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1.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 23(5): 672-673, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672222
2.
Epilepsy Res ; 156: 106181, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394400

RESUMO

Infantile spasms (IS) is a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with heterogeneous etiologies including many genetic causes. Genetic studies have identified pathogenic variants in over 30 genes as causes of IS. Many of these genetic causes are extremely rare, with only one reported incidence in an individual with IS. To better understand the genetic landscape of IS, we used targeted sequencing to screen 42 candidate IS genes and 53 established developmental and epileptic encephalopathy genes in 92 individual with IS. We identified a genetic diagnosis for 7.6% of our cohort, including pathogenic variants in KCNB1 (n = 2), GNAO1 (n = 1), STXBP1 (n = 1), SLC35A2 (n = 1), TBL1XR1 (n = 1), and KIF1A (n = 1). Our data emphasize the genetic heterogeneity of IS and will inform the diagnosis and management of individuals with this devastating disorder.

3.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(9): 695-706, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficiency of the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) causes severe intellectual and motor disability and high serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentrations (Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome). This chronic thyrotoxicosis leads to progressive deterioration in bodyweight, tachycardia, and muscle wasting, predisposing affected individuals to substantial morbidity and mortality. Treatment that safely alleviates peripheral thyrotoxicosis and reverses cerebral hypothyroidism is not yet available. We aimed to investigate the effects of treatment with the T3 analogue Triac (3,3',5-tri-iodothyroacetic acid, or tiratricol), in patients with MCT8 deficiency. METHODS: In this investigator-initiated, multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2, pragmatic trial, we investigated the effectiveness and safety of oral Triac in male paediatric and adult patients with MCT8 deficiency in eight countries in Europe and one site in South Africa. Triac was administered in a predefined escalating dose schedule-after the initial dose of once-daily 350 µg Triac, the daily dose was increased progressively in 350 µg increments, with the goal of attaining serum total T3 concentrations within the target range of 1·4-2·5 nmol/L. We assessed changes in several clinical and biochemical signs of hyperthyroidism between baseline and 12 months of treatment. The prespecified primary endpoint was the change in serum T3 concentrations from baseline to month 12. The co-primary endpoints were changes in concentrations of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (T4), and total reverse T3 from baseline to month 12. These analyses were done in patients who received at least one dose of Triac and had at least one post-baseline evaluation of serum throid function. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02060474. FINDINGS: Between Oct 15, 2014, and June 1, 2017, we screened 50 patients, all of whom were eligible. Of these patients, four (8%) patients decided not to participate because of travel commitments. 46 (92%) patients were therefore enrolled in the trial to receive Triac (median age 7·1 years [range 0·8-66·8]). 45 (98%) participants received Triac and had at least one follow-up measurement of thyroid function and thus were included in the analyses of the primary endpoints. Of these 45 patients, five did not complete the trial (two patients withdrew [travel burden, severe pre-existing comorbidity], one was lost to follow-up, one developed of Graves disease, and one died of sepsis). Patients required a mean dose of 38.3 µg/kg of bodyweight (range 6·4-84·3) to attain T3 concentrations within the target range. Serum T3 concentration decreased from 4·97 nmol/L (SD 1·55) at baseline to 1·82 nmol/L (0·69) at month 12 (mean decrease 3·15 nmol/L, 95% CI 2·68-3·62; p<0·0001), while serum TSH concentrations decreased from 2·91 mU/L (SD 1·68) to 1·02 mU/L (1·14; mean decrease 1·89 mU/L, 1·39-2·39; p<0·0001) and serum free T4 concentrations decreased from 9·5 pmol/L (SD 2·5) to 3·4 (1·6; mean decrease 6·1 pmol/L (5·4-6·8; p<0·0001). Additionally, serum total T4 concentrations decreased by 31·6 nmol/L (28·0-35·2; p<0·0001) and reverse T3 by 0·08 nmol/L (0·05-0·10; p<0·0001). Seven treatment-related adverse events (transiently increased perspiration or irritability) occurred in six (13%) patients. 26 serious adverse events that were considered unrelated to treatment occurred in 18 (39%) patients (mostly hospital admissions because of infections). One patient died from pulmonary sepsis leading to multi-organ failure, which was unrelated to Triac treatment. INTERPRETATION: Key features of peripheral thyrotoxicosis were alleviated in paediatric and adult patients with MCT8 deficiency who were treated with Triac. Triac seems a reasonable treatment strategy to ameliorate the consequences of untreated peripheral thyrotoxicosis in patients with MCT8 deficiency. FUNDING: Dutch Scientific Organization, Sherman Foundation, NeMO Foundation, Wellcome Trust, UK National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Centre, Toulouse University Hospital, and Una Vita Rara ONLUS.

4.
J Child Neurol ; 34(5): 248-255, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688135

RESUMO

Efficacy and safety of pregabalin as adjunctive treatment for children (aged 4-16 years) with partial-onset seizures, hereafter termed focal onset seizures for this study, was evaluated. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, international study had 3 phases: 8-week baseline, 12-week double-blind treatment (2-week dose escalation; 10-week fixed dose), and 1-week taper. Selection criteria included experiencing focal onset seizures and receiving a stable regimen of 1 to 3 antiepileptic drugs. Study treatments were pregabalin 2.5 mg/kg/d, 10 mg/kg/d, or placebo; doses were increased to 3.5 or 14 mg/kg/d for subjects weighing <30 kg. The key endpoints were change in loge(28-day seizure rate), achieving a ≥50% seizure responder rate, safety, and tolerability during double-blind treatment. Subjects (n = 295; mean age 10.2 years, 55% male, 69% white) were randomized to pregabalin 2.5 mg/kg/d (n = 104), 10 mg/kg/d (n = 97), or placebo (n = 94). A statistically significant reduction in loge(28-day seizure rate) was demonstrated with pregabalin 10 mg/kg/d (a 19.9% improvement over placebo; P = .0185). Seizure frequency was numerically improved (statistically nonsignificant) with pregabalin 2.5 mg/kg/d ( P = .2577). Responder rate significantly favored pregabalin 10 mg/kg/d (40.6%, P = .0068) compared with placebo (22.6%) and was numerically improved with pregabalin 2.5 mg/kg/d (29.1%, P = .2600). Common adverse events (≥10% of any group) in 10 mg/kg/d, 2.5 mg/kg/d, and placebo groups, respectively, included somnolence (25.8%, 17.3%, 13.8%), increased weight (13.4%, 3.8%, 4.3%), and increased appetite (10.3%, 6.7%, 4.3%). Pregabalin 10 mg/kg/d demonstrated efficacy in seizure frequency reduction in children with focal onset seizures compared with placebo, and both pregabalin doses were generally safe and well tolerated. www.clinicialtrials.gov identifier NCT01389596; EudraCT #2010-020852-79.

5.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.

6.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 1048-1053, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942082

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a frequent feature of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), but little is known about genetic differences between NDDs with and without epilepsy. We analyzed de novo variants (DNVs) in 6,753 parent-offspring trios ascertained to have different NDDs. In the subset of 1,942 individuals with NDDs with epilepsy, we identified 33 genes with a significant excess of DNVs, of which SNAP25 and GABRB2 had previously only limited evidence of disease association. Joint analysis of all individuals with NDDs also implicated CACNA1E as a novel disease-associated gene. Comparing NDDs with and without epilepsy, we found missense DNVs, DNVs in specific genes, age of recruitment, and severity of intellectual disability to be associated with epilepsy. We further demonstrate the extent to which our results affect current genetic testing as well as treatment, emphasizing the benefit of accurate genetic diagnosis in NDDs with epilepsy.

8.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 27(10): 911-913, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28802771

RESUMO

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent muscular dystrophy in childhood, with a worldwide incidence of one in 5000 live male births. It is due to mutations in the dystrophin gene leading to absence of full-length dystrophin protein. Central nervous system involvement is well-known in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. The multiple dystrophin isoforms expressed in brain have important roles in cerebral development and functioning. The association of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy with seizures has been reported, and there is a higher prevalence of epilepsy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients (between 6.3% and 12.3%) than in the general pediatric population (0.5-1%). Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients may present with focal seizures, generalized tonic-clonic seizures or absences. We report on two boys in whom Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is associated with epileptic spasms and hypsarrhythmia that fulfil the criteria for West syndrome, thus extending the spectrum of seizure types described in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients.


Assuntos
Distrofina/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Mutação/genética , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/etiologia , Epilepsia/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/complicações , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/genética , Espasmos Infantis/complicações , Espasmos Infantis/genética
9.
Epileptic Disord ; 19(3): 357-361, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28721938

RESUMO

The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase gene is implicated in autosomal recessive disorders of the central nervous system, expressed either as spinocerebellar ataxia or as a severe form with early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Here, we describe the electroclinical evolution of these disorders, adding new diagnostic clues based on a case study. The patient, a boy with early-onset epilepsy, presented with profound global developmental delay, persistent hypsarrhythmia, and epileptic spasms, associated with progressive cerebral atrophy without microcephaly. Metabolic disease was excluded. Whole-exome sequencing showed mutations in the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase gene. Our findings extend the phenotypic traits of this aggressive epileptic encephalopathy, with persistent epileptic spasms and hypsarhythmia as a part of the electroclinical phenotype, demonstrating that microcephaly is not mandatory for diagnosis, even when associated with progressive cerebral atrophy. These mutations might be more frequent than expected among early-onset epileptic encephalopathies. We present practical clues for the diagnosis of WWOX encephalopathy in order to avoid unnecessary investigations and ensure appropriate genetic counselling for the families.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação , Espasmos Infantis/fisiopatologia , Oxidorredutase com Domínios WW/genética
10.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 21(2): 396-403, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27913086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy caused by biallelic SLC13A5 mutations is characterized by seizure onset in the first days of life, refractory epilepsy and developmental delay. Little detailed information about the brain MRI features is available in these patients. METHODS: Observational study describing the neuro-imaging findings in eight patients (five families) with mutations in the SLC13A5 gene. Seven infants had an MRI in the neonatal period, two had a follow-up MRI at the age of 6 and 18 months and one only at 13 months. One patient had follow-up MRIs at 11 and 16 months and 3 and 6 years of age, but no neonatal MRI. RESULTS: All patients presented with refractory neonatal seizures on the first day of life after an uncomplicated pregnancy and term delivery. Six out of seven infants with a neonatal MRI had a characteristic MRI pattern, with punctate white matter lesions (PWML), which were no longer visible at the age of 6 months, but led to gliotic scarring visible on MRI at the age of 18 months. The same pattern of gliotic scarring was seen on the MRIs of the infant without a neonatal scan. One infant had signal abnormalities in the white matter suspected of PWML on T2WI, but these could not be confirmed on other sequences. CONCLUSION: In infants presenting with therapy resistant seizures in the first days after birth, without a clear history of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, but with PWML on their neonatal MRI, a diagnosis of SCL13A5 related epileptic encephalopathy should be considered.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Espasmos Infantis/patologia , Simportadores/genética , Substância Branca/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação , Neuroimagem , Gravidez
11.
Neurology ; 87(11): 1140-51, 2016 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27521439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate phenotypic heterogeneity, we describe the clinical features of a cohort of patients with GABRA1 gene mutations. METHODS: Patients with GABRA1 mutations were ascertained through an international collaboration. Clinical, EEG, and genetic data were collected. Functional analysis of 4 selected mutations was performed using the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. RESULTS: The study included 16 novel probands and 3 additional family members with a disease-causing mutation in the GABRA1 gene. The phenotypic spectrum varied from unspecified epilepsy (1), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (2), photosensitive idiopathic generalized epilepsy (1), and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (1) to severe epileptic encephalopathies (11). In the epileptic encephalopathy group, the patients had seizures beginning between the first day of life and 15 months, with a mean of 7 months. Predominant seizure types in all patients were tonic-clonic in 9 participants (56%) and myoclonic seizures in 5 (31%). EEG showed a generalized photoparoxysmal response in 6 patients (37%). Four selected mutations studied functionally revealed a loss of function, without a clear genotype-phenotype correlation. CONCLUSIONS: GABRA1 mutations make a significant contribution to the genetic etiology of both benign and severe epilepsy syndromes. Myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures with pathologic response to photic stimulation are common and shared features in both mild and severe phenotypes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Mutação , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oócitos , Fenótipo , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
12.
Epilepsia ; 57(9): 1363-8, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27440172

RESUMO

There is currently no international consensus procedure for performing comprehensive periictal testing of patients in the epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs). Our primary goal was to develop a standardized procedure for managing and testing patients during and after seizures in EMUs. The secondary goal was to assess whether it could be implemented in clinical practice (feasibility). A taskforce was appointed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE)-Commission on European Affairs and the European Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Association, to develop a standardized ictal testing battery (ITB) based on expert opinion and experience with various local testing protocols. ITB contains a comprehensive set of 10 items that evidence the clinically relevant semiologic features, and it is adaptive to the dynamics of the individual seizures. The feasibility of the ITB was prospectively evaluated on 250 seizures from 152 consecutive patients in 10 centers. ITB was successfully implemented in clinical practice in all 10 participating centers and was considered feasible in 93% of the tested seizures. ITB was not feasible for testing seizures of very short duration.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Consenso , Gerenciamento Clínico , Monitorização Fisiológica , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Convulsões/epidemiologia
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(12): 1761-1770, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352968

RESUMO

Genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), formerly known as idiopathic generalized epilepsy, is the most common form of epilepsy and is thought to have predominant genetic etiology. GGE are clinically characterized by absence, myoclonic, or generalized tonic-clonic seizures with electroencephalographic pattern of bilateral, synchronous, and symmetrical spike-and-wave discharges. Despite their strong heritability, the genetic basis of generalized epilepsies remains largely elusive. Nevertheless, recent advances in genetic technology have led to the identification of numerous genes and genomic defects in various types of epilepsies in the past few years. In the present study, we performed whole-exome sequencing in a family with GGE consistent with the diagnosis of eyelid myoclonia with absences. We found a nonsense variant (c.196C>T/p.(Arg66*)) in RORB, which encodes the beta retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor (RORß), in four affected family members. In addition, two de novo variants (c.218T>C/p.(Leu73Pro); c.1249_1251delACG/p.(Thr417del)) were identified in sporadic patients by trio-based exome sequencing. We also found two de novo deletions in patients with behavioral and cognitive impairment and epilepsy: a 52-kb microdeletion involving exons 5-10 of RORB and a larger 9q21-microdeletion. Furthermore, we identified a patient with intellectual disability and a balanced translocation where one breakpoint truncates RORB and refined the phenotype of a recently reported patient with RORB deletion. Our data support the role of RORB gene variants/CNVs in neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, and especially in generalized epilepsies with predominant absence seizures.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Membro 2 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Deleção Cromossômica , Códon sem Sentido , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Generalizada/diagnóstico , Exoma , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Síndrome , Translocação Genética
14.
Seizure ; 38: 38-45, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27104922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The European Union-funded E-PILEPSY network aims to improve awareness of, and accessibility to, epilepsy surgery across Europe. In this study we assessed current clinical practices in epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) in the participating centers. METHOD: A 60-item web-based survey was distributed to 25 centers (27 EMUs) of the E-PILEPSY network across 22 European countries. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the characteristics of EMUs, including organizational aspects, admission, and observation of patients, procedures performed, safety issues, cost, and reimbursement. RESULTS: Complete responses were received from all (100%) EMUs surveyed. Continuous observation of patients was performed in 22 (81%) EMUs during regular working hours, and in 17 EMUs (63%) outside of regular working hours. Fifteen (56%) EMUs requested a signed informed consent before admission. All EMUs performed tapering/withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs, 14 (52%) prior to admission to an EMU. Specific protocols on antiepileptic drugs (AED) tapering were available in four (15%) EMUs. Standardized Operating Procedures (SOP) for the treatment of seizure clusters and status epilepticus were available in 16 (59%). Safety measures implemented by EMUs were: alarm seizure buttons in 21 (78%), restricted patient's ambulation in 19 (70%), guard rails in 16 (59%), and specially designated bathrooms in 7 (26%). Average costs for one inpatient day in EMU ranged between 100 and 2200 Euros. CONCLUSION: This study shows a considerable diversity in the organization and practice patterns across European epilepsy monitoring units. The collected data may contribute to the development and implementation of evidence-based recommended practices in LTM services across Europe.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitorização Fisiológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Epilepsia ; 57(5): 770-6, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27012361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In 2014 the European Union-funded E-PILEPSY project was launched to improve awareness of, and accessibility to, epilepsy surgery across Europe. We aimed to investigate the current use of neuroimaging, electromagnetic source localization, and imaging postprocessing procedures in participating centers. METHODS: A survey on the clinical use of imaging, electromagnetic source localization, and postprocessing methods in epilepsy surgery candidates was distributed among the 25 centers of the consortium. A descriptive analysis was performed, and results were compared to existing guidelines and recommendations. RESULTS: Response rate was 96%. Standard epilepsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols are acquired at 3 Tesla by 15 centers and at 1.5 Tesla by 9 centers. Three centers perform 3T MRI only if indicated. Twenty-six different MRI sequences were reported. Six centers follow all guideline-recommended MRI sequences with the proposed slice orientation and slice thickness or voxel size. Additional sequences are used by 22 centers. MRI postprocessing methods are used in 16 centers. Interictal positron emission tomography (PET) is available in 22 centers; all using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Seventeen centers perform PET postprocessing. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is used by 19 centers, of which 15 perform postprocessing. Four centers perform neither PET nor SPECT in children. Seven centers apply magnetoencephalography (MEG) source localization, and nine apply electroencephalography (EEG) source localization. Fourteen combinations of inverse methods and volume conduction models are used. SIGNIFICANCE: We report a large variation in the presurgical diagnostic workup among epilepsy surgery centers across Europe. This diversity underscores the need for high-quality systematic reviews, evidence-based recommendations, and harmonization of available diagnostic presurgical methods.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Neuroimagem/métodos , Neuroimagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Neuroimagem/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Turk Neurosurg ; 25(6): 905-13, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26617141

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative epilepsy may be successfully solved with a multidisciplinary approach using invasive recordings, image and signal analysis. The whole methodology used by the epilepsy surgery team is systematically described based on an resistant epilepsy case with all steps and rationale of choosing different investigation methods from surface electroencephalography (EEG) to invasive recordings. Due to negative MRI and non-concordant ictal surface EEG with clinical semiology, the patient was investigated with stereo- EEG (SEEG), aiming to delimitate epileptogenic and eloquent cerebral areas. Implantation strategy, seizures recordings, stimulation, resection planning using quantitative EEG analysis, and the surgery plan are presented. The patient has been seizure-free for 14 months so far, with improved behavior and daily life quality. Post-operative examination revealed focal cortical dysplasia type II B.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adolescente , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos
17.
EMBO Mol Med ; 7(12): 1580-94, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26613940

RESUMO

Synaptic inhibition is essential for shaping the dynamics of neuronal networks, and aberrant inhibition plays an important role in neurological disorders. Gephyrin is a central player at inhibitory postsynapses, directly binds and organizes GABAA and glycine receptors (GABAARs and GlyRs), and is thereby indispensable for normal inhibitory neurotransmission. Additionally, gephyrin catalyzes the synthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) in peripheral tissue. We identified a de novo missense mutation (G375D) in the gephyrin gene (GPHN) in a patient with epileptic encephalopathy resembling Dravet syndrome. Although stably expressed and correctly folded, gephyrin-G375D was non-synaptically localized in neurons and acted dominant-negatively on the clustering of wild-type gephyrin leading to a marked decrease in GABAAR surface expression and GABAergic signaling. We identified a decreased binding affinity between gephyrin-G375D and the receptors, suggesting that Gly375 is essential for gephyrin-receptor complex formation. Surprisingly, gephyrin-G375D was also unable to synthesize MoCo and activate MoCo-dependent enzymes. Thus, we describe a missense mutation that affects both functions of gephyrin and suggest that the identified defect at GABAergic synapses is the mechanism underlying the patient's severe phenotype.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Epilepsia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Coenzimas/metabolismo , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Metaloproteínas/metabolismo , Pteridinas/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo
18.
Neuropediatrics ; 46(6): 377-84, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26479761

RESUMO

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic infection of the central nervous system caused by the measles virus (MV). Its prevalence remains high in resource poor countries and is likely to increase in the Northern Europe as vaccination rates decrease. Clinical knowledge of this devastating condition, however, is limited. We therefore conducted this multinational survey summarizing experience obtained from more than 500 patients treated by 24 physicians in seven countries. SSPE should be considered in all patients presenting with otherwise unexplained acquired neurological symptoms. In most patients, the diagnosis will be established by the combination of typical clinical symptoms (characteristic repetitive myoclonic jerks), a strong intrathecal synthesis of antibodies to MV and typical electroencephalogram findings (Radermecker complexes). Whereas the therapeutic use of different antiviral (amantadine, ribavirin) and immunomodulatory drugs (isoprinosine, interferons) and of immunoglobulins has been reported repeatedly, optimum application regimen of these drugs has not been established. This is partly due to the absence of common diagnostic and clinical standards focusing on neurological and psychosocial aspects. Carbamazepine, levetiracetam, and clobazam are the drugs most frequently used to control myoclonic jerks. We have established a consensus on essential laboratory and clinical parameters that should facilitate collaborative studies. Those are urgently needed to improve outcome.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Inosina Pranobex/uso terapêutico , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Panencefalite Esclerosante Subaguda/diagnóstico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ásia , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Eletroencefalografia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Vírus do Sarampo/isolamento & purificação , Mioclonia/tratamento farmacológico , Mioclonia/etiologia , Panencefalite Esclerosante Subaguda/complicações , Panencefalite Esclerosante Subaguda/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Brain ; 138(Pt 11): 3238-50, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26384929

RESUMO

The epileptic encephalopathies are a clinically and aetiologically heterogeneous subgroup of epilepsy syndromes. Most epileptic encephalopathies have a genetic cause and patients are often found to carry a heterozygous de novo mutation in one of the genes associated with the disease entity. Occasionally recessive mutations are identified: a recent publication described a distinct neonatal epileptic encephalopathy (MIM 615905) caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC13A5 gene. Here, we report eight additional patients belonging to four different families with autosomal recessive mutations in SLC13A5. SLC13A5 encodes a high affinity sodium-dependent citrate transporter, which is expressed in the brain. Neurons are considered incapable of de novo synthesis of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates; therefore they rely on the uptake of intermediates, such as citrate, to maintain their energy status and neurotransmitter production. The effect of all seven identified mutations (two premature stops and five amino acid substitutions) was studied in vitro, using immunocytochemistry, selective western blot and mass spectrometry. We hereby demonstrate that cells expressing mutant sodium-dependent citrate transporter have a complete loss of citrate uptake due to various cellular loss-of-function mechanisms. In addition, we provide independent proof of the involvement of autosomal recessive SLC13A5 mutations in the development of neonatal epileptic encephalopathies, and highlight teeth hypoplasia as a possible indicator for SLC13A5 screening. All three patients who tried the ketogenic diet responded well to this treatment, and future studies will allow us to ascertain whether this is a recurrent feature in this severe disorder.


Assuntos
Anodontia/genética , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Simportadores/genética , Adolescente , Encefalopatias/genética , Criança , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Simportadores/metabolismo
20.
Epilepsia ; 56(8): 1185-97, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26122601

RESUMO

Evidence-based guidelines, or recommendations, for the management of infants with seizures are lacking. A Task Force of the Commission of Pediatrics developed a consensus document addressing diagnostic markers, management interventions, and outcome measures for infants with seizures. Levels of evidence to support recommendations and statements were assessed using the American Academy of Neurology Guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The report contains recommendations for different levels of care, noting which would be regarded as standard care, compared to optimal care, or "state of the art" interventions. The incidence of epilepsy in the infantile period is the highest of all age groups (strong evidence), with epileptic spasms the largest single subgroup and, in the first 2 years of life, febrile seizures are the most commonly occurring seizures. Acute intervention at the time of a febrile seizure does not alter the risk for subsequent epilepsy (class 1 evidence). The use of antipyretic agents does not alter the recurrence rate (class 1 evidence), and there is no evidence to support initiation of regular antiepileptic drugs for simple febrile seizures (class 1 evidence). Infants with abnormal movements whose routine electroencephalography (EEG) study is not diagnostic, would benefit from video-EEG analysis, or home video to capture events (expert opinion, level U recommendation). Neuroimaging is recommended at all levels of care for infants presenting with epilepsy, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) recommended as the standard investigation at tertiary level (level A recommendation). Genetic screening should not be undertaken at primary or secondary level care (expert opinion). Standard care should permit genetic counseling by trained personal at all levels of care (expert opinion). Genetic evaluation for Dravet syndrome, and other infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathies, should be available in tertiary care (weak evidence, level C recommendation). Patients should be referred from primary or secondary to tertiary level care after failure of one antiepileptic drug (standard care) and optimal care equates to referral of all infants after presentation with a seizure (expert opinion, level U evidence). Infants with recurrent seizures warrant urgent assessment for initiation of antiepileptic drugs (expert opinion, level U recommendation). Infantile encephalopathies should have rapid introduction and increment of antiepileptic drug dosage (expert opinion, level U recommendation). There is no high level evidence to support any particular current agents for use in infants with seizures. For focal seizures, levetiracetam is effective (strong evidence); for generalized seizures, weak evidence supports levetiracetam, valproate, lamotrigine, topiramate, and clobazam; for Dravet syndrome, strong evidence supports that stiripentol is effective (in combination with valproate and clobazam), whereas weak evidence supports that topiramate, zonisamide, valproate, bromide, and the ketogenic diet are possibly effective; and for Ohtahara syndrome, there is weak evidence that most antiepileptic drugs are poorly effective. For epileptic spasms, clinical suspicion remains central to the diagnosis and is supported by EEG, which ideally is prolonged (level C recommendation). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is preferred for short-term control of epileptic spasms (level B recommendation), oral steroids are probably effective in short-term control of spasms (level C recommendation), and a shorter interval from the onset of spasms to treatment initiation may improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcome (level C recommendation). The ketogenic diet is the treatment of choice for epilepsy related to glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (expert opinion, level U recommendation). The identification of patients as potential candidates for epilepsy surgery should be part of standard practice at primary and secondary level care. Tertiary care facilities with experience in epilepsy surgery should undertake the screening for epilepsy surgical candidates (level U recommendation). There is insufficient evidence to conclude if there is benefit from vagus nerve stimulation (level U recommendation). The key recommendations are summarized into an executive summary. The full report is available as Supporting Information. This report provides a comprehensive foundation of an approach to infants with seizures, while identifying where there are inadequate data to support recommended practice, and where further data collection is needed to address these deficits.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Convulsões Febris/terapia , Espasmos Infantis/terapia , Comitês Consultivos , Anticonvulsivantes , Gerenciamento Clínico , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Neuroimagem , Convulsões Febris/diagnóstico , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico
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