brain's default mode network exhibit reductions in both functional diversity and integration with the rest of the brain during unconsciousness. These results show that human consciousness relies on spatio-temporal interactions between brain integration and functional diversity, whose breakdown may represent a generalisable biomarker of loss of consciousness, with potential relevance for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado de Consciência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anestésicos Intravenosos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Consciência/fisiopatologia , Entropia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propofol/farmacologia , Inconsciência/diagnóstico por imagem , Inconsciência/fisiopatologia , Vigília , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cortex ; 121: 135-146, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622899

RESUMO

Disruptive behavior is associated with societally and personally problematic levels of aggression and has been linked to abnormal structure and function of fronto-amygdala-striatal regions. Abnormal glutamatergic signalling within this network may play a role in aggression. However, disruptive behavior does not represent a homogeneous construct, but can be fractionated across several dimensions. Of particular interest, callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been shown to modulate the severity, neural and behavioural characterisation, and therapeutic outcomes of disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) and aggression. Further, individuals showing disruptive behavior differ to the extent that they engage in subtypes of aggression (i.e., proactive [PA] and reactive aggression [RA]) which may also represent distinct therapeutic targets. Here we investigated how glutamate signalling within the fronto-amygdala-striatal circuitry was altered along these dimensions in youths showing disruptive behavior (n = 140) and typically developing controls (TD, n = 93) within the age-range of 8-18 years. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), striatum, amygdala and insula and associated glutamate concentrations with continuous measures of aggression and CU-traits using linear mixed-effects models. We found evidence of a dissociation for the different measures and glutamate concentrations. CU traits were associated with increased ACC glutamate ('callousness': b = .19, t (108) = 2.63, p = .01, r = .25; 'uncaring': b = .18, t (108) = 2.59, p = .011, r = .24) while PA was associated with decreased striatal glutamate concentration (b = -.23, t (28) = -3.02, p = .005, r = .50). These findings suggest dissociable correlates of CU traits and PA in DBDs, and indicate that the ACC and striatal glutamate may represent novel pharmacological targets in treating these different aspects.

16.
Ecol Appl ; 29(8): e01997, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483902

RESUMO

In an era characterized by recurrent large wildfires in many parts of the globe, there is a critical need to understand how animal species respond to fires, the rates at which populations can recover, and the functional changes fires may cause. Using quantified changes in habitat parameters over a ~400-yr post-fire chronosequence in an obligate-seeding Australian eucalypt woodland, we build and test predictions of how birds, as individual species and aggregated into functional groups according to their use of specific habitat resources, respond to time since fire. Individual bird species exhibited four generalized response types to time since fire: incline, decline, delayed, and bell. All significant relationships between bird functional group richness or abundance and time since fire were consistent with predictions based on known time-since-fire-associated changes in habitat features putatively important for these bird groups. Consequently, we argue that the bird community is responding to post-fire successional changes in habitat as per the habitat accommodation model, rather than to time since fire per se, and that our functional framework will be of value in predicting bird responses to future disturbances in this and other obligate-seeder forest and woodland ecosystems. Most bird species and functional groups that were affected by time since fire were associated with long-unburned woodlands. In the context of recent large, stand-replacement wildfires that have affected a substantial proportion of obligate-seeder eucalypt woodlands, and the multi-century timescales over which post-fire succession occurs, it would appear preferable from a bird conservation perspective if fires initiating loss of currently long-unburned woodlands were minimized. Once long-unburned woodlands are transformed by fire into recently burned woodlands, there is limited scope for alternative management interventions to accelerate the rate of habitat development after fire, or supplement the resources formerly provided to birds by long-unburned woodlands, with the limited exception of augmenting hollow availability for key hollow-nesting species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fogo , Animais , Austrália , Aves , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Dinâmica Populacional
17.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(8): e005923, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute right heart failure (RHF) after left ventricular assist device implantation remains a major source of morbidity and mortality, yet the definition of RHF and the preimplant variables that predict RHF remain controversial. This study evaluated the ability of (1) INTERMACS (Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support) RHF classification to predict post-left ventricular assist device survival and (2) preoperative characteristics and hemodynamic parameters to predict severe and severe acute RHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: An international, multicenter study at 4 large academic centers was conducted between 2008 and 2016. All subjects with hemodynamics measured by right heart catheterization within 30 days before left ventricular assist device implantation were included. RHF was defined using the INTERMACS definition for RHF. In total, 375 subjects were included (mean age, 57.4±13.2 years, 54% bridge-to-transplant). Mild RHF was most common (34%), followed by moderate RHF (16%), severe RHF (13%), and severe acute RHF (9%). Estimated on-device survival rates at 2 years were 72%, 71%, and 55% in the patients with none, mild-to-moderate, and severe-to-severe acute RHF, respectively (P=0.004). In addition, the independent hazard ratio for mortality was only increased in the patients with severe-to-severe acute RHF (hazard ratio, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.16-7.23; P<0.001). INTERMACS-defined RHF was superior to postimplant inotrope duration alone in the prediction of all-cause mortality. In multivariable analysis, older age, lower INTERMACS classes, and higher pulmonary arterial elastance (ratio of systolic pulmonary artery pressure to stroke volume) before left ventricular assist device, were identified as significant predictors of severe-to-severe acute RHF. Stratifying patients by ratio of systolic pulmonary artery pressure to stroke volume and right atrial pressure significantly improved the discrimination between patients at risk for severe-to-severe acute RHF. CONCLUSIONS: The INTERMACS RHF classification correctly identifies patients at risk for mortality, though this risk is only increased in patients with severe-to-severe acute RHF. Several predictors for RHF were identified, of which ratio of systolic pulmonary artery pressure to stroke volume was the strongest hemodynamic predictor. Coupling ratio of systolic pulmonary artery pressure to stroke volume with right atrial pressure may be most helpful in identifying patients at risk for severe-to-severe acute RHF.

18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358905

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS)-a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 22-is associated with an elevated risk of psychosis and other developmental brain disorders. Prior single-site diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies have reported altered white matter (WM) microstructure in 22q11DS, but small samples and variable methods have led to contradictory results. Here we present the largest study ever conducted of dMRI-derived measures of WM microstructure in 22q11DS (334 22q11.2 deletion carriers and 260 healthy age- and sex-matched controls; age range 6-52 years). Using harmonization protocols developed by the ENIGMA-DTI working group, we identified widespread reductions in mean, axial and radial diffusivities in 22q11DS, most pronounced in regions with major cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic fibers: the corona radiata, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiations, and sagittal stratum (Cohen's d's ranging from -0.9 to -1.3). Only the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), comprised primarily of corticofugal fibers, showed higher axial diffusivity in 22q11DS. 22q11DS patients showed higher mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in callosal and projection fibers (IC and corona radiata) relative to controls, but lower FA than controls in regions with predominantly association fibers. Psychotic illness in 22q11DS was associated with more substantial diffusivity reductions in multiple regions. Overall, these findings indicate large effects of the 22q11.2 deletion on WM microstructure, especially in major cortico-cortical connections. Taken together with findings from animal models, this pattern of abnormalities may reflect disrupted neurogenesis of projection neurons in outer cortical layers.

19.
Blood Adv ; 3(6): 875-883, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890544

RESUMO

Plerixafor, a direct antagonist of CXCR4/stromal-derived factor 1, can safely and rapidly mobilize allografts without the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We conducted a phase 2, multicenter, prospective study of plerixafor-mobilized HLA-identical sibling allografts for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in recipients with hematological malignancies. Donors (n = 64) were treated with subcutaneous plerixafor (240 µg/kg) and started leukapheresis (LP) 4 hours later. The primary objective was to determine the proportion of donors who were successfully mobilized: defined as collection of ≥2.0 × 106 CD34+ cells per kilogram recipient weight in ≤2 LP sessions. Recipients subsequently received reduced intensity (RIC; n = 33) or myeloablative (MAC; n = 30) conditioning. Sixty-three of 64 (98%) donors achieved the primary objective. The median CD34+ cell dose per kilogram recipient weight collected within 2 days was 4.7 (0.9-9.6). Plerixafor was well tolerated with only grade 1 or 2 drug-related adverse events noted. Bone pain was not observed. Plerixafor-mobilized grafts engrafted promptly. One-year progression-free and overall survivals were 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36% to 71%) and 63% (95% CI, 46% to 79%) for MAC and 64% (95% CI, 47% to 79%) and 70% (95% CI, 53% to 84%) for RIC recipients, respectively. Donor toxicity was reduced relative to G-CSF mobilized related donors. This is the first multicenter trial to demonstrate that, as an alternative to G-CSF, plerixafor rapidly and safely mobilizes sufficient numbers of CD34+ cells from matched sibling donors for HCT. Engraftment was prompt, and outcomes in recipients were encouraging. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01696461.

20.
Artif Organs ; 43(8): 736-744, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868618

RESUMO

Continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) placement has become a standard of care in advanced heart failure treatment. Bleeding is the most frequently reported adverse event after LVAD implantation and may be increased by antithrombotic agents used for prevention of pump thrombosis. This retrospective cohort included 85 adult patients implanted with a Heartmate II LVAD. Major bleeding was defined as occurring >7 days after implant and included intracranial hemorrhage, events requiring 2 units of packed red blood cells within a 24-h period, and death from bleeding. Primary outcome was intensity of anticoagulation between patients with or without at least one incidence of nonsurgical major bleeding. Major bleeding occurred in 35 (41%) patients with 0.48 events per patient year and a median (IQR) time to first bleed of 134.5 (39.3, 368.5) days. The median (IQR) INR at time of bleed was 1.7 (1.4, 2.5). Median INR during follow-up did not differ between groups and patients with major bleeding were not more likely to have a supra-therapeutic INR. Patients who bled were more likely to have received LVAD for destination therapy, to have lower weight, worse renal function, and lower hemoglobin at baseline. Duration of LVAD support and survival were similar between groups with no difference in occurrence of thrombosis. Incidence of nonsurgical major bleeding was not significantly associated with degree of anticoagulation. Certain baseline characteristics may be more important than anticoagulation intensity to identify patients at risk for bleeding after LVAD implant. Modification of anticoagulation alone is not a sufficient management strategy and early intervention may be required to mitigate bleeding impact.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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