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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1228: 425-438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342475

RESUMO

There are several mechanisms that cause memory impairment, including motivated forgetting, active forgetting, natural decay, and memory interference. Interference occurs when one is attempting to recall something specific, but there is conflicting information making it more difficult to recall the target stimuli. In laboratory settings, it is common to measure memory interference with paired associate tasks-usually utilizing the AB-CD, AB-AC, AB-ABr, or AB-DE AC-FG method. Memory impairments are frequent among those with neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. The memory effects of each condition differ, but are all related to alterations in brain physiology and general memory deterioration. Exercise, or physical activity, has been demonstrated to attenuate memory interference in some cases, but the mechanisms are still being determined. Further research is needed on memory interference, in regard to exercise and neuropsychiatric disorders.

2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(3)2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183249

RESUMO

In this paper we introduce a mechanistic model through which exercise may enhance episodic memory, specifically via attenuating proactive and retroactive memory interference. We discuss the various types of memory, different stages of memory function, review the mechanisms behind forgetting, and the mechanistic role of exercise in facilitating pattern separation (to attenuate memory interference).

3.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106354

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Competency-based education (CBE) is currently being implemented across Canadian postgraduate medical education programmes through Competence by Design (CBD).1 Queen's University received permission to initiate CBE in all programmes simultaneously starting in 2017; an institutional initiative termed Competency-based medical education (CBME).2 We describe our initial experiences to highlight perceptions and barriers and facilitate implementation at other centers. METHODS: Anonymous online surveys were administered to faculty and residents transitioning to CBE (138 respondents) including (a) Queen's programme leaders (Programme Directors and CBME Leads) [n = 27], (b) Queen's residents [n = 102], and (c) Canadian neurology programme directors [n = 9] and were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. RESULTS: Perceptions were favourable (x = 3.55/5, SD = 0.71) and 81.6% perceived CBE enhanced training; however, perceptions were more favourable among faculty. Queen's programme leaders indicated that CBE did not improve their ability to provide negative feedback. Queen's residents did not perceive improved quality of feedback. National Canadian neurology programme directors did not perceive that their institutions had adequately prepared them. There was variability in barriers perceived across groups. Queen's programme leaders were concerned about resident initiative. Queen's residents felt that assessment selection and faculty responsiveness to feedback were barriers. Canadian neurology programme directors were concerned about access to information technology. RECOMMENDATIONS: Our results indicate that faculty were concerned about the reluctance of residents to actively participate in CBE, while residents were hesitant to assume such a role because of lack of familiarity and perceived benefit. This discrepancy indicates attention should be devoted to (a) institutional administrative/educational supports, (b) faculty development around feedback/assessment, and (c) resident development to foster ownership of their learning and familiarity with CBE.

4.
Am J Health Promot ; 34(1): 25-31, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359765

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Retroactive interference involves the disruption of previously encoded information from newly learned information and thus may impair the consolidation of long-term memory. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether acute exercise can attenuate retroactive memory interference. DESIGN: Three experimental studies were employed. Experiment 1 employed a between-subject randomized control trial (RCT) involving moderate-intensity walking (15 minutes). Experiment 2 employed a between-subject RCT involving high-intensity jogging (15 minutes). Experiment 3 employed a within-subject RCT involving moderate-intensity walking (15 minutes). SETTING: University setting. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twelve young adults. MEASURES: After exercise, memory interference was evaluated from an episodic word-list memory task, involving the recall of 2 word lists. RESULTS: The pooled effect size (standard difference in means: -0.35; 95% confidence interval: -0.64 to -0.06) across the 3 experiments was statistically significant (P = .01). CONCLUSION: We provide suggestive evidence that acute, short-duration exercise may help attenuate a retroactive memory interference effect. Implications of these findings for exercise to improve memory and attenuate memory decay are discussed.

5.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Memory interference occurs when information (or memory) to be retrieved is interrupted by competing stimuli. Proactive interference (PI) occurs when previously acquired information interferes with newly acquired information, whereas retroactive interference (RI) occurs when newly acquired information interferes with previously acquired information. In animal paradigms, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to help facilitate pattern separation, and ultimately, attenuate memory interference. Research evaluating the role of the PFC on memory interference among humans is, however, limited. The present study evaluated the relationship between PFC oxygenation on memory interference among humans, with the null hypothesis being that there is no association between PFC oxygenation and memory interference. METHODS: A total of 74 participants (Mage = 20.8 years) completed the study. Participants completed a computerized memory interference task using the AB-DE AC-FG paradigm, with PFC oxyhemoglobin levels measured via functional near-infrared spectroscopy. RESULTS: For PI, the change in oxygenated hemoglobin for encoding list 1 and retrieval of list 1 showed moderate evidence for the null hypothesis (BF01 = 4.05 and 3.28, respectively). For RI, the Bayesian analysis also established moderate evidence for the null hypothesis across all memory task time points. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates evidence of the null hypothesis regarding the relationship between PFC oxygenation and memory interference. Future work should continue to investigate this topic to identify mechanistic correlates of memory interference.

6.
Brain Sci ; 9(11)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739561

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous research has evaluated the effects of acute hypoxia exposure on cognitive function, notably executive function. No studies, to date, have evaluated the effects of acute hypoxia exposure on memory interference, which was the purpose of this experiment. METHODS: A within-subjects, counterbalanced experimental design was employed, with condition (hypoxia vs. normoxia) and time (immediate vs. delayed) being the independent variables. Participants (N = 21; Mage = 21.0 years) completed two laboratory visits, involving 30 min of exposure to either hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.12) or normoxia (FIO2 = 0.21). Following this, they completed a memory interference task (AB/AC paradigm), assessing immediate and delayed proactive and retroactive interference. RESULTS: For retroactive interference, we observed a significant main effect for condition, F(1, 20) = 5.48, p = 0.03, ƞ2 = 0.10, condition by time interaction, F(1, 20) = 4.96, p = 0.03, ƞ2 = 0.01, but no main effect for time, F(1, 20) = 1.75, p = 0.20, ƞ2 = 0.004. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that acute hypoxia exposure was facilitative in reducing memory interference. We discuss these findings in the context of the potential therapeutic effects of acute hypoxia exposure on synaptic plasticity.

7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269780

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of acute exercise on memory interference and determine if this potential relationship is moderated by sex. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled experiment was conducted (N = 40), involving young adult males (n = 20) and females (n = 20) completing two counterbalanced visits (exercise and no exercise). The exercise visit involved an acute (15 min), moderate-intensity bout of treadmill exercise, while the control visit involved a time-matched seated task. Memory interference, including both proactive interference and retroactive interference, involved the completion of a multi-trial memory task. Results: In a factorial ANOVA with the outcome being List B, there was a main effect for condition (F(1,38) = 5.75, P = 0.02, n2p = 0.13), but there was no main effect for sex (F(1,38) = 1.39, P = 0.24, n2p = 0.04) or sex by condition interaction (F(1,38) = 1.44, P = 0.23, n2p = 0.04). Conclusion: In conclusion, acute moderate-intensity exercise was effective in attenuating a proactive memory interference effect. This effect was not moderated by biological sex.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Mississippi , Adulto Jovem
8.
Brain Sci ; 9(4)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating research demonstrates that the timing of exercise plays an important role in influencing episodic memory. However, we have a limited understanding as to the factors that moderate this temporal effect. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of study characteristics (e.g., exercise modality, intensity and duration of acute exercise) and participant attributes (e.g., age, sex) across each of the temporal periods of acute exercise on episodic memory (i.e., acute exercise occurring before memory encoding, and during memory encoding, early consolidation, and late consolidation). Methods: The following databases were used for our computerized searches: Embase/PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Sports Discus and PsychInfo. Studies were included if they: (1) Employed an experimental design with a comparison to a control group/visit, (2) included human participants, (3) evaluated exercise as the independent variable, (4), employed an acute bout of exercise (defined as a single bout of exercise), (5) evaluated episodic memory as the outcome variable (defined as the retrospective recall of information either in a spatial or temporal manner), and (6) provided sufficient data (e.g., mean, SD, and sample size) for a pooled effect size estimate. Results: In total, 25 articles met our inclusionary criteria and were meta-analyzed. Acute exercise occurring before memory encoding (d = 0.11, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.23, p = 0.08), during early memory consolidation (d = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.67; p < 0.001) and during late memory consolidation (d = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.32, 1.78; p = 0.005) enhanced episodic memory function. Conversely, acute exercise occurring during memory encoding had a negative effect on episodic memory (d = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.22, -0.02; p = 0.02). Various study designs and participant characteristics moderated the temporal effects of acute exercise on episodic memory function. For example, vigorous-intensity acute exercise, and acute exercise among young adults, had greater effects when the acute bout of exercise occurred before memory encoding or during the early memory consolidation period. Conclusions: The timing of acute exercise plays an important role in the exercise-memory interaction. Various exercise- and participant-related characteristics moderate this temporal relationship.

9.
Health Promot Perspect ; 8(3): 208-214, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087844

RESUMO

Background: Among other factors, including the decay theory, interfering stimuli (proactive and retroactive interference; PI and RI) may influence the encoding and consolidation of target information. Acute exercise can enhance episodic memory function, but no experiments have evaluated whether exercise can attenuate PI and RI effects on memory, which was the purpose of this experiment. Methods: Twenty young adults were randomized (via computer program) into one of 6 experimental groups (N=120, n=20 per group), including 3 PI (G1, G2, and G3) and 3 RI groups (G4, G5, and G6). Those in G1 and G4 exercised prior to a 10-list AB/AC paradigm with interference; G2 and G5 did not exercise but had interference; and G3 and G6 were the control groups with no exercise and no interference. Results: The mean (95% CI) number of correctly recalled word pairs across the 6 respective groups was 2.4 (1.2-3.5), 2.4 (1.3-3.5), 5.1 (3.9-6.3), 6.9 (5.7-8.0), 5.0 (4.2-5.8), and 6.1 (5.1-6.9) (FANOVA=11.7; P<0.001; η2=0.33). For PI, the control group (group 3) correctly recalled more word pairs (5.1) when compared to the exercise interference group (2.4; group 1) or the non-exercise interference group (2.4; group 2). The difference between group 1 and 3 (2.4 vs.5.1) was significant (P=0.003), as was group 2 vs. 3 (P=0.002). For the RI groups (groups 4-6),group 4 differed from group 5 (6.9 vs. 5.0; P=0.01), but there was no difference between group 4 and group 6 (P=0.25) or group 5 and group 6 (P=0.09). Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest that acute exercise may be more beneficial for RI compared to PI, but additional experimental work is needed.

10.
Biomaterials ; 162: 208-223, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459311

RESUMO

One reason for the lack of regeneration, and poor clinical outcomes, following central nervous system (CNS) injury is the formation of a glial scar that inhibits new axon growth. In addition to forming the glial scar, astrocytes have been shown to be important for spontaneous SCI recovery in rodents, suggesting some astrocyte populations are pro-regenerative, while others are inhibitory following injury. In this work, the effect of implanting hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels containing extracellular matrix (ECM) harvested from mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived astrocytes on histologic outcomes following SCI in rats was explored. In addition, the ability of HA hydrogels with and without ECM to support the transplantation of mESC-derived V2a interneurons was tested. The incorporation of ECM harvested from protoplasmic (grey matter) astrocytes, but not ECM harvested from fibrous (white matter) astrocytes, into hydrogels was found to reduce the size of the glial scar, increase axon penetration into the lesion, and reduce macrophage/microglia staining two weeks after implantation. HA hydrogels were also found to support transplantation of V2a interneurons and the presence of these cells caused an increase in neuronal processes both within the lesion and in the 500 µm surrounding the lesion. Overall, protoplasmic mESC-derived astrocyte ECM showed potential to treat CNS injury. In addition, ECM:HA hydrogels represent a novel scaffold with beneficial effects on histologic outcomes after SCI both with and without cells.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Hidrogéis/química , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/fisiologia , Interneurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
11.
Radiol Case Rep ; 12(3): 571-576, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28828129

RESUMO

Neonatal Salter-Harris I fractures of the distal humerus are a rare injury. This injury can be easily mistaken for a posterior elbow dislocation, creating a delay in diagnosis. We present a case of a neonate with a distal humerus Salter-Harris I fracture secondary to trauma during delivery. The patient presented with pseudoparesis of the left arm following birth. Posterior displacement of the elbow was identified on radiographs. Ultrasound of the elbow was performed after a gentle closed reduction of the left elbow was unsuccessful. A transphyseal supracondylar distal humerus fracture was identified on ultrasound. The patient subsequently had an intraoperative left elbow arthrogram to assist in visualization of the supracondylar fracture during closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. At 2-month follow-up, the patient was neurologically intact with full passive range of motion and had normal alignment of the capitellar ossification center and distal humerus on follow-up radiographs.

12.
Skeletal Radiol ; 46(11): 1591-1595, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28756566

RESUMO

A 4-year-old female was referred to pediatric orthopedic surgery for left leg pain and limping for 3 months following a motor vehicle collision. Recently, the patient's mother had noted left knee swelling and dragging of the left leg when walking. Past medical history was significant for hip dysplasia with slight leg length discrepancy. The patient was otherwise healthy. Physical examination was remarkable for left pre-patellar soft tissue fullness with normal range of motion. There was no warmth or tenderness. Subsequent ultrasound revealed a heterogeneous soft tissue mass superior and medial to the patella with a moderate degree of internal vascularity. MR exhibited a heterogeneous soft tissue mass with heterogeneous signal on both T1- and T2-weighted images centered within the vastus medialis obliquus muscle infiltrating the quadriceps tendon. Excisional biopsy was performed with a histopathologic diagnosis of fibroadipose tissue with anomalous vessels, suggestive of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) hamartoma of the soft tissue (PHOST). The patient was found to be positive for the PTEN gene mutation on genetic testing. The child was also determined to be macrocephalic, a major criterion for PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS). The geneticist advised the patient to undergo yearly physical examinations and early, routine surveillance for several malignancies occurring with PHTS. This case report presents the ultrasound and MRI appearance of a rare benign tumor typically appearing in pediatric patients. The strong association between PHOST and other soft tissue malignancies and the resulting need for life-long surveillance make PHOST an important pathology to recognize.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/análise , Acidentes de Trânsito , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Ultrassonografia
13.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 37(6): 403-408, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26633820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goals of treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis are to achieve a balanced spine and level pelvis with most constructs including pelvic fixation. However, the pelvis can become a stiff "end vertebra" that prevents compensatory mechanisms to adjust to hip deformities in this patient population. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of hip pathology and surgery after spinal fusion in this patient population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart and radiographic review of cerebral palsy patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion (PSF) at our institution from 2005 to 2011. We collected radiographic data of preoperative and postoperative pelvic obliquity and hip reduction status and position (up, level, down). We further evaluated patients requiring hip surgery (containment or salvage). RESULTS: Of 47 patients with an average follow-up of 3.5 years after spinal fusion, 21 (45%) underwent a hip procedure. Thirty-eight patients (81%) demonstrated or developed hip subluxation/dislocation. Hip pathology occurred more often in the up hip, but the pathologic down hip more often underwent a hip surgery. Eight new hip subluxation/dislocations occurred after spine surgery. Three (38%) of the new postoperative subluxation/dislocations required hip surgery; all had pelvic obliquity <6 degrees. Eleven patients underwent hip surgery before PSF, 7 were varus femoral osteotomies for subluxation, whereas 5 hips required salvage. In follow-up after PSF, none of these had a new dislocation. Ten patients required hip surgery after PSF at a mean of 1.6 years after PSF. Eight patients had a salvage procedure for painful hip and 2 varus femoral osteotomies for subluxations. CONCLUSIONS: In our cerebral palsy patients who underwent PSF, 45% of these patients required a hip procedure. In the patients who had containment before PSF, the hips maintained reduction after spinal fixation. After correction of pelvic obliquity, 17% of patients had new-onset hip subluxation/dislocation after PSF. Postoperative subluxation/dislocation was not dependent on whether the hip was up or down preoperatively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV, Retrospective.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Luxação do Quadril/cirurgia , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Fêmur/cirurgia , Luxação do Quadril/complicações , Luxação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/complicações , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Skeletal Radiol ; 45(8): 1123-7, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27107998

RESUMO

Sternoclavicular injuries are relatively rare, composing less than 1 % of all musculoskeletal fractures or dislocations. When sternoclavicular injuries do occur, they typically present as an isolated dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint without associated fracture of the clavicle or manubrium. However, in patients with unfused medial clavicle physis, sternoclavicular joint injuries can present as a fracture-dislocation through the unfused physis. These physeal injuries are important to recognize as the displaced epiphysis can block reduction of the sternoclavicular joint. We present a case of a 15-year-old female basketball player presenting with suspected sternoclavicular joint injury after sustaining a direct blow to the left shoulder. An initial shoulder CT confirmed the presence of the clinically suspected posterior sternoclavicular dislocation without fracture identified. An MRI of the left sternoclavicular joint was then performed for suspected physeal fracture, which confirmed the presence of a fracture through the medial clavicle physis with anterior displacement of the unossified epiphysis, blocking reduction of the metaphysis. Given the findings on MRI, the pediatric orthropedic surgeon was able to counsel the family of the high likelihood of failed closed reduction of the sternoclavicular joint requiring conversion to open reduction and internal fixation. The patient underwent successful open reduction and internal fixation of the medial clavical physeal fracture after an initial gentle attempt at closed reduction was unsuccessful.


Assuntos
Clavícula/patologia , Epífises/patologia , Luxações Articulares/diagnóstico , Fraturas Salter-Harris/diagnóstico , Articulação Esternoclavicular/lesões , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/patologia , Basquetebol/lesões , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos
15.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 34(5): 552-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24487975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relapses following nonoperative treatment for clubfoot occur in 29% to 37% of feet after initial correction. One common gait abnormality is supination and inversion of the foot caused by an imbalance of the anterior tibialis tendon muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine if plantar pressures are normalized following an anterior tibialis tendon transfer (ATTT). METHODS: Thirty children (37 clubfeet) who underwent an ATTT, were seen for plantar pressure testing preoperatively and postoperatively. Each foot was subdivided into 7 regions: medial/lateral hindfoot and midfoot, and the forefoot (first, second, and third to fifth metatarsal heads). Variables included: contact time as a percentage of stance time (CT%), contact area as a percentage of the total foot (CA%), peak pressure (PP), hindfoot-forefoot angle (H-F), location of initial contact, and deviation of the center-of-pressure line (COP). Paired t tests were used for group comparisons, whereas multiple comparisons were assessed with ANOVA (α set to 0.05 with Bonferroni correction). RESULTS: Significant changes were seen in preoperative to postoperative comparison. PP, CT%, and CA% had significant increases in the medial hindfoot, midfoot, and first metatarsal regions, whereas the involvement of the lateral midfoot and forefoot were reduced. Compared with controls, postoperative results following ATTT continue to show increased PP, CA%, and CT% in the lateral midfoot, increased CA% and CT% in the lateral forefoot, whereas CA% was decreased in the first metatarsal region. Compared with controls, the COP line continues to move laterally and the H-F angle continues to show forefoot adductus following ATTT. No differences were found between patients treated with an isolated ATTT and those treated with concomitant procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The changes seen in plantar pressures following ATTT would suggest that the foot is better aligned for a more even distribution of pressure throughout the foot, but is not fully normalized. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic level II.


Assuntos
Pé Torto Equinovaro/fisiopatologia , Pé Torto Equinovaro/cirurgia , Pé/fisiopatologia , Transferência Tendinosa , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Pressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva
16.
Mol Ecol ; 21(24): 5911-7, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23121160

RESUMO

Despite much discussion of the importance of quantifying and reporting genotyping error in molecular studies, it is still not standard practice in the literature. This is particularly a concern for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) studies, where differences in laboratory, peak-calling and locus-selection protocols can generate data sets varying widely in genotyping error rate, the number of loci used and potentially estimates of genetic diversity or differentiation. In our experience, papers rarely provide adequate information on AFLP reproducibility, making meaningful comparisons among studies difficult. To quantify the extent of this problem, we reviewed the current molecular ecology literature (470 recent AFLP articles) to determine the proportion of studies that report an error rate and follow established guidelines for assessing error. Fifty-four per cent of recent articles do not report any assessment of data set reproducibility. Of those studies that do claim to have assessed reproducibility, the majority (~90%) either do not report a specific error rate or do not provide sufficient details to allow the reader to judge whether error was assessed correctly. Even of the papers that do report an error rate and provide details, many (≥23%) do not follow recommended standards for quantifying error. These issues also exist for other marker types such as microsatellites, and next-generation sequencing techniques, particularly those which use restriction enzymes for fragment generation. Therefore, we urge all researchers conducting genotyping studies to estimate and more transparently report genotyping error using existing guidelines and encourage journals to enforce stricter standards for the publication of genotyping studies.


Assuntos
Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Ecologia/normas , Editoração/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
South Med J ; 99(1): 79-81, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16466127

RESUMO

Right ventricular infarction has many clinical features. Although hypoxemia is a common presenting symptom with multiple causes in the setting of myocardial infarction, the authors present a case resulting from an acute right-to-left shunt secondary to a previously dormant patent foramen ovale. A 74-year-old male presented to the hospital after feeling unwell for the previous 2 days. Initial evaluation revealed marked hypoxemia without respiratory distress. Electrocardiographic findings and cardiac seromarkers revealed a completed inferior myocardial infarction. The patient's hypoxemia was refractory to 100% oxygen, indicating a right-to-left shunt. A transesophageal echocardiogram confirmed clinical suspicions for a right-to-left shunt through a patent foramen ovale. Despite sporadic reports in the literature, this still is a poorly recognized clinical condition. The authors review a case report that will enable the general intemist to consider a right-to-left shunt in the setting of hypoxemia in myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Idoso , Gasometria , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Eletrocardiografia , Seguimentos , Comunicação Interatrial/sangue , Comunicação Interatrial/complicações , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico
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