Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 183
Filtrar
1.
Clin Nutr ; 40(6): 3718-3728, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Consumption of rapid digesting sugars by children are under increased scrutiny because of their contribution to unhealthy weight gain. Previous studies in adults and children have suggested that altering the blend of carbohydrates (CHOs) consumed may cause shifts in substrate utilization. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of consuming a slow digesting carbohydrate (SDC) and rapid digesting carbohydrate (RDC) on CHO and fat oxidation, glucose, and insulin responses at rest, during exercise, and post-exercise rest in pre-pubescent children. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was used. Nineteen pre-pubescent children (n = 10 boys, n = 9 girls, mean ± standard error, age = 9.84 ± 0.37-yrs) participated. Visits to the laboratory began with a 30-min measurement of resting metabolism followed by consumption of either an RDC or SDC drink. Postprandial resting metabolism was recorded for 60-min, immediately followed by 60-min of submaximal cycling exercise while metabolism was recorded, which was immediately followed by another 60-min recording of post-exercise metabolism. Total CHO and fat oxidation, endogenous and exogenous CHO oxidation, blood glucose, and insulin were assessed. RESULTS: Total CHO oxidation rate (g∙min-1) was greater after the RDC drink at 60 min (p = 0.032). Endogenous CHO oxidation rate (g∙min-1) was greater after the SDC drink at 15 min (p ≤ 0.010). Cumulative endogenous CHO oxidation (g) was greater after the SDC drink at 45 min (p = 0.009). Endogenous CHO oxidation accounted for a greater proportion of substrate oxidation after the first 60-min rest period (p = 0.028), while exogenous CHO oxidation accounted for a greater proportion of substrate oxidation for the RDC at all time points (p ≤ 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides novel data suggesting that an SDC promotes greater endogenous substrate utilization in pre-pubertal children, which may have beneficial health impacts on energy intake and carbohydrate regulation/metabolism during growth and development. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY NUMBER: NCT03185884, clinicaltrials.gov.

2.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(6): 1535-1541, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027920

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Herda, AA, Smith-Ryan, AE, Kendall, KL, Cramer, JT, and Stout, JR. Evaluation of high-intensity interval training and beta-alanine supplementation on efficiency of electrical activity and electromyographic fatigue threshold. J Strength Cond Res 35(6): 1535-1541, 2021-The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with or without ß-alanine (BA) supplementation on the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) and efficiency of electrical activity (EEA) in young women. Forty-four women (mean ± SD; age [yrs]: 21.7 ± 3.7; height [cm]: 166.3 ± 6.4; body mass [kg]: 66.1 ± 10.3) were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups. The supplement groups performed HIIT on the cycle ergometer 3 times·wk-1 for 6 weeks. Electromyographic fatigue threshold and EEA were assessed at baseline (PRE), after 3 weeks of training (MID), and after 6 weeks of HIIT (POST). Two 2-way mixed factorial analyses of variance (time [PRE vs. MID vs. POST] × treatment (BA vs. PL vs. CON)] were used to analyze EMGFT and EEA with a predetermined level of significance α of 0.05. For EMGFT, there was no interaction (p = 0.26) and no main effect for time (p = 0.28) nor treatment (p = 0.86); thus, there were no changes in EMGFT regardless of training or supplementation status. For EEA, there was no interaction (p = 0.70) nor treatment (p = 0.79); however, there was a main effect for time (p < 0.01). Our findings indicated that neither training nor supplementation was effective in improving EMGFT in women. Efficiency of electrical activity was altered, potentially because of a learning effect. Coaches and practitioners may not use these tests to monitor training status; however, they may find EEA as a useful tool to track cycling efficiency.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Eletromiografia , Teste de Esforço , Fadiga , Feminino , Humanos , Fadiga Muscular , Consumo de Oxigênio , beta-Alanina
3.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 121(9): 2487-2497, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare measurements of muscle strength, size, and activation of the forearm flexors in pre- and post-pubescent males and females. METHODS: Forty pre-pubescent (mean ± 95% confidence interval, age = 9.79 ± 0.35 years, n = 10 males, n = 10 females) and post-pubescent (age = 17.23 ± 0.58 years, n = 10 males, n = 10 females) youth participated. Subjects completed maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) of the forearm flexors, and submaximal isometric step muscle actions at 30, 50, and 70% of the peak MVIC. Percent voluntary activation (VA) was quantified during all isometric muscle actions. Forearm flexor (biceps brachii and brachialis) muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was quantified from ultrasound images. RESULTS: MVIC strength was expressed in absolute terms and normalized to CSA. Post-pubertal males were 130% stronger, had 101% greater CSA, and 17% greater maximal VA than pre-pubertal males, while post-pubertal females were 72% stronger, had 54% greater CSA, and 23% greater maximal VA than pre-pubertal females. When MVIC strength was normalized to CSA, the post-pubertal males were still 15% stronger than the pre-pubertal males, while the post-pubertal females were only 12% stronger than the pre-pubertal females. The responses for VA across intensity reflected differences in muscle activation strategies between pre- and post-pubertal males and females. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that muscle size may account for a greater proportion of the growth and development-related differences in strength among males, while females may be more affected by changes in muscle activation. Regardless of sex, changes in muscle size and neuromuscular function influence strength increases during growth and development.

4.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 121(5): 1473-1485, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the individual and composite patterns of responses and time-course of changes in muscle size, strength, and edema throughout a 4 week low-load blood flow restriction (LLBFR) resistance training intervention. METHODS: Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; 23 ± 3 years) participated in this investigation and were randomly assigned to 4 weeks (3/week) of LLBFR (n = 10) or control (n = 10) group. Resistance training consisted of 75 reciprocal isokinetic forearm flexion-extension muscle actions performed at 30% of peak torque. Strength and ultrasound-based assessments were determined at each training session. RESULTS: There were quadratic increases for composite muscle thickness (R2 = 0.998), concentric peak torque (R2 = 0.962), and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque (R2 = 0.980) data for the LLBFR group. For muscle thickness, seven of ten subjects exceeded the minimal difference (MD) of 0.16 cm during the very early phase (laboratory visits 1-7) of the intervention compared to three of ten subjects that exceeded MD for either concentric peak torque (3.7 Nm) or MVIC (2.2 Nm) during this same time period. There was a linear increase for composite echo intensity (r2 = 0.563) as a result of LLBFR resistance training, but eight of ten subjects never exceeded the MD of 14.2 Au. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that the increases in muscle thickness for the LLBFR group were not associated with edema and changes in echo intensity should be examined on a subject-by-subject basis. Furthermore, LLBFR forearm flexion-extension resistance training elicited real increases in muscle size during the very early phase of training that occurred prior to real increases in muscle strength.


Assuntos
Braço/irrigação sanguínea , Braço/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Edema/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Torque , Adulto Jovem
5.
Hum Mov Sci ; 74: 102678, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137582

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to use polynomial regression analyses to examine the torque- and power-velocity relationships and calculate and compare the vertices of these nonlinear models, and how they relate to measurements of muscle size and maximal strength, between male and female children and adolescents during maximal isokinetic leg extension muscle actions. Sixteen children (n = 8 males, n = 8 females) and 22 adolescents (n = 11 males, n = 11 females) participated in this study. Measurements of growth included age, maturity offset, height, body mass, fat-free mass, and quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Participants completed maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) of the leg extensors and maximal voluntary isokinetic leg extensions at 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300°·s-1. Variables calculated during all leg extension muscle actions included peak torque (PT, Nm) and mean power (MP, W). Polynomial regression analyses determined the model of best fit for the PT- and MP-velocity relationships. For each participant, the vertex from the PT- and MP-velocity quadratic models were quantified as the predicted maximum velocity of last measurable torque (VPT) and the predicted velocity of maximum mean power (VMP), respectively. Measurements of growth, PT and MP at all velocities, VPT, and VMP were greater in the adolescents than children. When normalized to CSA, VPT and VMP remained greater for adolescents than children, and exhibited low to very high relationships with measurements of growth. When normalized to MVIC strength, VPT and VMP were no longer different between children and adolescents and exhibited negligible to low relationships with measurements of growth. The results of the present study suggest that the ability to produce torque and power at high velocities may be more dependent on muscle strength than muscle size, which suggests that mechanisms other than muscular hypertrophy affect torque and power production at high velocities in young males and females.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/anatomia & histologia , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Torque , Adolescente , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Dinâmica não Linear
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(9): 2456-2464, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865943

RESUMO

Bohannon, NA, Gillen, ZM, Shoemaker, ME, McKay, BD, Gibson, SM, Cramer, JT. Test-Retest Reliability of Static and Counter-Movement Power Push-Up Tests in Young Male Athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2456-2464, 2020-The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate test-retest reliability of the static (SP) and countermovement (CMP) power push-up test in young male athletes. The secondary purpose was to compare the reliability of vertical ground reaction forces versus torque measurements during the power push-up tests. Twenty boys (age = 11.60 ± 1.15 years) performed SPs and CMPs on force plates with the knees as the fulcrum on 2 laboratory visits separated by 2-7 days. Performance measurements included peak force (PF), peak rate of force development (pRFD), peak torque (PT), peak rate of torque development (pRTD), peak power (PP), average power (AP), eccentric impulse (ECC), and concentric impulse (CON) for both power push-up techniques. Age, maturity offset, height, body mass, fat-free mass, and estimated arm cross sectional area were obtained as measurements of growth. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), SEM, coefficients of variation, and minimum detectable changes (MDC) were reported. Only PF (ICC = 0.87-0.88, SEM = 59-84 N) and PT (ICC = 0.89-0.90, SEM = 60-88 N·m) showed acceptable reliability. Neither pRFD, pRTD, PP, AP, ECC, or CON were reliable outcomes. There were no meaningful differences between force-time and torque-time curve measurements. The SP showed slightly lower CVs (33-34%) than the CMP (CVs = 39-40%). Coaches and practitioners would need to see 58-71% increases in upper-body strength measurements evaluated via power push-up on force plates to be 95% confident that the improvements exceeded the measurement variability.


Assuntos
Atletas , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Torque
7.
Metabol Open ; 7: 100041, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812942

RESUMO

Purpose: The purposes of the present study were to (a) examine resting metabolism, substrate utilization, and endogenous versus exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation before and after 30-g rapidly-digesting carbohydrate (RDC) ingestion using indirect calorimetry and breath test analysis of stable isotope concentrations in pre-pubescent children and (b) report the 13C abundances in foods consumed for three days prior. Methods: Nineteen children (n = 10 boys, n = 9 girls) at Tanner stage I or II participated (mean age ± 95% CI = 9.84 ± 0.77 y) in this study. Food was administered to the children for three days preceding their scheduled breath tests. Breath tests and indirect calorimetry were performed after an 8-h fast before and 60 min following consumption of a 30-g simple RDC drink consisting of maltodextrin and sucrose. Open circuit spirometry and indirect calorimetry monitored resting metabolism and CHO oxidation. Separate breath samples were taken every 15 min. Samples of all foods and breath samples were analyzed for 13C and 12C abundances with a stable-isotope mass spectrometer. Results: 13C in expired breath samples were -23.81 ± 1.64‰ at baseline and increased every 15 min after consumption of the CHO drink (p < 0.001-0.009). Cumulative total, endogenous, and exogenous CHO utilization increased during the post-prandial period (p < 0.001). Endogenous CHO oxidation was consistently greater than exogenous CHO oxidation (p < 0.001-0.002).Blood glucose was elevated from baseline at 30- and 60-min post-prandial (p < 0.001). Insulin did not change over time (p = 0.184). Conclusions: The foods provided during the 3-day controlled diet effectively minimized 13C variation prior to metabolic testing. The 13C abundances of foods reported herein should serve as practical recommendations to reduce 13C intake before breath tests. While endogenous CHO oxidation remained greater in proportion to exogenous CHO oxidation, these findings suggest that even a relatively small amount of RDC can increase exogenous CHO oxidation and blood glucose in normal-weight children. To further examine shifts in endogenous versus exogenous CHO utilization, we recommend that future studies take steps to minimize 13C variation before breath tests and examine changes in substrate metabolism at rest and during exercise in normal weight and overweight pre-pubescent children. Clinical trial registration number: NCT03185884.

8.
J Aging Phys Act ; 29(1): 17-26, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604068

RESUMO

The purpose of this trial was to examine the effects of self-selected exercise intensities plus either whey protein or placebo supplementation on vital signs, body composition, bone mineral density, muscle strength, and mobility in older adults. A total of 101 participants aged 55 years and older (males [n = 34] and females [n = 67]) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of self-selected, free-weight resistance exercise plus 30 min of self-paced walking three times per week. The participants were randomized into two groups: whey protein (n = 46) or placebo (n = 55). Three-way mixed factorial analyses of variance were used to test for mean differences for each variable. The 12 weeks of self-selected, self-paced exercise intensities improved resting heart rate, fat-free mass, percent body fat, handgrip strength, bench press strength, leg press strength, and all mobility measurements (p < .05) in males and females despite supplementation status. This suggests that additional protein in well-fed healthy older adults does not enhance the benefit of exercise.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Força da Mão , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Treinamento de Força , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Aptidão Física
9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(9): 2507-2514, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639374

RESUMO

Gillen, ZM, Shoemaker, ME, McKay, BD, Bohannon, NA, Gibson, SM, and Cramer, JT. Peak torque explains more unique variability in growth measurements than rate of torque development in young boys and girls. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2507-2514, 2020-This study reported test-retest reliability and evaluated collinearity for isometric leg extension and flexion peak torque (PT) and rate of torque development (RTD) in young boys and girls. Measurements of growth included height, body mass, fat-free mass, maturity offset, and leg extensor and flexor muscle cross-sectional area. Maximal isometric contractions quantified PT and RTD. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), SEM, coefficients of variation, and minimum detectable changes quantified test-retest reliability. Zero-order correlations and first-order partial correlations evaluated collinearity. Peak torque from leg extension and flexion exhibited ICCs ≥ 0.90, RTD from leg extension and flexion exhibited ICCs ≥ 0.38. Partialing out leg flexion PT reduced the relationships between leg extension PT and growth (rPText, growth.PTflex = 0.392-0.605). Partialing out leg extension PT eliminated the relationships between leg flexion PT and growth (rPTflex, growth.PText = 0.098-0.263). Partialing out leg extension RTD reduced the relationships between PT and growth (rPText, growth.RTDext = 0.516-0.775). Partialing out leg extension PT eliminated the relationships between RTD and growth (|rRTDext, growth.PText| = 0.001-0.148). Leg extension PT was more reliable and explained the most unique variability in growth among young boys and girls. In contrast, RTD was less reliable and was fully accounted for by PT, indicating that RTD may be an unnecessary measurement in studies of young boys and girls.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Torque , Adolescente , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483060

RESUMO

Gillen, ZM, Shoemaker, ME, McKay, BD, Bohannon, NA, Gibson, SM, and Cramer, JT. Influences of the stretch-shortening cycle and arm swing on vertical jump performance in children and adolescents. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This study compared the influences of the stretch-shortening cycle and arm swing on vertical jump performance during static jumps (SJs), counter-movement jumps (CMJs), and CMJs with arm swing (CMJAs) in young male and female athletes. Twenty-one boys (age = 12.1 ± 1.1 years) and 21 girls (age = 12.1 ± 1.1 years) performed SJs, CMJs, and CMJAs on force plates that sampled at 1 kHz. Measurements included peak force, rate of force development, peak power (PP), eccentric impulse (ECC), concentric impulse (CON), estimated jump height (JH), and changes in PP and JH across vertical jumps. Measurements of growth included age, maturity offset, height, body mass, fat-free mass, and thigh muscle cross-sectional area. Analyses of variance were used to analyze growth measurements across sex, as well as vertical jump outcome measures. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationships between changes in PP and JH across vertical jumps and growth measurements. There were differences in PP and JH such that SJ < CMJ < CMJA (p < 0.001), and ECC such that SJ < CMJA < CMJ (p ≤ 0.048). Changes in PP were greater from the SJ to CMJ than CMJ to CMJA (p ≤ 0.001). The change in PP from the SJ to CMJ exhibited moderate-to-high relationships with growth measurements for boys and girls (r = 0.543-0.803). Because young children may not have the skeletal musculature or strength necessary to absorb and reapply large eccentric preloading forces, future studies should consider using the CMJA, rather than the CMJ, to maximize vertical jump performance and minimize ECC. Coaches and practitioners can expect approximately 27-33% greater PP and 15-17% greater estimated JH when an arm swing is included during the CMJ.

11.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 39(2): 155-162, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339828

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of poor iron status in young athletes throughout the stages of iron deficiency and assess sex differences with iron deficiency in relation to growth and development and dietary intake.Methods: A cross-sectional analysis evaluated young male and female athletes (n = 91) between the ages 8 and 16 years. Anthropometric assessments, body composition, dietary intakes, and blood samples measuring ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin (Hb) were examined. Prevalence was calculated as percentages, and independent samples t tests examined sex differences. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient analyses quantified relationships among variables for the composite sample and each sex separately.Results: Iron depletion (low ferritin) was present in 65% and 86%, low iron levels (sTfR) in 51% and 68%, and anemia (low Hb) in 46% and 53% of the males and females, respectively. As iron deficiency progressed from low ferritin to high sTfR to anemia, prevalence decreased in both sexes, but always remained higher in females. Males were greater than females for weight, arm muscle size, and ferritin concentrations, while females were greater than males for biological maturity (p ≤ 0.05). Dietary iron intake was moderately to highly correlated (r = 0.543-0.723, p ≤ 0.05) with growth and development in females, but not males.Conclusions: Prevalence of poor iron status was higher than expected, particularly in adolescent females. Since rapid growth combined with sports participation may create high demands for iron bioavailability, emphasis may need to be placed on dietary iron intake for young athletes, particularly females.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ferro/deficiência , Adolescente , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Receptores da Transferrina/sangue , Fatores Sexuais
12.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(4): 1184-1187, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418328

RESUMO

McKay, BD, Miramonti, AA, Gillen, ZM, Leutzinger, TJ, Mendez, AI, Jenkins, NDM, and Cramer, JT. Normative reference values for high school-aged American football players: Proagility drill and 40-yard dash split times. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1184-1187, 2020-The purpose of this short report was to provide test- and position-specific normative reference values for the 10- and 20-yd split times (10YD and 20YD) during the 40-yd dash (40YD) as well as 10-yd split times during the proagility drill (PA) based on a large, nationally representative sample of high school-aged American football players in their freshman, sophomore, and junior classes. Cross-sectional performance data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines between March 7, 2015, and January 9, 2016, across the United States. The sample included (n = 7,478) high school-aged American football athletes in their freshman (n = 1,185), sophomore (n = 2,514), and junior (n = 3,779) classes. Each player self-classified their American football positions as defensive back, defensive end, defensive linemen, linebacker, offensive linemen (OL), quarterback (QB), running back, tight end, or wide receiver. The results of the freshman, sophomore, and junior class were aggregated to generate test- and position-specific normative values. Mean differences were found among classes for all positions and all measurements (p ≤ 0.05) except for OL and QB PA split time (p > 0.05). Greater percent differences for all 3 variables were observed between freshman and sophomore years than between sophomore and junior years. These normative reference values will be useful for athletes, parents, coaches, and high school strength and conditioning professionals to set realistic goals for young American football athletes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Atletas , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Estados Unidos
13.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(10): 2849-2856, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489728

RESUMO

McKay, BD, Miramonti, AA, Gillen, ZM, Leutzinger, TJ, Mendez, AI, Jenkins, NDM, and Cramer, JT. Normative reference values for high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 34(10): 2849-2856, 2020-The purpose of the present report was to provide test- and position-specific normative reference values for combine test results based on a large, nationally representative sample of high school-aged American football players in their freshman, sophomore, and junior classes. Cross-sectional anthropometric and performance data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines between March 7, 2015, and January 9, 2016, across the United States. Subjects included a sample (n = 7,478) of high school-aged American football athletes in their junior (n = 3,779), sophomore (n = 2,514), and freshman (n = 1,185) classes. The database included combine date, school state, position, class, height, body mass (BM), 40-yard dash, pro-agility, 3-cone, vertical jump, broad jump, and power push-up. Each player self-classified their American football positions as defensive back, defensive end, defensive linemen, linebacker, offensive linemen, quarterback, running back, tight end (TE), or wide receiver. Test- and position-specific normative values were generated by aggregating data from freshman, sophomore, and junior classes. Mean differences were found among classes for all positions and all measurements (p ≤ 0.05), except for TE BM (p > 0.05). Greater differences for all variables were observed from freshman to sophomore classes than from sophomore to junior classes. These normative reference values may provide realistic comparisons and evaluations in performance for young American football players, parents, and coaches with collegiate football aspirations. High school strength and conditioning professionals should use these norms to set attainable goals and reward accomplishments for young football players.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/normas , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/normas , Estados Unidos , Universidades
14.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 120(2): 425-441, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low-load venous blood flow restriction resistance training (RT + BFR) has been demonstrated to increase muscle strength to a greater degree than low-load non-BFR resistance training (RT) during isotonic training, but no previous investigations have examined RT + BFR versus RT during isokinetic training. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of 4 weeks of isokinetic low-load RT + BFR versus low-load RT on indices of muscle strength, muscle size, and neural adaptations. METHODS: Thirty women (mean ± SD; 22 ± 2 years) participated in this investigation and were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of either RT + BFR (n = 10), RT (n = 10), or control (n = 10) group. Resistance training consisted of 75 reciprocal forearm flexion-extension isokinetic muscle actions of the forearm flexors performed at a velocity of 120°s-1. RESULTS: Concentric peak torque increased to a greater extent for RT + BFR after 4 weeks (36.9%) compared to RT (25.8%), but there were similar increases in isometric torque (23.3-42.1%). For both RT + BFR and RT, there were similar increases in muscle cross-sectional area and muscle thickness of the biceps brachii after 2 weeks (11.3-14.3% and 12.4-12.9%, respectively) and 4 weeks (18.7-21.9% and 19.0-20.0%, respectively). There were similar increases in mechanomyographic amplitude, mechanomyographic mean power frequency, and electromyographic mean power frequency, but no changes in electromyographic amplitude for all conditions (including control). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that low-load RT + BFR elicited greater increases in concentric strength than low-load RT, but elicited comparable increases in isometric strength and muscle size. There were also no differences in any of the EMG and MMG responses among conditions.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Appl Biomech ; 35(5): 327-335, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541066

RESUMO

This study measured peak force (PF), peak rate of force development (PRFD), peak power (PP), concentric impulse, and eccentric impulse during static jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and drop jump (DJ) in youth athletes to examine changes in vertical jump power with progressively greater eccentric preloading in relation to age, maturity, and muscle mass. Twenty-one males ranging from 6 to 16 years old performed the following vertical jumps in a random order: SJ, CMJ, and DJ from drop heights of 20, 30, and 40 cm (DJ20, DJ30, and DJ40, respectively). Measurements included PF, PRFD, PP, eccentric impulse, and concentric impulse for each vertical jump condition. Maturity offset was calculated, while ultrasound images quantified thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). PF and PRFD increased from CMJ to DJ20. PP increased from SJ to CMJ. Concentric impulse remained unchanged, but eccentric impulse increased systematically from across jumps. The change in PP from SJ to CMJ was correlated with age, height, weight, maturity offset, and CSA. The CMJ resulted in the greatest concentric PP with the least amount of eccentric preloading. The inability of young athletes to translate the energy absorbed during the eccentric phase of the stretch-shortening cycle of DJs may be influenced by growth and development.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adolescente , Atletas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Coxa da Perna
16.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 42, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among biomarkers of iron status, athletic performance, growth and development, and dietary intakes in pre-adolescent and adolescent male and female athletes. METHODS: Two-hundred and forty-nine male (n = 179) (mean ± standard deviation for age = 12.0 ± 2.1 years, height = 156.3 ± 13.9 cm, and weight = 49.1 ± 16.5 kg) and female (n = 70) (12.0 ± 2.2 years, 152.4 ± 12.3 cm, 45.3 ± 14.5 kg) athletes volunteered for capillary blood sample, anthropometric, athletic performance, and dietary intake assessments. Outcomes included maturity offset from peak height velocity, percent body fat, estimated muscle cross-sectional areas, vertical jump height (VJ), broad jump distance (BJ), pro-agility time (PA), L-cone time, 20-yard dash time (20YD), power push up (PPU) force, dietary intakes, and ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. RESULTS: Athletic performance was consistently correlated with Hb in males (r = .237-.375, p < 0.001-0.05) and with sTfR (r = .521-.649, p < 0.001-0.004) and iron intake (r = .397-.568, p = 0.001-0.027) in females. There were no relationships between dietary intakes and ferritin, sTfR, or Hb (p > 0.05). After partialing out age and height, VJ, PA, LC, and 20YD remained correlated with Hb in males (|rHb,y.Age| = .208-.322, p = 0.001-0.041; |rHb,y.Height| = .211-.321, p = 0.001-0.038). After partialing out iron intake, PA and LC remained correlated with sTfR in females (|rsTfR,y.ironintake| = .516-.569, p = 0.014-0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Iron status biomarkers demonstrated sex-specific relationships with anaerobic exercise performance in youth athletes, which may be more dependent on maturity status and dietary intake than age. Moderate relationships between sTfR and athletic performance in adolescent female athletes emphasizes the importance of iron intake in this demographic.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Ferro/sangue , Adolescente , Antropometria , Atletas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Fatores Sexuais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva
17.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453941

RESUMO

Jenkins, NDM, Miramonti, AA, Hill, EC, Smith, CM, Cochrane-Snyman, KC, Housh, TJ, and Cramer, JT. Mechanomyographic amplitude is sensitive to load-dependent neuromuscular adaptations in response to resistance training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-We examined the sensitivity of the mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS) and frequency (MMGMPF) vs. torque relationships to load-dependent neuromuscular adaptations in response to 6 weeks of higher- vs. lower-load resistance training. Twenty-five men (age = 22.8 ± 4.6 years) were randomly assigned to either a high- (n = 13) or low-load (n = 12) training group and completed 6 weeks of leg extension resistance training at 80 or 30% 1RM. Before and after 3 and 6 weeks of training, mechanomyography signals were recorded during isometric contractions at target torques equal to 10-100% of the subjects' baseline maximal strength to quantify MMGRMS and MMGMPF vs. torque relationships. MMGRMS decreased from Baseline to weeks 3 and 6 in the high-load, but not low-load group, and was dependent on the muscle and intensity of contraction examined. Consequently, MMGRMS was generally lower in the high- than low-load group at weeks 3 and 6, and these differences were most apparent in the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris muscles at higher contraction intensities. MMGMPF was greater in the high- than low-load training group independent of time or muscle. The MMGRMS vs. torque relationship was sensitive to load-dependent, muscle-specific neuromuscular adaptations and suggest reductions in neuromuscular activation to produce the same absolute submaximal torques after training with high, but not low loads.

18.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(7): 1619-1632, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087141

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare measurements of muscle strength, size, and neuromuscular function among pre-adolescent and adolescent boys and girls with distinctly different strength capabilities. METHODS: Fifteen boys (mean age ± confidence interval: 13.0 ± 1.0 years) and 13 girls (12.9 ± 1.1 years) were categorized as low strength (LS, n = 14) or high strength (HS, n = 14) based on isometric maximal voluntary contraction strength of the leg extensors. Height (HT), seated height, and weight (WT) determined maturity offset, while percent body fat and fat-free mass (FFM) were estimated from skinfold measurements. Quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was assessed from ultrasound images. Isometric ramp contractions of the leg extensors were performed while surface electromyographic amplitude (EMGRMS) and mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS) were recorded for the vastus lateralis (VL). Neuromuscular efficiency from the EMG and MMG signals (NMEEMG and NMEMMG, respectively) and log-transformed EMG and MMG vs. torque relationships were also used to examine neuromuscular responses. RESULTS: HS was 99-117% stronger, 2.3-2.8  years older, 14.0-15.7 cm taller, 20.9-22.3 kg heavier, 2.3-2.4 years more biologically mature, and exhibited 39-43% greater CSA than LS (p ≤ 0.001). HS exhibited 74-81% higher NMEEMG than LS (p ≤ 0.022), while HS girls exhibited the highest NMEMMG (p ≤ 0.045). Even after scaling for HT, WT, CSA, and FFM, strength was still 36-90% greater for HS than LS (p ≤ 0.031). The MMGRMS patterns in the LS group displayed more type I motor unit characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Neuromuscular adaptations likely influence strength increases from pre-adolescence to adolescence, particularly when examining large, force-producing muscles and large strength differences explained by biological maturity, rather than simply age.


Assuntos
Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
19.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(2): 227-233, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794113

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine magnitudes of differences for anthropometric and athletic performance scores between high school and elite college-level American football players. METHOD: Participants included high school-age (n = 3,666) athletes who participated in American football combines, as well as elite college-level (n = 5,537) athletes who participated in the National Football League (NFL) scouting combine. Combine data included position; height; weight; 10-, 20-, and 40-yard dash; pro-agility (PA); L-cone drill (LC); vertical jump (VJ); and broad jump (BJ). Athletes were separated into their respective position group, defensive back (DB), wide receiver (WR), linebacker (LB), quarterback (QB), running back (RB), tight end (TE), defensive line (DL), and offensive line (OL) for analysis of performance differences. Percent differences for each dependent variable were calculated to quantify magnitudes of differences. RESULTS: NFL combine participants scored 3% to 25% better on all measurements, with the largest differences between weight and VJ (14%-25%). CONCLUSION: The largest measurement-specific differences between high school-age and elite college-level American football players were body size and power. Although it may seem intuitive that elite college-level players would perform better, these data provide a unique perspective to high school players, parents, and coaches, giving new information to use when designing measurement-specific athletic development programs. Thus, strength and conditioning professionals may benefit from emphasizing increases in muscle mass and power output in strength and conditioning programs.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Estados Unidos
20.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 12(6): 256-262, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761209

RESUMO

This study compared athletic performance differences among high school American football combine participants originating from states of different population sizes. High school-aged American football players (n=7,214) who had participated in athletic performance combines between March 2015 and January 2016 were included in this analysis. Data included combine date and location, school state of origin, football position, class, height, weight, 10-, 20-, and 40-yd dash times, pro-agility, L-cone drill, vertical jump, broad jump, and power push-up. Participants were separated into high- (state population>10,000,000; HIGH; n=2,804), mid- (state population=5,000,000-9,999,999; MID; n=2,911), or low-population (state population<5,000,000; LOW; n=1,499) state of origin. Data were allometrically scaled to account for differences in body mass across high school grade levels and American football positions. All statistical analyses were performed on the allometrically scaled data. LOW athletes performed better than HIGH athletes in the 20-yd dash (p≤0.01). LOW athletes performed better than HIGH and MID in the 40-yd dash, pro-agility, broad jump, and power push-up (p<0.01). LOW and HIGH athletes performed better than MID in the L-cone and vertical jump (p<0.01). When considering population size, athletes originating from LOW states may demonstrate higher levels of athletic performance in football combine events hypothetically due to more opportunities for sports participation and playing time, leading to greater athletic development. Youth and high school coaches in MID and HIGH states might consider providing more opportunities for playing and individualized coaching to encourage long-term athletic development.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...