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Trends Genet ; 36(9): 650-663, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736810


High-throughput sequencing and genome-wide association studies have revealed a sex bias in human diseases. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain, however, unknown. Here, we cover recent advances in cancer and autoimmunity focusing on intrinsic genetic and epigenetic differences underlying sex biases in human disease. These studies reveal a central role of genome regulatory mechanisms including genome repair, chromosome folding, and epigenetic regulation in dictating the sex bias. These highlight the importance of considering sex as a variable in both basic science and clinical investigations. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying sex bias in human diseases will be instrumental in making a first step forwards into the era of personalized medicine.

Autoimunidade/genética , Epigênese Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias/genética , Medicina de Precisão , Humanos , Fatores Sexuais
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7057, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341372


We have recently identified and characterized two pseudogenes (HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7) of the HMGA1 gene, which has a critical role in malignant cell transformation and cancer progression. HMGA1P6 and HMGAP17 act as microRNA decoy for HMGA1 and other cancer-related genes upregulating their protein levels. We have previously shown that they are upregulated in several human carcinomas, and their expression positively correlates with a poor prognosis and an advanced cancer stage. To evaluate in vivo oncogenic activity of HMGA1 pseudogenes, we have generated a HMGA1P7 transgenic mouse line overexpressing this pseudogene. By a mean age of 12 months, about 50% of the transgenic mice developed splenomegaly and accumulation of lymphoid cells in several body compartments. For these mice FACS and immunohistochemical analyses suggested the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma that was further supported by clonality analyses and RNA expression profile of the pathological tissues of the HMGA1P7 transgenic tissues. Therefore, these results clearly demonstrate the oncogenic activity of HMGA1 pseudogenes in vivo.

Proteína HMGA1a/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Animais , Citometria de Fluxo , Proteína HMGA1a/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células NIH 3T3 , Pseudogenes/genética , RNA-Seq
Cell Death Dis ; 10(10): 747, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582725


The serine-threonine kinase homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) modulates important cellular functions during development, acting as a signal integrator of a wide variety of stress signals, and as a regulator of transcription factors and cofactors. We have previously demonstrated that HIPK2 binds and phosphorylates High-Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1), an architectural chromatinic protein ubiquitously expressed in embryonic tissues, decreasing its binding affinity to DNA. To better define the functional role of HIPK2 and HMGA1 interaction in vivo, we generated mice in which both genes are disrupted. About 50% of these Hmga1/Hipk2 double knock-out (DKO) mice die within 12 h of life (P1) for respiratory failure. The DKO mice present an altered lung morphology, likely owing to a drastic reduction in the expression of surfactant proteins, that are required for lung development. Consistently, we report that both HMGA1 and HIPK2 proteins positively regulate the transcriptional activity of the genes encoding the surfactant proteins. Moreover, these mice display an altered expression of thyroid differentiation markers, reasonably because of a drastic reduction in the expression of the thyroid-specific transcription factors PAX8 and FOXE1, which we demonstrate here to be positively regulated by HMGA1 and HIPK2. Therefore, these data indicate a critical role of HIPK2/HMGA1 cooperation in lung and thyroid development and function, suggesting the potential involvement of their impairment in the pathogenesis of human lung and thyroid diseases.

Proteína HMGA1a/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Doenças Respiratórias/genética , Glândula Tireoide/anormalidades , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteína HMGA1a/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas a Surfactantes Pulmonares , Doenças Respiratórias/patologia , Glândula Tireoide/embriologia , Glândula Tireoide/patologia
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(6)2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181813


Background: We have recently reported the downregulation of the Metallophosphoesterase-domain-containing protein 2 (MPPED2) gene and its cognate long non-coding RNA, MPPED2-AS1, in papillary thyroid carcinomas. Functional studies supported a tumor suppressor role of both these genes in thyroid carcinogenesis. We then decided to investigate their role in breast carcinogenesis. Methods: In order to verify MPPED2 expression, 45 human breast carcinoma samples have been investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Then, MPPED2 has been transfected in several human breast carcinoma cell lines, analyzing its role in cell proliferation, migration and invasion. To study the regulation of MPPED2 expression the methylation of its promoter was investigated by targeted bisulfite sequencing. Results: MPPED2 expression was decreased in breast cancer samples, and this was confirmed by the analysis of data available in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Interestingly, the hypermethylation of MPPED2 promoter likely accounted for its downregulation in breast cancer. Additionally, MPPED2-AS1 was also found downregulated in breast cancer tissues and, intriguingly, its expression decreased the hypermethylation of the MPPED2 promoter by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Furthermore, the restoration of MPPED2 expression reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion capability of breast carcinoma cell lines. Conclusion: Taken together, these results propose MPPED2 downregulation as a critical event in breast carcinogenesis.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621213


Epidemiological and experimental studies emphasize the link between environmental chemicals exposure and thyroid cancer. However, this association is strongly debated and the mechanisms of action of environmental thyroid carcinogens still need to be identified. The analysis of in vitro transcriptomic data developed to investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos on immortalized thyrocytes highlighted the impaired expression of genes involved in endodermal carcinogenesis. This endodermal carcinogenic gene-network (ECGN, including Zfp36l2, Dmbt1, Ddit4), was validated in cellular and mouse models of thyroid carcinogenesis, characterized by the constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and in immortalized thyrocytes exposed to tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and chlorpyrifos (CPF). The mRNA levels of Zfp36l2, Dmbt1 and Ddit4 were increased in models characterized by MAPK activation or following TCDD exposure, whereas they were inhibited by CPF exposure. Overall, the ECGN transcripts identify a novel gene-regulatory network associated with thyroid carcinogenesis promoted by genetic mutation or by environmental carcinogens. The latter have opposite effects on the modulation of the ECGN transcripts according to their mechanisms of action in promoting carcinogenesis. Therefore, the analyses of ECGN might be helpful in discriminating compounds that promote cellular survival associated or not to proliferation of thyrocytes.

Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Feminino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Gravidez , Ratos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Células Epiteliais da Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais da Tireoide/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Tristetraprolina/genética
Int J Genomics ; 2017: 9769171, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29082235


lncRNAs are acquiring increasing relevance as regulators in a wide spectrum of biological processes. The extreme heterogeneity in the mechanisms of action of these molecules, however, makes them very difficult to study, especially regarding their molecular function. A novel lncRNA has been recently identified as the most enriched transcript in mouse developing thyroid. Due to its genomic localization antisense to the protein-encoding Klhl14 gene, we named it Klhl14-AS. In this paper, we highlight that mouse Klhl14-AS produces at least five splicing variants, some of which have not been previously described. Klhl14-AS is expressed with a peculiar pattern, characterized by diverse relative abundance of its isoforms in different mouse tissues. We examine the whole expression level of Klhl14-AS in a panel of adult mouse tissues, showing that it is expressed in the thyroid, lung, kidney, testis, ovary, brain, and spleen, although at different levels. In situ hybridization analysis reveals that, in the context of each organ, Klhl14-AS shows a cell type-specific expression. Interestingly, databases report a similar expression profile for human Klhl14-AS. Our observations suggest that this lncRNA could play cell type-specific roles in several organs and pave the way for functional characterization of this gene in appropriate biological contexts.