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1.
Genet Med ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495531

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the magnitude of benefit to early treatment initiation, enabled by newborn screening or prenatal diagnosis, in patients with cross-reactive immunological material (CRIM)-negative infantile Pompe disease (IPD), treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and prophylactic immune tolerance induction (ITI) with rituximab, methotrexate, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). METHODS: A total of 41 CRIM-negative IPD patients were evaluated. Among patients who were treated with ERT + ITI (n = 30), those who were invasive ventilator-free at baseline and had ≥6 months of follow-up were stratified based on age at treatment initiation: (1) early (≤4 weeks), (2) intermediate (>4 and ≤15 weeks), and (3) late (>15 weeks). A historical cohort of 11 CRIM-negative patients with IPD treated with ERT monotherapy served as an additional comparator group. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included; five, seven, and eight in early, intermediate, and late treatment groups, respectively. Genotypes were similar across the three groups. Early-treated patients showed significant improvements in left ventricular mass index, motor and pulmonary outcomes, as well as biomarkers creatine kinase and urinary glucose tetrasaccharide, compared with those treated later. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary data suggest that early treatment with ERT + ITI can transform the long-term CRIM-negative IPD phenotype, which represents the most severe end of the Pompe disease spectrum.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238609

RESUMO

Metabolic flexibility is the ability of a cell to adapt its metabolism to changes in its surrounding environment. Such adaptability, combined with apoptosis resistance provides cancer cells with a survival advantage. Mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) has been defined as a metabolic checkpoint at the crossroad of these two processes. Here, we show that the hypoxia-induced cleaved form of VDAC1 (VDAC1-ΔC) is implicated in both the up-regulation of glycolysis and the mitochondrial respiration. We demonstrate that VDAC1-ΔC, due to the loss of the putative phosphorylation site at serine 215, concomitantly with the loss of interaction with tubulin and microtubules, reprograms the cell to utilize more metabolites, favoring cell growth in hypoxic microenvironment. We further found that VDAC1-ΔC represses ciliogenesis and thus participates in ciliopathy, a group of genetic disorders involving dysfunctional primary cilium. Cancer, although not representing a ciliopathy, is tightly linked to cilia. Moreover, we highlight, for the first time, a direct relationship between the cilium and cancer cell metabolism. Our study provides the first new comprehensive molecular-level model centered on VDAC1-ΔC integrating metabolic flexibility, ciliogenesis, and enhanced survival in a hypoxic microenvironment.

3.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) improves diagnostic rates in individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions to varying degrees, primarily by directing the prioritization of candidate DNA variants identified on exome or genome sequencing (ES/GS). Here we implemented an RNA-seq guided method to diagnose individuals across a wide range of ages and clinical phenotypes. METHODS: One hundred fifteen undiagnosed adult and pediatric patients with diverse phenotypes and 67 family members (182 total individuals) underwent RNA-seq from whole blood and fibroblasts at the Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) clinical site from 2014-2020. We implemented a workflow to detect outliers in gene expression and splicing for cases that remained undiagnosed despite standard genomic and transcriptomic analysis. RESULTS: The transcriptome-directed approach resulted in a diagnostic rate of 12% across the entire cohort, or 17% after excluding cases solved on ES/GS alone. Newly diagnosed conditions included Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KANSL1), Renpenning syndrome (PQBP1), TBCK-associated encephalopathy, NSD2- and CLTC-related intellectual disability, and others, all with negative conventional genomic testing, including ES and chromosomal microarray (CMA). Fibroblasts exhibited higher and more consistent expression of clinically relevant genes than whole blood. In solved cases with RNA-seq from both tissues, the causative defect was missed in blood in half the cases but none from fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: For our cohort of undiagnosed individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions, transcriptome-directed genomic analysis facilitated diagnoses, primarily through the identification of variants missed on ES and CMA.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(2): 352-363, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693025

RESUMO

MORC2 encodes an ATPase that plays a role in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Heterozygous variants in MORC2 have been reported in individuals with autosomal-dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2Z and spinal muscular atrophy, and the onset of symptoms ranges from infancy to the second decade of life. Here, we present a cohort of 20 individuals referred for exome sequencing who harbor pathogenic variants in the ATPase module of MORC2. Individuals presented with a similar phenotype consisting of developmental delay, intellectual disability, growth retardation, microcephaly, and variable craniofacial dysmorphism. Weakness, hyporeflexia, and electrophysiologic abnormalities suggestive of neuropathy were frequently observed but were not the predominant feature. Five of 18 individuals for whom brain imaging was available had lesions reminiscent of those observed in Leigh syndrome, and five of six individuals who had dilated eye exams had retinal pigmentary abnormalities. Functional assays revealed that these MORC2 variants result in hyperactivation of epigenetic silencing by the HUSH complex, supporting their pathogenicity. The described set of morphological, growth, developmental, and neurological findings and medical concerns expands the spectrum of genetic disorders resulting from pathogenic variants in MORC2.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Hum Mutat ; 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652755

RESUMO

Interpretation of mitochondrial protein-encoding (mt-mRNA) variants has been challenging due to mitochondrial characteristics that have not been addressed by American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. We developed criteria for the interpretation of mt-mRNA variants via literature review of reported variants, tested and refined these criteria by using our new cases, followed by interpreting 421 novel variants in our clinical database using these verified criteria. A total of 32 of 56 previously reported pathogenic (P) variants had convincing evidence for pathogenicity. These variants are either null variants, well-known disease-causing variants, or have robust functional data or strong phenotypic correlation with heteroplasmy levels. Based on our criteria, 65.7% (730/1,111) of variants of unknown significance (VUS) were reclassified as benign (B) or likely benign (LB), and one variant was scored as likely pathogenic (LP). Furthermore, using our criteria we classified 2, 12, and 23 as P, LP, and LB, respectively, among 421 novel variants. The remaining stayed as VUS (91.2%). Appropriate interpretation of mt-mRNA variants is the basis for clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling. Mutation type, heteroplasmy levels in different tissues of the probands and matrilineal relatives, in silico predictions, population data, as well as functional studies are key points for pathogenicity assessments.

7.
Biomolecules ; 10(4)2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290153

RESUMO

Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) constitute major transporters mediating bidirectional movement of solutes between cytoplasm and mitochondria. We aimed to determine if VDAC1 plays a role in recovery of mitochondrial and kidney functions after ischemia-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Kidney function decreased after ischemia and recovered in wild-type (WT), but not in VDAC1-deficient mice. Mitochondrial maximum respiration, activities of respiratory complexes and FoF1-ATPase, and ATP content in renal cortex decreased after ischemia and recovered in WT mice. VDAC1 deletion reduced respiration and ATP content in non-injured kidneys. Further, VDAC1 deletion blocked return of activities of respiratory complexes and FoF1-ATPase, and recovery of respiration and ATP content after ischemia. Deletion of VDAC1 exacerbated ischemia-induced mitochondrial fission, but did not aggravate morphological damage to proximal tubules after ischemia. However, VDAC1 deficiency impaired recovery of kidney morphology and increased renal interstitial collagen accumulation. Thus, our data show a novel role for VDAC1 in regulating renal mitochondrial dynamics and recovery of mitochondrial function and ATP levels after AKI. We conclude that the presence of VDAC1 (1) stimulates capacity of renal mitochondria for respiration and ATP production, (2) reduces mitochondrial fission, (3) promotes recovery of mitochondrial function and dynamics, renal morphology, and kidney functions, and (4) increases survival after AKI.

8.
Genet Med ; 22(6): 1130, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269312

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

9.
Theranostics ; 10(6): 2696-2713, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194829

RESUMO

Rationale: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for about 2% of all adult cancers, and clear cell RCC (ccRCC) is the most common RCC histologic subtype. A hallmark of ccRCC is the loss of the primary cilium, a cellular antenna that senses a wide variety of signals. Loss of this key organelle in ccRCC is associated with the loss of the von Hippel-Lindau protein (VHL). However, not all mechanisms of ciliopathy have been clearly elucidated. Methods: By using RCC4 renal cancer cells and patient samples, we examined the regulation of ciliogenesis via the presence or absence of the hypoxic form of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1-ΔC) and its impact on tumor aggressiveness. Three independent cohorts were analyzed. Cohort A was from PREDIR and included 12 patients with hereditary pVHL mutations and 22 sporadic patients presenting tumors with wild-type pVHL or mutated pVHL; Cohort B included tissue samples from 43 patients with non-metastatic ccRCC who had undergone surgery; and Cohort C was composed of 375 non-metastatic ccRCC tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and was used for validation. The presence of VDAC1-ΔC and legumain was determined by immunoblot. Transcriptional regulation of IFT20/GLI1 expression was evaluated by qPCR. Ciliogenesis was detected using both mouse anti-acetylated α-tubulin and rabbit polyclonal ARL13B antibodies for immunofluorescence. Results: Our study defines, for the first time, a group of ccRCC patients in which the hypoxia-cleaved form of VDAC1 (VDAC1-ΔC) induces resorption of the primary cilium in a Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent manner. An additional novel group, in which the primary cilium is re-expressed or maintained, lacked VDAC1-ΔC yet maintained glycolysis, a signature of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and more aggressive tumor progression, but was independent to VHL. Moreover, these patients were less sensitive to sunitinib, the first-line treatment for ccRCC, but were potentially suitable for immunotherapy, as indicated by the immunophenoscore and the presence of PDL1 expression. Conclusion: This study provides a new way to classify ccRCC patients and proposes potential therapeutic targets linked to metabolism and immunotherapy.

10.
Genet Med ; 22(5): 979, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132679

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

11.
Genet Med ; 22(5): 917-926, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965079

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop criteria to interpret mitochondrial transfer RNA (mt-tRNA) variants based on unique characteristics of mitochondrial genetics and conserved structural/functional properties of tRNA. METHODS: We developed rules on a set of established pathogenic/benign variants by examining heteroplasmy correlations with phenotype, tissue distribution, family members, and among unrelated families from published literature. We validated these deduced rules using our new cases and applied them to classify novel variants. RESULTS: Evaluation of previously reported pathogenic variants found that 80.6% had sufficient evidence to support phenotypic correlation with heteroplasmy levels among and within families. The remaining variants were downgraded due to the lack of similar evidence. Application of the verified criteria resulted in rescoring 80.8% of reported variants of uncertain significance (VUS) to benign and likely benign. Among 97 novel variants, none met pathogenic criteria. A large proportion of novel variants (84.5%) remained as VUS, while only 10.3% were likely pathogenic. Detection of these novel variants in additional individuals would facilitate their classification. CONCLUSION: Proper interpretation of mt-tRNA variants is crucial for accurate clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling. Correlations with tissue distribution, heteroplasmy levels, predicted perturbations to tRNA structure, and phenotypes provide important evidence for determining the clinical significance of mt-tRNA variants.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 493-508, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447100

RESUMO

Histones mediate dynamic packaging of nuclear DNA in chromatin, a process that is precisely controlled to guarantee efficient compaction of the genome and proper chromosomal segregation during cell division and to accomplish DNA replication, transcription, and repair. Due to the important structural and regulatory roles played by histones, it is not surprising that histone functional dysregulation or aberrant levels of histones can have severe consequences for multiple cellular processes and ultimately might affect development or contribute to cell transformation. Recently, germline frameshift mutations involving the C-terminal tail of HIST1H1E, which is a widely expressed member of the linker histone family and facilitates higher-order chromatin folding, have been causally linked to an as-yet poorly defined syndrome that includes intellectual disability. We report that these mutations result in stable proteins that reside in the nucleus, bind to chromatin, disrupt proper compaction of DNA, and are associated with a specific methylation pattern. Cells expressing these mutant proteins have a dramatically reduced proliferation rate and competence, hardly enter into the S phase, and undergo accelerated senescence. Remarkably, clinical assessment of a relatively large cohort of subjects sharing these mutations revealed a premature aging phenotype as a previously unrecognized feature of the disorder. Our findings identify a direct link between aberrant chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, and accelerated aging.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Histonas/fisiologia , Aneuploidia , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Cromatina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Histonas/química , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Genet Med ; 21(4): 987-993, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181607

RESUMO

The Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) is supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to develop expertly curated and freely accessible resources defining the clinical relevance of genes and variants for use in precision medicine and research. To facilitate expert input, ClinGen has formed Clinical Domain Working Groups (CDWGs) to leverage the collective knowledge of clinicians, laboratory diagnosticians, and researchers. In the initial phase of ClinGen, CDWGs were launched in the cardiovascular, hereditary cancer, and inborn errors of metabolism clinical fields. These early CDWGs established the infrastructure necessary to implement standardized processes developed or adopted by ClinGen working groups for the interpretation of gene-disease associations and variant pathogenicity, and provided a sustainable model for the formation of future disease-focused curation groups. The establishment of CDWGs requires recruitment of international experts to broadly represent the interests of their field and ensure that assertions made are reliable and widely accepted. Building on the successes, challenges, and trade-offs made in establishing the original CDWGs, ClinGen has developed standard operating procedures for the development of CDWGs in new clinical domains, while maximizing efforts to scale up curation and facilitate involvement of external groups who wish to utilize ClinGen methods and infrastructure for expert curation.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genética Médica/tendências , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/tendências , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Medicina de Precisão
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1030-1037, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503518

RESUMO

FUK encodes fucokinase, the only enzyme capable of converting L-fucose to fucose-1-phosphate, which will ultimately be used for synthesizing GDP-fucose, the donor substrate for all fucosyltransferases. Although it is essential for fucose salvage, this pathway is thought to make only a minor contribution to the total amount of GDP-fucose. A second pathway, the major de novo pathway, involves conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose. Here we describe two unrelated individuals who have pathogenic variants in FUK and who presented with severe developmental delays, encephalopathy, intractable seizures, and hypotonia. The first individual was compound heterozygous for c.667T>C (p.Ser223Pro) and c.2047C>T (p.Arg683Cys), and the second individual was homozygous for c.2980A>C (p.Lys994Gln). Skin fibroblasts from the first individual confirmed the variants as loss of function and showed significant decreases in total GDP-[3H] fucose and [3H] fucose-1-phosphate. There was also a decrease in the incorporation of [5,6-3H]-fucose into fucosylated glycoproteins. Lys994 has previously been shown to be an important site for ubiquitin conjugation. Here, we show that loss-of-function variants in FUK cause a congenital glycosylation disorder characterized by a defective fucose-salvage pathway.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Encefalopatias/genética , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Glicosilação , Guanosina Difosfato Fucose/genética , Guanosina Difosfato Manose/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Convulsões/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Pele/patologia , Ubiquitina/genética
16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1569-1580, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311390

RESUMO

The ClinGen Inborn Errors of Metabolism Working Group was tasked with creating a comprehensive, standardized knowledge base of genes and variants for metabolic diseases. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency was chosen to pilot development of the Working Group's standards and guidelines. A PAH variant curation expert panel (VCEP) was created to facilitate this process. Following ACMG-AMP variant interpretation guidelines, we present the development of these standards in the context of PAH variant curation and interpretation. Existing ACMG-AMP rules were adjusted based on disease (6) or strength (5) or both (2). Disease adjustments include allele frequency thresholds, functional assay thresholds, and phenotype-specific guidelines. Our validation of PAH-specific variant interpretation guidelines is presented using 85 variants. The PAH VCEP interpretations were concordant with existing interpretations in ClinVar for 69 variants (81%). Development of biocurator tools and standards are also described. Using the PAH-specific ACMG-AMP guidelines, 714 PAH variants have been curated and will be submitted to ClinVar. We also discuss strategies and challenges in applying ACMG-AMP guidelines to autosomal recessive metabolic disease, and the curation of variants in these genes.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Fenilalanina Hidroxilase/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Frequência do Gene/genética , Testes Genéticos , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos
17.
Cell Rep ; 23(4): 1005-1019, 2018 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694881

RESUMO

Mitochondria shape cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]c) transients and utilize the mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) in exchange for bioenergetics output. Conversely, dysregulated [Ca2+]c causes [Ca2+]m overload and induces permeability transition pore and cell death. Ablation of MCU-mediated Ca2+ uptake exhibited elevated [Ca2+]c and failed to prevent stress-induced cell death. The mechanisms for these effects remain elusive. Here, we report that mitochondria undergo a cytosolic Ca2+-induced shape change that is distinct from mitochondrial fission and swelling. [Ca2+]c elevation, but not MCU-mediated Ca2+ uptake, appears to be essential for the process we term mitochondrial shape transition (MiST). MiST is mediated by the mitochondrial protein Miro1 through its EF-hand domain 1 in multiple cell types. Moreover, Ca2+-dependent disruption of Miro1/KIF5B/tubulin complex is determined by Miro1 EF1 domain. Functionally, Miro1-dependent MiST is essential for autophagy/mitophagy that is attenuated in Miro1 EF1 mutants. Thus, Miro1 is a cytosolic Ca2+ sensor that decodes metazoan Ca2+ signals as MiST.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Mitocôndrias/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/genética
19.
JAMA Pediatr ; 171(12): e173438, 2017 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973083

RESUMO

Importance: While congenital malformations and genetic diseases are a leading cause of early infant death, to our knowledge, the contribution of single-gene disorders in this group is undetermined. Objective: To determine the diagnostic yield and use of clinical exome sequencing in critically ill infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: Clinical exome sequencing was performed for 278 unrelated infants within the first 100 days of life who were admitted to Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, Texas, during a 5-year period between December 2011 and January 2017. Exome sequencing types included proband exome, trio exome, and critical trio exome, a rapid genomic assay for seriously ill infants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Indications for testing, diagnostic yield of clinical exome sequencing, turnaround time, molecular findings, patient age at diagnosis, and effect on medical management among a group of critically ill infants who were suspected to have genetic disorders. Results: The mean (SEM) age for infants participating in the study was 28.5 (1.7) days; of these, the mean (SEM) age was 29.0 (2.2) days for infants undergoing proband exome sequencing, 31.5 (3.9) days for trio exome, and 22.7 (3.9) days for critical trio exome. Clinical indications for exome sequencing included a range of medical concerns. Overall, a molecular diagnosis was achieved in 102 infants (36.7%) by clinical exome sequencing, with relatively low yield for cardiovascular abnormalities. The diagnosis affected medical management for 53 infants (52.0%) and had a substantial effect on informed redirection of care, initiation of new subspecialist care, medication/dietary modifications, and furthering life-saving procedures in select patients. Critical trio exome sequencing revealed a molecular diagnosis in 32 of 63 infants (50.8%) at a mean (SEM) of 33.1 (5.6) days of life with a mean (SEM) turnaround time of 13.0 (0.4) days. Clinical care was altered by the diagnosis in 23 of 32 patients (71.9%). The diagnostic yield, patient age at diagnosis, and medical effect in the group that underwent critical trio exome sequencing were significantly different compared with the group who underwent regular exome testing. For deceased infants (n = 81), genetic disorders were molecularly diagnosed in 39 (48.1%) by exome sequencing, with implications for recurrence risk counseling. Conclusions and Relevance: Exome sequencing is a powerful tool for the diagnostic evaluation of critically ill infants with suspected monogenic disorders in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care units and its use has a notable effect on clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Exoma , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 10(4)2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28798025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disease and, although increasingly recognized in clinical practice, there is a lack of widely accepted diagnostic criteria. We sought to identify novel genetic causes of LVNC and describe genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 190 patients from 174 families with left ventricular hypertrabeculation (LVHT) or LVNC were referred for cardiac magnetic resonance and whole-exome sequencing. A total of 425 control individuals were included to identify variants of interest (VOIs). We found an excess of 138 VOIs in 102 (59%) unrelated patients in 54 previously identified LVNC or other known cardiomyopathy genes. VOIs were found in 68 of 90 probands with LVNC and 34 of 84 probands with LVHT (76% and 40%, respectively; P<0.001). We identified 0, 1, and ≥2 VOIs in 72, 74, and 28 probands, respectively. We found increasing number of VOIs in a patient strongly correlated with several markers of disease severity, including ratio of noncompacted to compacted myocardium (P<0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.01). The presence of sarcomeric gene mutations was associated with increased occurrence of late gadolinium enhancement (P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: LVHT and LVNC likely represent a continuum of genotypic disease with differences in severity and variable phenotype explained, in part, by the number of VOIs and whether mutations are present in sarcomeric or nonsarcomeric genes. Presence of VOIs is common in patients with LVHT. Our findings expand the current clinical and genetic diagnostic approaches for patients with LVHT and LVNC.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Miosinas Cardíacas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Conectina/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Miocárdio/patologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tropomiosina/genética , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Adulto Jovem
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