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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598930

RESUMO

Postmortem studies reported plaque erosion is frequent in young women. Recent in vivo studies failed to show age and sex differences in the plaque erosion prevalence. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of plaque erosion by age and sex among acute coronary syndromes (ACS) patients. From 1699 ACS patients, 1083 with plaque erosion or rupture were analyzed. Patients were categorized as 5 age groups (≤ 50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, ≥ 81 years). Overall prevalence of plaque erosion was similar between males and females (p = 0.831). Males age ≤ 50 had higher (p = 0.018) and age 71-80 had lower (p = 0.006) prevalence of plaque erosion. Females age 61-70 had higher (p = 0.021) and age 71-80 had lower (p = 0.045) prevalence of plaque erosion. In advanced age groups (≥ 71 years), rupture was the dominant etiology in both sexes. In multivariate analysis of males, age ≤ 50 demonstrated a trend to increase (OR 1.418, 95% CI 0.961-2.093, p = 0.078) the erosion risk. Females age ≤ 70 independently increased (OR 2.138, 95% CI 1.249-3.661, p = 0.006) the risk for erosion. The prevalence of plaque erosion was similar between males and females. Plaque erosion risk was increased in the males age ≤ 50 and in the females age ≤ 70 among ACS patients.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592852

RESUMO

: A 69-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with exertional angina and dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography showed asymmetric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and an elevated subaortic pressure gradient, in absence of dynamic LV outflow tract obstruction. Transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a subvalvular membrane causing a fixed subaortic obstruction. Cardiac magnetic resonance showed typical findings of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A final diagnosis of subaortic stenosis associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was made. This case highlights the key role of multimodality imaging in morphological assessment, risk stratification and differential diagnosis of these complex cases of cardiomyopathy, as it may help in identifying concealed concomitant causes of LV outflow tract obstruction.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e012322, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640466

RESUMO

Background Plaque erosion is responsible for 25% to 40% of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Recent studies suggest that anti-thrombotic therapy without stenting may be an option for this subset of patients. Currently, however, an invasive procedure is required to make a diagnosis of plaque erosion. The aim of this study was to identify clinical or laboratory predictors of plaque erosion in patients with ACS to enable a diagnosis of erosion without additional invasive procedures. Methods and Results Patients with ACS who underwent optical coherence tomography imaging were selected from 11 institutions in 6 countries. The patients were classified into plaque rupture, plaque erosion, or calcified plaque, and predictors were identified using multivariable logistic modeling. Among 1241 patients with ACS, 477 (38.4%) patients were found to have plaque erosion. Plaque erosion was more frequent in non-ST-segment elevation-ACS than in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (47.9% versus 29.8%, P=0.0002). Multivariable logistic regression models showed 5 independent parameters associated with plaque erosion: age <68 years, anterior ischemia, no diabetes mellitus, hemoglobin >15.0 g/dL, and normal renal function. When all 5 parameters are present in a patient with non-ST-segment elevation-ACS, the probability of plaque erosion increased to 73.1%. Conclusions Clinical and laboratory parameters associated with plaque erosion are explored in this retrospective registry study. These parameters may be useful to identify the subset of ACS patients with plaque erosion and guide them to conservative management without invasive procedures. The results of this exploratory analysis need to be confirmed in large scale prospective clinical studies. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03479723.

4.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872619880661, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recurrence of angina after percutaneous coronary intervention affects 20-35% of patients with stable coronary artery disease; however, few data are available in the setting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. We evaluated the relation between coronary microvascular obstruction and the recurrence of angina at follow-up. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Microvascular obstruction was defined as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow less than 3 or 3 with myocardial blush grade less than 2. The primary endpoint was the recurrence of angina at follow-up. Moreover, angina status was evaluated by the Seattle angina questionnaire summary score (SAQSS). Therapy at follow-up and the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events were also collected. RESULTS: We enrolled 200 patients. Microvascular obstruction occurred in 52 (26%) of them. Follow-up (mean time 25.17±9.28 months) was performed in all patients. Recurrent angina occurred in 31 (15.5%) patients, with a higher prevalence in patients with microvascular obstruction compared with patients without microvascular obstruction (13 (25.0%) vs. 18 (12.2%), P=0.008). Accordingly, SAQSS was lower and the need for two or more anti-anginal drugs was higher in patients with microvascular obstruction compared with patients without microvascular obstruction. At multiple linear regression analysis a history of previous acute coronary syndrome and the occurrence of microvascular obstruction were the only independent predictors of a worse SAQSS. Finally, the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events was higher in patients with microvascular obstruction compared with patients without microvascular obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: The recurrence of angina in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention is an important clinical issue. The occurrence of microvascular obstruction portends a worse angina status and is associated with the use of more anti-anginal drugs.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504405

RESUMO

AIMS: The CLIMA study, on the relationship between coronary plaque morphology of the left anterior descending artery and twelve months clinical outcome, was designed to explore the predictive value of multiple high-risk plaque features in the same coronary lesion [minimum lumen area (MLA), fibrous cap thickness (FCT), lipid arc circumferential extension, and presence of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-defined macrophages] as detected by OCT. Composite of cardiac death and target segment myocardial infarction was the primary clinical endpoint. METHODS AND RESULTS: From January 2013 to December 2016, 1003 patients undergoing OCT evaluation of the untreated proximal left anterior descending coronary artery in the context of clinically indicated coronary angiogram were prospectively enrolled at 11 independent centres (clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT02883088). At 1-year, the primary clinical endpoint was observed in 37 patients (3.7%). In a total of 1776 lipid plaques, presence of MLA <3.5 mm2 [hazard ratio (HR) 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.0], FCT <75 µm (HR 4.7, 95% CI 2.4-9.0), lipid arc circumferential extension >180° (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8), and OCT-defined macrophages (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1) were all associated with increased risk of the primary endpoint. The pre-specified combination of plaque features (simultaneous presence of the four OCT criteria in the same plaque) was observed in 18.9% of patients experiencing the primary endpoint and was an independent predictor of events (HR 7.54, 95% CI 3.1-18.6). CONCLUSION: The simultaneous presence of four high-risk OCT plaque features was found to be associated with a higher risk of major coronary events.

7.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3215, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, but risk stratification of asymptomatic T2DM patients remains a challenging issue. We conducted a pilot study to assess whether endothelial dysfunction might help identify, among asymptomatic T2DM patients, those at increased risk of cardiovascular events. METHODS: We studied 61 consecutive T2DM patients with no evidence of cardiovascular disease and no insulin therapy. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the right brachial artery. The primary endpoint was a combination of major cardiovascular events (MACE: cardiovascular death, acute coronary events, coronary interventions and acute cerebrovascular accidents). FMD was repeated at follow-up in 48 patients (79%). RESULTS: A total of 10 MACE (16.4%) occurred during a mean follow-up of 48 months, including 3 acute myocardial infarctions, 5 coronary revascularisations for stable angina and 2 acute ischemic strokes. FMD at enrolment was lower in patients with compared to patients without MACE (3.78±0.97 vs. 4.70±1.33 %, respectively; p=0.04). No other clinical or laboratory variables (age, diabetes duration, glycated hemoglobin, cardiovascular risk factors, drug therapy, nitrate mediated dilation) were associated with MACE. FMD at follow-up was also lower in patients with (n=10) compared to those without (n=38) MACE (3.66±1.29 vs. 4.85±1.92; p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that assessment of FMD might be helpful to identify patients at increased risk of MACE among individuals with asymptomatic T2DM; accordingly, a large study is warrented to adequately define the clinical utility of FMD assessment in the management of T2DM patients.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that troponin blood levels may increase after exercise. In this study we assessed whether, among patients admitted with suspected unstable angina, the increase in high-sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT) levels after exercise stress test (EST) might help identify those with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and predict symptom recurrence during short term follow-up. METHODS: Maximal treadmill EST was performed in 69 consecutive patients admitted to the emergency room with a suspicion of unstable angina (acute chest pain but confirmed normal serum levels of cardiac troponins) was measured before and 4 hours after EST. Coronary angiography was performed in 22 patients (32.8%). RESULTS: hs-TnT increased after EST compared to baseline in the whole population (from 0.84±0.65 to 1.17±0.87 ng/dL, p<0.001). The increase was similar in patients with positive (n = 14) and negative (n = 55) EST (p = 0.72), and was also similar in patients with (n = 12) and without (n = 10) obstructive CAD at angiography (p = 0.91). The achievement of a heart rate at peak EST ≥85% of that predicted for age was the variable mainly associated with the post-EST hs-TnT increase at multivariable linear regression analysis (p = 0.005). The change after EST of hs-TnT did not predict the recurrence of symptoms or readmission for chest pain at 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that hs-TnT increased after EST in patients with suspected unstable angina, which seemed largely independent of most clinical and laboratory variables. Thus, hs-TnT assessed after EST does not seem to be helpful to identify patients with obstructive CAD in this kind of patients.

10.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenosine-free indexes (AFIs), including resting Pd/Pa, instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) and contrast-FFR (cFFR), have been proposed to circumvent the use of vasodilators, in order to simplify the functional evaluation of coronary stenoses. Aims of this study were to analyze the correlation between AFIs and Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) and to compare their diagnostic accuracy when FFR is used as reference. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies in which AFIs were compared to FFR. We produced paired forest plots to show the variation of the sensitivity and specificity estimates. We used a hierarchical summary ROC model (HSROC) to summarize the sensitivity and specificity of AFIs in detecting the concordance with FFR assessment. RESULTS: Eighteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, 4424, 4822 and 2021 coronary lesions in 4410, 4472 and 1898 patients, respectively, were evaluated by Pd/Pa, iFR and cFFR, respectively. The overall Pearson's correlations were 0.81 (95%CI 0.78-0.83), 0.80 (95%CI 0.78-0.81) and 0.92 (95%CI 0.90-0.94) for Pd/Pa, iFR and cFFR, respectively. cFFR showed a significantly higher correlation with FFR compared to Pd/Pa and iFR (p < 0.0001). The area under the HSROC estimating the discriminating accuracy of cFFR was 0.95 (95%CI 0.94-0.96) and it was significantly higher compared to Pd/Pa (0.86, 95%CI 0.80-0.93) and iFR (0.89, 95%CI 0.84-0.94) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: AFIs show a good correlation with the gold standard FFR. Among AFIs, cFFR shows the highest correlation with FFR and the best diagnostic accuracy.

11.
Heart Rhythm ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are the most common cause of death in athletes. The differences in the electroanatomic substrate in athletes and nonathletes with complex VA are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the electroanatomic substrate of complex VA in athletes vs nonathletes. METHODS: The study prospectively enrolled young athletes and nonathletes with VA. Patients underwent 2-dimensional echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, coronary angiography, 3-dimensional electroanatomic mapping (3D-EAM), and 3D-EAM-guided endomyocardial biopsy (EMB). Follow-up included 24-hour electrocardiographic Holter or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/loop recorder interrogation for VA recurrence. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were enrolled: 18 competitive athletes (56%) and 15 nonathletes (44%). Left ventricular and right ventricular (RV) findings by echocardiography and CMR did not show structural disease. Nine athletes (50%) were asymptomatic compared to 1 nonathlete (7%; P <.05). Unifocal origin of VA was reported in 14 athletes (93%) and 17 nonathletes (94%). Athletes showed a larger RV unipolar than bipolar scar (18 ± 17 cm2 vs 3 ± 3.8 cm2; P = .04). Diagnostic yield of EMB was 50% in athletes and 40% in nonathletes. Among athletes, the final diagnosis was myocarditis in 2, arrhythmogenic ventricular right cardiomyopathy in 1, and focal replacement fibrosis in 1. Among nonathletes, EMB revealed focal replacement fibrosis in 4 cases. At median follow-up of 18.7 months, Kaplan-Meier curves showed lower VA recurrence in detrained athletes than nonathletes (53% vs 6%; P = .02). CONCLUSION: This study showed the need for extensive diagnostic workup in apparently healthy young patients with complex VA in order to characterize concealed cardiomyopathies.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e012772, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331219

RESUMO

Background Fractional flow reserve (FFR) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may help both in assessment and in percutaneous coronary intervention optimization of angiographically intermediate coronary lesions. We designed a prospective trial comparing the clinical and economic outcomes associated with FFR or OCT in angiographically intermediate coronary lesions. Methods and Results Three hundred fifty patients with angiographically intermediate coronary lesions (n=446) were randomized to FFR or OCT guidance. In the FFR arm, percutaneous coronary intervention was performed if FFR was ≤0.80 aiming for a postprocedure FFR >0.90. In the OCT arm, percutaneous coronary intervention was performed if percentage of area stenosis was ≥75% or 50% to 75% with minimal lumen area <2.5 mm2 or plaque ulceration. Costs, angina frequency, and major adverse cardiac events were assessed at 1 month and at 13 months. We present early data at 1 month consistent with a prespecified analysis of secondary end points. Patients randomized to FFR, as compared with OCT, were significantly more commonly managed with medical therapy alone (67.7% versus 41.1%; P<0.001), required less contrast media (245±137 versus 280±129 mL; P=0.004), and exhibited a lower occurrence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (1.7% versus 8.6%; P=0.034). At 1 month, in comparison to FFR, OCT was associated with increased total costs (2831±1288 versus 4292±3844 euros/patient; P<0.001) whereas occurrence of major adverse cardiac events or significant angina was similar. Conclusions In patients with angiographically intermediate coronary lesions, a functional guidance by FFR, as compared with OCT, increased the rate of patients treated with medical therapy alone. This translated into a significant reduction in administered contrast, contrast-induced acute kidney injury, and total costs at 1 month with FFR. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrialsgov. Unique identifier: NCT01824030.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350546

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite the increasing use of early invasive strategies in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), optimal initial antithrombotic therapy (ATT) based on the safety/efficacy profile of all guideline-recommended combinations remains crucial for the early management of both medically and invasively treated NSTE-ACS patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on ATT in NSTE-ACS/unstable angina reporting early (within 14 days) major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and major bleeding were selected. Overall, 3799 studies were screened, 117 clinical trials were assessed as potentially eligible, 20 trials were included in the study. According to treatment and type of intervention, 9 different meta-analyses were performed including a total of 88,748 patients. A significant reduction of trial-defined MACE was found for aspirin vs placebo (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.34-0.96), heparin vs placebo (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15-0.97), aspirin+heparin vs placebo (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.18-0.59), aspirin+heparin vs aspirin (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.42-0.79), aspirin+LMWH vs aspirin+UFH (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.95) and aspirin+ticagrelor/prasugrel+heparins vs aspirin+clopidogrel+heparins (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.94). A significant decrease in major bleeding was found only for fondaparinux vs LMWH on the background of aspirin+clopidogrel (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.44-0.62) despite a clear trend in increased bleeding for heparin compared to aspirin, aspirin+heparin compared to placebo, aspirin+heparin compared to aspirin, aspirin+P2Y12inhibitors+UFH/LMWH compared to aspirin+UFH/LMWH and aspirin+ticagrelor/prasugrel+heparins vs aspirin+clopidogrel+heparins. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, these findings are the first to report the safety and efficacy of all the various combinations of currently recommended ATT for the early management of NSTE-ACS, providing a comprehensive evidence-base to guide decisions depending on the patients' bleeding risk and treatment strategy.

15.
Am J Med ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term mortality of patients with myocardial infarction and nonobstructed coronary arteries (MINOCA) remains poorly defined. This study aimed to determine the long-term mortality of patients with MINOCA and to identify potential prognostic determinants of long-term outcome. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases and reviewed cited references up to December 31, 2018 to identify studies with >6 months' follow-up data. RESULTS: We selected 44 studies including 36,932 patients (20,052 women and 16,880 men). During a median follow-up of 25 months (interquartile range: 23-39 months), 1409 patients had died (3.8%). Overall, annual mortality rate was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5% to 2.4%), with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 80%, P < .001). Meta-analysis of the 26 studies comparing patients with MINOCA with those with myocardial infarction and obstructive coronary artery disease showed that annual rates of long-term total mortality were 2.2% (95% CI: 1.7% to 2.7%) and 5.0% (95% CI: 4.1% to 5,9%), respectively, with a significant difference between the two groups (relative risk: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.78, P < .001). Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that normal ejection fraction (P ≤ .0001) and normal coronary arteries at angiography (P = .004) were inversely related to long-term mortality, whereas use of beta-blockers during follow-up (P = .010) and ST depression on the admission electrocardiogram (P = .016) were directly related with worse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term mortality after MINOCA is lower than that in patients with myocardial infarction and obstructive coronary artery disease, but it is not trivial. Reduced ejection fraction, nonobstructive coronary artery disease, use of beta-blockers during follow up and ST depression on the admission electrocardiogram are significant predictors of long-term prognosis.

17.
Circ Res ; 125(2): 245-258, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268854

RESUMO

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is nowadays the preferred reperfusion strategy for patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, aiming at restoring epicardial infarct-related artery patency and achieving microvascular reperfusion as early as possible, thus limiting the extent of irreversibly injured myocardium. Yet, in a sizeable proportion of patients, primary percutaneous coronary intervention does not achieve effective myocardial reperfusion due to the occurrence of coronary microvascular obstruction (MVO). The amount of infarcted myocardium, the so-called infarct size, has long been known to be an independent predictor for major adverse cardiovascular events and adverse left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. Previous cardioprotection studies were mainly aimed at protecting cardiomyocytes and reducing infarct size. However, several clinical and preclinical studies have reported that the presence and extent of MVO represent another important independent predictor of adverse left ventricular remodeling, and recent evidences support the notion that MVO may be more predictive of major adverse cardiovascular events than infarct size itself. Although timely and complete reperfusion is the most effective way of limiting myocardial injury and subsequent ventricular remodeling, the translation of effective therapeutic strategies into improved clinical outcomes has been largely disappointing. Of importance, despite the presence of a large number of studies focused on infarct size, only few cardioprotection studies addressed MVO as a therapeutic target. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of MVO including underlying causes, diagnostic techniques, and current therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, we discuss the hypothesis that simultaneously addressing infarct size and MVO may help to translate cardioprotective strategies into improved clinical outcome following ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction.

18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary vasomotor dysfunction represents an important mechanism responsible for myocardial ischaemia in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). The use of invasive provocative tests allows identifying patients with epicardial or microvascular spasm. Of note, clinical characteristics associated with the occurrence of epicardial or microvascular spasm have still not completely clarified. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected myocardial ischaemia/necrosis with evidence of non-obstructive CAD and undergoing intracoronary provocative test for suspected vasomotor dysfunction. Patients with a positive provocative test were enrolled. Clinical, echocardiographic and angiographic characteristics of patients were evaluated according to the pattern of vasomotor dysfunction (epicardial vs. microvascular spasm). We included 120 patients [68 patients with stable angina and 52 patients with myocardial infarction and non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA)]. In particular, 77 (64.2%) patients had a provocative test positive for epicardial spasm and 43 (35.8%) patients for microvascular spasm. Patients with epicardial spasm were more frequently males, smokers, had higher rates of diffuse coronary atherosclerosis at angiography and more frequently presented with MINOCA. On the other hand, patients with microvascular spasm presented more frequently diastolic dysfunction. At multivariate logistic regression analysis male sex, smoking, and diffuse coronary atherosclerosis were independent predictors for the occurrence of epicardial spasm. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that specific clinical features are associated with different responses to intracoronary provocative test. Epicardial spasm is more frequent in males and in MINOCA patients, whereas microvascular spasm is more frequent in patients with stable angina and is associated with diastolic dysfunction.

19.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 5(4): 283-291, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168622

RESUMO

Several studies have demonstrated that angina chest pain in presence of normal or near normal coronary arteries (NCAs) is mainly related to coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). However, controversial findings exist about clinical outcome of these patients. In this article, we critically review characteristics and results of the main clinical studies reporting clinical outcome of stable patients with angina chest pain and non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NO-CAD). Published data indicate that clinical outcomes of these patients are heterogeneous, but those with strict criteria for primary stable microvascular angina (MVA, i.e. typical angina with NCAs mainly related to efforts) do not appear to have an increased mortality or risk of major coronary events. A major determinant of outcome in patients with MVA and NO-CAD seems instead related to non-critical atherosclerotic disease, the presence of which should suggest a more aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors and preventive management. Future studies should assess whether CMD may have a relevant prognostic role in the latter clinical context and/or in other clinical settings of NO-CAD different from primary stable MVA.

20.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(4): 884-888, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184800

RESUMO

Extensive data support the safety of direct oral anticoagulants compared with vitamin K antagonists in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, leading to a significantly increase in the use of these compounds in clinical practice. However, there is no compelling evidence supporting the use of direct oral anticoagulant in individuals who are intubated or have a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG): patients with several co-morbidities are underrepresented in clinical trials, so the best long-term strategy for anticoagulation is difficult to ascertain. The aim of the present report was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of edoxaban administered via PEG in a patient with heart failure and a history of atrial fibrillation affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A 71-year-old man with atrial fibrillation, advanced ALS, type II diabetes mellitus, and hypertension presented to the emergency department with dyspnoea and tachycardia. Because vitamin K antagonist and rivaroxaban 15 mg were dropped because of difficult international normalized ratio control (time in therapeutic range <30%) and severe haematuria, respectively, edoxaban 30 mg (crushed pill) daily was administered based on the patient's weight of 58 kg. Mean edoxaban plasma concentration-time profiles were measured, as anti-Xa activity, 2 h before and at 2, 6, and 22 h after drug administration and then compared with the pharmacokinetic profile of edoxaban 30 mg in healthy subjects. An additional testing of steady-state peak plasma concentration of edoxaban after 10 days and a 30 day follow-up were evaluated. The values of the pharmacokinetic parameters, analysed with a non-compartmental analysis by PKSolver module, showed that Cmax and AUC0→t were only slightly higher than those observed in healthy subjects, while the half-life and observed clearance were significantly longer and lower, respectively, than in normal subjects. Steady-state peak plasma concentration of edoxaban was very similar to the levels reported in healthy subjects, and neither relevant bleeding nor thromboembolic event was reported at a 30 day follow-up. These results support safe and effective anticoagulation with edoxaban 30 mg but suggest caution with the use of full dose of edoxaban (60 mg daily) in this kind of patients. We report, for the first time, a safe and effective anticoagulation based on the administration of edoxaban 30 mg daily through PEG in a patient with advanced ALS, acute respiratory, and heart failure, presenting with Takotsubo syndrome and atrial fibrillation.

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